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CCAC Bulletin

Volume 172 Number 30 | Saturday, 24 September 2016


Summary of the 18th Working Group Meeting of the Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-lived Climate Pollutants (CCAC)

20-21 September 2016 | Paris, France


Languages: EN (HTML/PDF)
Visit our IISD/ENB+ Meeting Coverage from Paris, France at: http://enb.iisd.org/climate/ccac/18th-working-group/

The 18th Working Group (WG) meeting of the Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (CCAC) was held in Paris, France, from 20 - 21 September 2016 to address, inter alia: the agenda and draft communiqué for the CCAC’s High-Level Assembly (HLA) that will be held on the margins of the 22nd session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 22) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Marrakech, Morocco, in November 2016. The draft communiqué and agenda will be revised and updated in advance of the HLA.

The WG also discussed a proposed ‘two-target’ approach to achieve both climate and development goals for countries. The approach suggests the adoption of a near-term objective to cut the rate of warming in half over the next 25 years by simultaneously and aggressively mitigating both long-lived CO2 and short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) in order to increase the chance of meeting the long-term climate target under the Paris Agreement and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including those on health, food security, poverty, energy access and gender equality.

Partners also discussed ways the CCAC can catalyze more action and scale up policy work on black carbon, as well as opportunities for ministerial engagement. The WG approved the Global Strategy to Introduce Low Sulfur Fuels and Cleaner Diesel Vehicles, and agreed to add a component on obtaining better data on methane leaks from the oil and gas sector to the Oil and Gas Initiative. Lunchtime briefings were held on the remaining single sector initiatives (cookstoves, bricks production, agriculture, waste and hydrofluorocarbons), as well as on the cross-cutting initiatives (Supporting National Planning for Action on SLCPs (SNAP), health, finance and regional assessments).

The WG also addressed CCAC governance issues, namely related to: the Task Team on Partnership and Process, including a proposal to change the funding process through establishing a finance advisory group and introducing concept notes; the CCAC Trust Fund; the Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) renewal process; and Steering Committee participation.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE CCAC

The CCAC is a voluntary international coalition of governments, international organizations, the private sector and non-governmental organizations, which aims to: reduce emissions of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), including black carbon, methane and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which are responsible for a substantial proportion of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere and, thus, warming; avoid millions of premature deaths; promote food and energy security; and address near-term climate change.

The CCAC was established in February 2012 by Bangladesh, Canada, Ghana, Mexico, Sweden and the US, together with the UN Environment Programme (UNEP). It is open to countries and non-state actors, and currently has 111 partners consisting of 50 country partners and 61 non-state partners.

SLCPs include black carbon, methane (precursor to tropospheric ozone) and some HFCs. These pollutants have a near-term warming influence on the climate, and, in many cases, are also very harmful air pollutants that affect human health, agriculture and ecosystems. The CCAC’s objectives include raising awareness of impacts and transformative mitigation strategies of SLCPs. It also seeks to: enhance and develop new national and regional actions; promote best practices and showcase successful efforts; and improve scientific understanding of SLCP impacts and mitigation strategies.

INITIATIVES: The CCAC has approved 11 initiatives. Its seven sectoral initiatives include:

  • Oil and Gas (accelerating methane and black carbon reductions from oil and natural gas production);
  • Agriculture;
  • Bricks (mitigating SLCPs and other pollutants from brick production);
  • Waste (mitigating SLCPs from municipal solid waste);
  • HFCs (promoting HFC-alternative technology and standards); and
  • Diesel (reducing black carbon emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles and engines); and
  • Household energy (reducing SLCPs from household cooking, domestic heating and lighting).

The CCAC also has four cross-cutting initiatives on: financing mitigation of SLCPs; regional assessments; supporting national planning for action on SLCPs (SNAP); and health.

GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE: The CCAC institutional structure includes the HLA, the WG, the Steering Committee, the SAP and the Secretariat.

 The HLA consists of ministers of state partners and heads of non-state partners, and meets at least once a year to provide strategic guidance and leadership to the CCAC, including setting policy, taking stock of progress and initiating future efforts. The Working Group includes focal points from each CCAC partner, and convenes at least twice a year to oversee activities.

