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Special Report on Selected Side Events at WSSD PC-III
UN Headquarters, New York; 25 March - 5 April 200
published by the International Institute for Sustainable Development
in cooperation with UNDP
<< visit the UNDP website >>

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Events convened on Wednesday, 3 April 2002

Health in Sustainable Development: Key Issues and Actions Strategies
Presented by the World Health Organization (WHO)

Yasmin von Schirnding, WHO, stated that the key elements of WHO's global strategy on health are assessing evidence and tracking progress, and defining issues and policy positions through dialogue among key partners. She said WHO hopes that health issues will be featured prominently in the final WSSD documents, and that WSSD outcomes will include renewed commitment to implementing the health aspects of Agenda 21 and a concrete programme of action on health priorities in sustainable development.
Listen to Yasmin von Schirnding's presentation

Ricardo Uauy, WHO/FAO Diet/Nutrition Guidelines, said unhealthy models of consumption should be changed by introducing scientific evidence on nutritional requirements into public debates on health.
Tim Evans, Rockefeller Foundation, underscored the need to overcome global inequalities that manifest themselves through impacts on health. He emphasized the high return on investment in women's education and access to credit, and stated that lives in the North are presently valued more than those in the South. He highlighted the migration of Southern health professionals to the North as a problem that requires immediate attention.
Listen to Evan's presentation
Ricardo Uauy, WHO/FAO Diet/Nutrition Guidelines, emphasized that diet is the major determinant of an individual's development and quality of life, and thus of national development. He stressed that sustainable development will require a change in the patterns of consumption and production of food, which are presently based on the primacy of meat. He said this shift will require awareness-raising that could be best accomplished through cross-sectoral civil society partnerships.
Listen to Uauy's presentation

Derek Yach, WHO, outlined several threats and opportunities that globalization presents for health. He noted the global debate between those who support norms and standards to protect health from the effects of globalization, and those who prefer the use of voluntary measures and market forces. He stated that complex partnerships between civil society, the UN system and governments would be required to enforce such protection.
Listen to Yach's presentation

Participants then heard reports on: the Meeting of Health Ministers held in Johannesburg, South Africa, in January 2002; the Health and Environment Ministers of the Americas meetings held in Ottawa in March 2002; and the upcoming Stakeholder Action for Our Common Future Forum to be held at the WSSD.

More information:
Yasmin von Schirnding <vonschirndingy@who.ch>

Tim Evans <tevans@rockfound.org>
Ricardo Uauy <uauy@abello.dic.uchile.cl>

Derek Yach <yachd@who.int>

Gender perspectives in sustainable development
Presented by UNDESA/Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) and the Women's Environment and Development Organization (WEDO)

Minu Hemmati, Stakeholder Forum for Our Common Future, says the process toward sustainable development must be answerable to women's needs and vision, and stresses the need for not only full and equal participation but also for leadership by women.
Carolyn Hannan, DAW, highlighted difficulties with getting gender perspectives incorporated into the WSSD process. She noted that gender perspectives are often neglected, and cited Agenda 21's compartmentalization of women as a major group as a contributing factor. Emphasizing that women are part of all major groups, she stressed the need to address women's priorities in all areas of Agenda 21.

Irene Dankelman, WEDO, reflected that since UNCED, the profile of women's priorities has risen significantly on the political agenda, although few governments have integrated gender perspectives into policies. She noted that the Women’s Caucus is now fighting not only to get a separate section on gender into the Chairman’s paper, but also to integrate gender perspectives into the entire document.

Minu Hemmati, Stakeholder Forum for Our Common Future, discussed Type II outcomes, noting concerns that they could be dominated by corporations or used to deflect responsibility from governments, but suggested women's involvement therein would add quality and credibility and provide a useful resource for addressing inequality.

Jennifer Francis, Gender and Water Alliance, stressed the need to: increase women's participation in water resources management; incorporate gender perspectives in all policies and programmes and in all sectors; disaggregate all data according to sex and social indicators; institutionalize gender perspectives in all organizations; and build women's technical and scientific capacity.

Amy Hindman, UNEP, discussed how taking advantage of globalization and privatization can facilitate gender mainstreaming. Citing the privatization of energy in Africa as an example, she highlighted the benefits of packaging energy as an input to income generation, and said gender mainstreaming in this context is enabling men and women to access energy while also taking advantage of opportunities to alleviate poverty.
More information:

Carolyn Hannan <hannan@un.org>

Irene Dankelman <irenedankelman@hotmail.com>

Minu Hemmati <minush@aol.com>

Jennifer Francis <francis@irc.nl>
Amy Hindman <Amy.Hindman@unep.org>

Empty Oceans, Empty Nets
Presented by the Wildlife Conservation Society
Ellen Pikitch, Wildlife Conservation Society, stresses that we are facing a global crisis in our oceans, which is threatening food security and the planet's ability to sustain life.
This event presented the international premiere of the film Empty Oceans, Empty Nets, a documentary produced by Habitat Media.

