Draft Platform for Action
F. [Inequality in women's access to and participation in the definition of economic structures and policies [and the productive process itself]] [Economic potential and independence of women] [Gender equality in economic structures, policies and all forms of productive activity]
Strategic objective F.5. Eliminate occupational segregation and all forms of employment discrimination

Actions to be taken

180. By Governments, employers, employees, trade unions and women's organizations:

(a) [Implement and enforce laws, regulations and codes of conduct that extend international labour standards and workers' rights to female workers in expert processing zones;]

(b) [Enact and enforce laws and introduce implementing measures, including means of redress and access to justice in case of non- compliance, to prohibit direct and indirect discrimination on grounds of sex, sexual orientation and parental status in relation to access to employment, conditions of employment, including training, promotion, health and safety, as well as termination of employment and social security of workers, including legal protection against sexual and racial harassment;]

(c) Enact and enforce laws and develop workplace policies against [age and] gender discrimination in the labour market, in hiring and promotion, and in the extension of employment benefits and social security, as well as regarding discriminatory working conditions and sexual harassment; mechanisms should be developed for the regular review and monitoring of such laws;

(d) Eliminate discriminatory practices by employers on the basis of women's reproductive roles and functions, including refusal of employment and dismissal of women due to pregnancy and breast- feeding responsibilities;

(e) [Develop and promote employment programmes and services for women entering and/or re-entering the labour market, especially poor urban, rural and young women and those affected by structural adjustment programmes, including self-employment;]

(f) Implement and monitor positive public and private-sector employment equity and positive action programmes to address systemic discrimination against women in the labour force, in particular women with disabilities and women belonging to other disadvantaged groups, with respect to [employment,] hiring, retention and promotion, and vocational training of women in all sectors;

(g) Eliminate occupational segregation, especially by promoting the equal participation of women in highly skilled jobs and senior management positions and other measures, such as counselling and placement, that stimulate their on-the-job career development and upward mobility in the labour market, and by stimulating the diversification of occupational choices by both women and men. Encourage women to take up non-traditional jobs, especially in science and technology [and encourage men to seek employment in the social sector];

(h) Recognize collective bargaining as a right and as an important mechanism for eliminating wage inequality for women and to improve working conditions;

(i) Promote the election of women trade union officials and ensure that trade union officials elected to represent women are given job protection and physical security in connection with the discharge of their functions;

(j) [Ensure] access to and develop special programmes to enable women with disabilities to obtain and retain employment, and [ensure] access to education and training at all proper levels, in accordance with the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for People with Disabilities; 25/ adjust, to the extent possible, working conditions in order to suit the needs of women with disabilities, who should be secured legal protection against unfounded job loss on account of their disabilities;

(k) Increase efforts to close the gap between women's and men's pay, take steps to implement the principle of equal remuneration for equal work or work of equal value by strengthening legislation, including compliance with international labour laws and standards, and encourage job evaluation schemes with gender-neutral criteria;

(l) Establish and/or strengthen mechanisms to adjudicate matters relating to wage discrimination;

(m) Set specific target dates for [eliminating] all forms of child labour that are contrary to accepted international standards and ensure the full enforcement of relevant existing laws and, where appropriate, enact the legislation necessary to implement the Convention on the Rights of the Child and International Labour Organization standards, ensuring the protection of working children, in particular, street children, through the provision of appropriate health, education and other social services;

(n) [Ensure that the strategies to eliminate child labour recognize the excessive demands made on some girls for unpaid work in the household;]

(o) Review and analyse [reformulate] the wage structures in female- dominated professions, such as teaching, nursing and child care, with a view to raising their low status and earnings;

(p) Facilitate the productive employment of documented migrant women (including women who have been determined refugees according to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees) through greater recognition of foreign education and credentials and by adopting an integrated approach to labour market training that incorporates language training.

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