The CCAC also has a Steering Committee composed of the two Working Group Co-Chairs and up to six state partners, two representatives of international organizations and two NGO representatives. The Steering Committee meets monthly to provide oversight support and recommendations to the HLA and Working Group.

The SAP consists of 15 scientists, including, ex-officio, the UNEP Chief Scientist. The CCAC Secretariat is hosted by UNEP in its Division of Technology, Industry and Economics in Paris, France.

CCAC WORKING GROUP REPORT

OPENING AND APPROVAL OF AGENDA

WELCOME: On Tuesday morning, 20 September, CCAC WG Co-Chair Rita Cerutti, Canada, opened the meeting, conveying apologies from Co-Chair Marcelo Mena, Chile, who was unable to attend. She welcomed observers from China, Thailand, Nepal, Senegal and Oxfam. She called on participants to make SLCP action a priority, and identify domestic issues and activities being championed in their countries. She called for continuing efforts on an HFC amendment for the Montreal Protocol, the SDGs, a successful HLA in Marrakech and a message that CCAC members are committed to reducing SLCPs and carbon dioxide (CO2), which are both important.

APPROVAL OF AGENDA: The agenda (WG/SEP2016/01 rev1) was approved as presented.

KEYNOTE ADDRESS: Patricia Espinosa, UNFCCC Executive Secretary, via video message, highlighted the CCAC’s value for meeting Paris Agreement commitments by phasing down SLCPs. She called for addressing black carbon in order to meet the SDGs, and climate and agricultural goals, stressing that short-term actions help meet long-term goals.

Erik Solheim, UNEP Executive Director, via video message, noted the CCAC’s positive effects on health, given that seven million people die prematurely from air pollution each year, and called on participants to address black carbon, methane and HFCs in the short term.

NEAR TERM AND LONG TERM APPROACHES: This plenary session focused on the presentation and discussion of a proposed approach aimed at promoting both near- and long-term actions for countries, including through nationally determined contributions (NDCs) and the SDG implementation process.

Panel presentations: Drew Shindell, SAP Chair, presented, via teleconference, a draft version of a paper titled ‘Two Targets for Climate Action: Reducing the Risk for Current and Future Generations’ (WG/SEP2016/02 and http://www.ccacoalition.org/en/resources/presentation-two-targets-climate-action-reducing-risk-current-future-generations), noting the importance of meeting both climate goals and the SDGs. He said near-term action to reduce SLCPs will reduce the rate of climate change while simultaneously benefitting health and agriculture.

Shindell noted the SAP’s recommendation to slow global warming by half over the next 25 years, which requires, by 2030, reducing emissions of black carbon by 75%, methane by 25% and HFCs by 100%. He said actions to achieve near-term climate and development can support the achievement of long-term climate goals by creating political goodwill through the realization of rapid and tangible benefits from clean air, thus enabling the achievement of climate targets without significant overshoot.

Johan Kuylenstierna, SAP, added that the draft paper on this topic emanated from the science-policy dialogue at the last WG meeting and is based on the science behind the CCAC and the 2011 UNEP/WMO Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone and the UNEP Near-term Climate Protection and Clean Air Benefits synthesis report. He said reducing CO2 emissions is less effective at limiting warming in the near term due to its long atmospheric lifetime and that it comes from sources with long replacement times. He also called for: disaggregating climate mitigation pledges and reporting under the NDCs under the Paris Agreement, including for black carbon and all co-emitted pollutants, to understand net climate benefits and to estimate effects on health and achieving the SDGs.

Jo Tyndall, Co-Chair, Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement under the UNFCCC, called for ensuring the right incentives in policies and plans resulting from INDCs, clarity and certainty in the Paris rulebook, avoidance of unintended consequences, and practical ways to ensure SLCPs are “part of the puzzle” as countries begin to implement their INDCs.

Carmen Gloria Contreras, Chile, said her country’s INDC includes action on SLCPs. She noted 14 local decontamination plans that stress black carbon, and efforts in Chile to: ban burning wood in Santiago; reserve roads for clean cars and public transport; restrict private vehicles when pollution is high; apply an electricity generation tax based on CO2 emissions; and draw up an SLCP inventory.