Dawn Martin, Oceana, introduced the screening, stressing that protecting the oceans and ensuring adequate food supplies for all nations is a responsibility of the international community.

Ellen Pikitch, Wildlife Conservation Society, emphasized that marine fisheries are in serious decline due to overfishing, wasteful bycatch and destructive fishing practices. She expressed hope that the film would spark action to address this crisis facing the world's oceans.

Empty Oceans, Empty Nets portrays the rapid depletion of fish from the oceans and demonstrates how entire populations of fish are becoming commercially extinct. It highlights major threats to marine fisheries, including: growing demand for seafood; changes in technology that have increased the harvesting capacity of fishing vessels, such as sonar detection of schools of fish; destructive fishing practices, such as the use of bottom trawlers, long-lines, driftnets, and dynamite and cyanide; bycatch; and marine pollution.

The film outlines means to address this problem, including: closing certain areas to long-lining and other destructive fishing practices; setting catch limits or assigning individual fishing quotas; issuing limited permits to fisheries; restricting the amount and types of fishing gear allowed in a fishery; using more selective fishing methods to minimize by catch; educating merchants, chefs and consumers; and implementing standards to certify well-managed fisheries.

More information:
Dawn Martin <dmartin@oceana.org>
Ellen Pikitch <epikitch@wcs.org>

New financing mechanisms for sustainable development
Presented by UNEP in cooperation with the German Federal Ministry for the Environment and the German Federal Ministry for Development Corporation

Participants discussed new mechanisms of private financing for sustainable development.

Hanns Michael Hölz, Deutsche Bank AG, says that sustainability as a new paradigm in value-based corporations requires that companies come up with their own initiatives for sustainable development.
Jacqueline Aloisi de Larderel, UNEP Division of Technology, Industry and Economics, stressed the need for innovative financing for sustainable development, increased credit lines, and funding for small-scale projects and local enterprises, and highlighted the importance of financial intermediaries.

Hanns Michael Hölz, Deutsche Bank AG, described the activities of the UNEP Financial Initiatives, and presented the Deutsche Bank AG Microcredit Fund, which transfers private investment funds to national banks in developing countries in order to build business infrastructure in rural areas, combining local knowledge and NGO support with Western funding and expertise.

Bernard Jamet, consultant, presented Energy Services Companies (ESCOs) as tools to support energy-saving investments in developing countries by offering energy saving services, including arranging financing for energy-saving projects. ESCOs guarantee energy savings, which end up paying for ESCOs' upfront financing costs, investments and profit. He stressed the need to broaden the scope of innovative financing for energy efficiency.

Gayle Jackson, FondElec Clean Energy Group, Inc., described the Carbon Fund, a vehicle for sustainable private investment in emerging markets. The Fund obtains financial return from projects that have the potential to generate tradeable carbon credits, and from procurement and trading of carbon credits. She noted the persistent challenge of getting investors involved in carbon funds.

More information:
Jacqueline Aloisi de Larderel <j.aloisi@unep.fr>

Hanns Michael Hölz <hanns-michael.hoelz@db.com>
Bernard Jamet <jamet.b@wannado.fr>
Gayle Jackson <gjackson@fondelec.com>

Sustainable development governance: Retrieving the multilateral system
Presented by the Third World Network and International NGO Task Group on Legal and Institutional Matters

William Pace, International NGO Task Group on Legal and Institutional Matters, introduced legal and organizational questions for sustainable development, including how to harmonize the relevant conventions, organizations and processes.

Hanne Gro Haugland, Norwegian Forum for Environment and Development, notes the importance of political will for making real progress in international environmental governance.
Sharifah Zarah Ahmad, Malaysia, underscored the importance of addressing the economic and social pillars of sustainable development in balance with the environmental pillar. She noted that the organizational placement of the CSD within ECOSOC limits its potential to incorporate the work of other ECOSOC bodies.

Hanne Gro Haugland, Norwegian Forum for Environment and Development, outlined major problems facing international environmental governance, including lack of political will, fragmentation of responsibility for environmental issues, fragmentation of financial mechanisms, and lack of financial resources.

Saradha Ramaswamy Iyer, Third World Network, said the CSD lacks sufficient resources to bring the three pillars of sustainable development together. She highlighted the need for corporate accountability with monitoring and enforcement and for a level playing field in partnerships between industry and other stakeholders, and underscored the importance of procedures to resolve conflicts between sustainable development and WTO guidelines.

Discussion: Participants discussed several issues, including: the importance of legal means in supporting sustainable development; the need to integrate environmental, economic and human rights laws into a body of sustainable development law; and integration of sustainable development principles into WTO rules.

