Actions to be taken
168. By Governments:
(a) Promote and support women's self-employment and the development of small enterprises, and strengthen women's access to credit and capital on appropriate terms equal to that of men through the scaling-up of institutions dedicated to promoting women's entrepreneurship, including, as appropriate, non-traditional and mutual credit schemes, as well as innovative linkages with financial institutions;
(b) Strengthen the incentive role of the State as employer to develop a policy of equal [equitable] opportunities for women and men;
(c) Enhance, at the national and local levels, rural women's income- generating potential by facilitating their equal access to and control over productive resources, land, credit, capital, property rights, development programmes and cooperative structures;
(d) Promote and strengthen micro-enterprises, new small businesses, cooperative enterprises, expanded markets and other employment opportunities and, where appropriate, facilitate the transition from the informal to the formal sector, especially in rural areas;
(e) Create and modify programmes and policies that recognize and strengthen women's vital role in food security and provide paid and unpaid women producers, especially those involved in food production, such as farming, fishing and aquaculture, as well as urban enterprises, with equal access to appropriate technologies, transportation, extension services, marketing and credit facilities at the local and community levels;
(f) Establish appropriate mechanisms and encourage intersectoral institutions that enable women's cooperatives to optimize access to necessary services;
(g) Increase the proportion of women extension workers and other government personnel who provide technical assistance or administer economic programmes;
(h) Review, reformulate, if necessary, and implement policies, including business, commercial and contract law and government regulations, to ensure that they do not discriminate against micro, small and medium-scale enterprises owned by women in rural and urban areas;
(i) Analyse, advise on, coordinate and implement policies that integrate the needs and interests of employed, self-employed and entrepreneurial women into sectoral and inter-ministerial policies, programmes and budgets;
(j) Ensure equal access for women to effective job training, retraining, counselling and placement services that are not limited to traditional employment areas;
(k) Remove policy and regulatory obstacles faced by women in social and development programmes that discourage private and individual initiative;
(l) Safeguard and promote respect for basic workers' rights, including the prohibition of forced labour and child labour, freedom of association and the right to organize and bargain collectively, equal remuneration for men and women for work of equal value, and non-discrimination in employment, and fully implement the conventions of the International Labour Organization in the case of States party to those conventions and, taking into account the principles embodied in those conventions in the case of those countries that are not party to those conventions, to thus achieve truly sustained economic growth and sustainable development.
169. By Governments, central banks and national development banks, and private banking institutions, as appropriate:
(a) Increase the participation of women, including women entrepreneurs, in advisory boards and other forums to enable women entrepreneurs from all sectors and their organizations to contribute to the formulation and review of policies and programmes being developed by economic ministries and banking institutions;
(b) Mobilize the banking sector to increase lending and refinancing through incentives and the development of intermediaries that serve the needs of women entrepreneurs and producers in both rural and urban areas, and include women in their leadership, planning and decision-making;
(c) Structure services to reach rural and urban women involved in micro, small and medium-scale enterprises, with special attention to young women, low-income women, those belonging to ethnic and racial minorities, and indigenous women who lack access to capital and assets, expand women's access to financial markets by identifying and encouraging financial supervisory and regulatory reforms that support financial institutions' direct and indirect efforts to better meet the credit and other financial needs of the micro, small and medium-scale enterprises of women;
(d) Ensure that women's priorities are included in public investment programmes for economic infrastructure, such as water and sanitation, electrification and energy conservation, transport and road construction. Promote greater involvement of women beneficiaries at the project planning and implementation stages to ensure access to jobs and contracts.
170. By Governments and non-governmental organizations:
(a) Pay special attention to women's needs when disseminating market, trade and resource information and provide appropriate training in these fields;
(b) Encourage community economic development strategies that build on partnerships among Governments, and encourage members of civil society to create jobs and address the social circumstances of individuals, families and communities.
171. By multilateral funders and regional development banks, as well as bilateral and private funding agencies, at the international, regional and subregional levels:
(a) Review, where necessary reformulate, and implement policies, programmes and projects to ensure that a [higher] [more equitable] proportion of resources reach women in rural and remote areas [without attendant conditions that could place women under pressure to act against their ethical and religious values];
(b) Develop flexible funding arrangements to finance intermediary institutions that target women's economic activities, and promote self-sufficiency and increased capacity in and profitability of women's economic enterprises;
(c) [Develop strategies for international [development] financial institutions and regional development banks to consolidate and strengthen their assistance to the micro, small and medium-scale enterprise sector, and work together with bilateral agencies to coordinate and enhance the effectiveness of this sector, drawing upon the expertise and financial resources from within their own organizations as well as from bilateral agencies, Governments and non-governmental organizations.]
172. By international, multilateral and bilateral development cooperation organizations:
Support, through the provision of capital and/or resources, financial institutions that serve low-income, small and micro-scale women entrepreneurs and producers in both the formal and informal sectors.
173. By Governments and/or multilateral financial institutions:
Review rules and procedures of formal national and international financial institutions that obstruct replication of the Grameen Bank prototype, which provides credit facilities to rural women.
174. By international organizations:
[Seek to] Provide adequate support for programmes and projects designed to promote sustainable and productive entrepreneurial activities among women, in particular the disadvantaged.