Discussion: During the ensuing discussion, the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) noted countries’ efforts to dramatically reduce black carbon from diesel trucks and buses through the use of low sulfur fuels and diesel particulate filters with multiple near- and long-term benefits.

The US welcomed the discussions and said a two-target approach requires further consideration by negotiators and scientists, and cautioned against: taking on too much too quickly; incurring unintended consequences; and possible interference with negotiations for an HFC amendment under the Montreal Protocol. Norway said it was not ready to endorse the paper, but that the paper is a good starting point for discussion, and any discussion of targets must take place under the UNFCCC. She queried how the suggested global metrics could capture regional differences regarding climate impacts.

The Maldives highlighted district-cooling plans in her country, and the importance of the proposed amendment to the Montreal Protocol on HFCs. Canada said short-term targets could distract from efforts to implement the Paris Agreement.

Calling action on SLCPs a priority, Canada urged action on methane and black carbon by 2030, awareness raising on the benefits of SLCP mitigation and promotion of SLCP measures within INDCs.

Germany stressed the importance of introducing mid-term goals. Kenya welcomed the approach and said women, children and the poor are responsible for the majority of black carbon emissions through, inter alia, solid waste management, and advocated working with these marginalized groups.

Sweden suggested calling the second target an “ambitious pathway” to avoid competition with the long-term climate goal. The ClimateWorks Foundation said “we must reach high and reach far,” and supported the initiative, noting that the paper legitimizes decisions regarding black carbon and has more scientific depth than the Paris Agreement.

Finland noted the usefulness of regional metrics, querying whether more science was necessary to develop SLCP metrics.

While noting that short-terms targets could be useful regionally, New Zealand: questioned the appetite for further global targets; said short- and long-term impacts could be included in IPCC reports; and underscored the value of the split target concept for countries in developing their low-emissions development strategies by 2020.

The Netherlands noted fatigue regarding another process of global goal setting, but said that having a double goal at the national level was possible.

The Institute for Governance & Sustainable Development (IGSD) supported the two- target initiative, suggested working with country partners that wish to take up this proposal, and requested the CCAC to update the guidance document to reflect the Paris Agreement.

Côte d’Ivoire said a shorter version of the paper could be used as an advocacy tool, particularly for policymakers in developing countries.

Responding to various questions from participants, Kuylenstierna said the science shows that achieving long-term climate goals requires addressing short-term goals. He noted that many metrics represent different ways of calculating global temperature and a range of regional issues. He said the International Energy Agency (IEA) 450 ppm scenario is an ambitious global abatement goal but does not provide near-term results. Kuylenstierna also stressed the need to understand all co-emissions, recognizing that if it is known how all mitigation options impact on fine particulate matter (PM2.5), then their multiple effects, such as health effects, can be understood.

SCALING-UP POLICY WORK ON BLACK CARBON: During this session, Partners discussed ways the CCAC can catalyze more action on SLCP-relevant black carbon measures, and opportunities for ministerial engagement. The Secretariat then presented a Briefing on Black Carbon Science and Policy (WG/SEP2016/03).

Karen Florini, US, and Chair, Arctic Council Expert Group on Black Carbon and Methane, noted that methane and black carbon emissions are accelerating ice melting. She said that 30% of warming in the Arctic comes from black carbon, with as much as 70% of black carbon emissions generated outside the Arctic countries. She highlighted Arctic Council work on a framework to provide options for an ambitious quantitative goal on black carbon for consideration by the 2017 Council ministerial. She informed participants that all Arctic Council countries had prepared reports on SLCPs and lamented difficulties with developing black carbon inventories and the importance of measuring all co-emitted pollutants for understanding net effects.

Laurence Rouïl, Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP), reported on black carbon-related work under the LRTAP Convention, including development of an amendment on reducing PM2.5, which includes black carbon, and a framework for black carbon reporting. She noted establishment of an emissions database for PM2.5, with data from many countries, but noted large variations in different countries’ data and ongoing work to make it more consistent and robust. She expressed willingness to cooperate on developing metrics for black carbon.

Eric Concepción, Peru, reported on the Latin American Regional Network on Atmospheric Pollution, an annual forum for environmental ministers to discuss actions to reduce air pollution, which now includes SLCPs. Noting that 36% of black carbon in Peru comes from transportation and 29% from burning forest and grasslands, he said different sources imply different policies.