More information:

William Pace <cdil@igc.org>

Sharifah Zarah Ahmad <zarahleo@hotmail.com>
Hanne Gro Haugland <haugland@forumfor.no>
Saradha Ramaswamy Iyer <twnkl@po.jaring.my>

Sustainable agriculture in Africa
Presented by the World Bank and African Governments

Ian Johnson, World Bank, stresses the need to meet food security goals in a way that respects norms of social responsibility as well as the natural environment.
Ian Johnson, World Bank, moderated this event, which addressed sustainable agriculture and development strategies in Africa, with a focus on World Bank activities.
Listen to Johnson's presentation

Kevin Cleaver, World Bank, discussed the Bank's forthcoming updated strategy for rural development. He highlighted an increased focus on rural peoples' organizations, community-driven development, and capacity building, and noted new risk management instruments and a renewed commitment to trade liberalization in developed countries.
Listen to Cleaver's presentation

Joseph Baah-Dwomoh, World Bank, identified four pillars of the Bank's support for rural development and agriculture: increasing agricultural productivity, particularly through research and technology applications; enhancing market access to build demand for products; strengthening institutions; and improving natural resource management, particularly of watersheds and water resources.
Listen to Baah-Dwomoh's presentation

Bongiwe Njobe, an Africa expert, discussed challenges and successes in initiatives underway. She stressed the need to revisit agricultural policies to access untapped potential in biodiversity, human capital and the potential range of African products, and highlighted positive responses to New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) and the Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA).
Listen to Njobe's presentation

Callisto Madavo, World Bank, said the Bank's framework for action in sustainable agriculture should be country- and region-driven, rather than based on funder priorities, and highlighted NEPAD as an organization through which African priorities could be identified to this end.
Listen to Madavo's presentation

Discussion: Participants discussed, inter alia: the effects of climate variability and change; urban migration and the lack of human capacity for farming; the importance of domestic and regional trade promotion; food security issues; storage and transport infrastructure; land tenure reform; and food safety and sanitation.

More information:
Kevin Cleaver <kcleaver@worldbank.org>

Joseph Baah-Dwomoh <jbaahdwomoh@worldbank.org>
Bongiwe Njobe <dgoffice@nda.agric.za>
Callisto Madavo <cmadavo@worldbank.org>

Governance for sustainable development: Answers to complexity
Presented by UNESCO and Management of Social Transformation Programme (MOST)

Adil Najam, Boston University, states that synergies and interlinkages among international regimes are needed for scientific as well as practical reasons, as developing country resources are often insufficient to enable participation in the more than 290 days of negotiations annually.
C. von Furstenberg, UNESCO, said this event would address the relationship between sustainable development governance and knowledge production and dissemination. She presented the MOST programme, which links science and policy making.

Thandabantu Nhlapo, South Africa, described his country's efforts to make sustainable development a central value in governance, and to address issues of democratic participation, monitoring and enforcement, accountability, and HIV/AIDS.

Nazli Choucri, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, noted the need for mechanisms to represent individual voices in sustainable development governance, and stressed the importance of knowledge and knowledge networks, highlighting the example of the multilingual internet-based Global Network for Sustainable Development.

Jaime Preciado Coronado, University of Guadalajara, discussed the Monterrey Accord that emerged from the International Conference on Financing for Development, which he said reflects the difference between neo-institutional and democratic citizenship approaches to governance and sustainable development. He stated that the institutional reforms foreseen by the Accord do not meet civil society demands.

Adil Najam, Boston University, listed key challenges for global sustainable development governance: understanding sustainable development; improving the efficacy and efficiency of international regimes, including by providing UN agencies with the resources sufficient to fulfil their mandates; and representing the voices of all actors.

More information:

C. von Furstenberg <c.von-furstenberg@unecso.org>

Thandabantu Nhlapo <dcm@southafrica.net>
Nazli Choucri <nchoucri@mit.edu>
Adil Najam <anajam@bu.edu>
Jaime Preciado Coronado <japreco@megared.com.mx>

The Earth Negotiations Bulletin (ENB) on the Side is a special publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) in cooperation with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The Editor of ENB on the Side is Kira Schmidt kira@iisd.org . This issue has been written by Tamilla Gaynutdinova miloin@yahoo.com, Jenny Mandel jenny@iisd.org and Kira Schmidt kira@iisd.org. The Digital Editors are Andrei Henry andrei@iisd.org, Leila Mead leila@iisd.org, Diego Noguera diego@iisd.org and Kenneth Tong ken@iisd.org. Funding for publication of ENB on the Side at PCIII is provided by UNDP. The opinions expressed in ENB on the Side are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and funders. Excerpts from ENB on the Side may be used in non-commercial publications only and only with appropriate academic citation. For permission to use this material in commercial publications, contact the Managing Editor at kimo@iisd.org . Electronic versions of issues of ENB on the Side from PC-III can be found on the Linkages WWW server at http://enb.iisd.org/2002/pc3/.

� 2002, IISD. All rights reserved.

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