Co-Chair Cerutti underscored the challenges in developing black carbon inventories, suggested raising the subject at the HLA and opened the floor for discussion.

Plenary discussion: The International Union of Air Pollution, Prevention and Environmental Protection Associations (IUAPPA) called for immediate short-term measures that can be adopted and for prioritizing black carbon sources. He noted that reducing black carbon emissions will have the greatest impact on climate change in sensitive regions, and on health, with minimum cost.

Colombia noted challenges in developing a black carbon inventory. The WMO noted lessons from the LRTAP Convention, and said actions should only be confirmed if concentrations are observed in the atmosphere. She called for meteorological services to measure concentrations at the city level.

UNEP noted efforts to place black carbon on the political agenda through multiple benefits, such as those related to health and agriculture. She said UNEP is bringing black carbon into its capacity-building efforts related to NDCs.

Sweden said the Arctic Council’s emphasis on science provided a good lesson for the CCAC, as countries cannot ignore the effects of black carbon on climate change and health. He noted that this discussion would help identify key issues to forward to ministers for the HLA.

The UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) supported an HLA focus on black carbon and the commitment by partners to conduct black carbon inventories. She called for including in the HLA communiqué, a statement urging ratification of the amended Gothenburg Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone, the first legally binding agreement that contains black carbon commitments.

Norway said the CCAC should emphasize work on black carbon immediately because of dangerous health impacts, and convey the urgency of scaling up action in the HLA communiqué. She called for considering an initiative that promotes walking, cycling and public transport, in line with the New Urban Agenda that will be adopted at Habitat III in October.

Mexico said his country has measured two years worth of black carbon in seven cities, and is explaining to local governments what has happened in terms of emission inventories and concentrations in order to promote actions on the sources.

The World Health Organization (WHO) called for considering the relevance of undertaking black carbon efforts for achieving the SDGs. Colombia highlighted possible benefits of addressing black carbon as part of the implementation of NDCs.

COALITION GOVERNANCE MATTERS: This session discussed changes to partnership and processes, the Trust Fund, SAP membership and Steering Committee participation.

Task Team on Partnership and Process: Franck Portalupi, Canada, member of the, Task Team on Partnership and Process, presented the Chair’s report (WG/SEP2016/04), which, inter alia, describes the roles of the different CCAC bodies and makes relevant recommendations. He detailed recommendations on the roles and responsibilities of partners and actors, including clarifying partners’ intentions for action in advance. He said the co-chairs could play a larger role in the Coalition.

Karen Florini, US, presented on proposed changes to the funding process (WG/SEP2016/05), including establishing an advisory group on finance, developing concept notes prior to submitting full proposals, and simplifying templates. She hoped the WG would approve the establishment of such an advisory group, which would, inter alia, review the concept notes, make recommendations to the SC, and recommend timelines and potential funding priorities. She said the purpose of the recommendations was to simplify and be more strategic in the allocation of resources.

Switzerland pointed to inherent tensions in a competitive funding process, and questioned whether introducing a funding advisory group, as proposed, would slow the funding cycle down. He suggested recruiting a “champion” for the HLAs to give them more clout so ministers will want to attend.

Sweden questioned whether a funding advisory group would actually reduce bureaucracy, supported the idea of concept notes, said developing countries, not just donors, should be included in decision-making bodies, and called for time and resources to ensure that the Steering Committee makes good decisions.

Florini said a funding advisory group would not add an extra step, and that less time would be spent on writing full proposals if concept notes were introduced.

Norway supported reference to the crucial role of the WG and its role in policy development and strategic finance discussions in the Steering Committee, use of external experts when needed, and advisory group participation that reflects both developing and developed countries.  Mexico said funding priorities must be established by the WG. Bangladesh suggested the Steering Committee look at the concept note before the funding advisory committee.

IUAPPA suggested clarifying the relationship between the WG and the Steering Committee, removing process-oriented issues from the WG’s agenda, and appointing separate co-chairs for the WG and Steering Committee.

Finland supported reducing the Secretariat’s workload. The ClimateWorks Foundation cautioned against creating less visible entities, favoring transparent financing deliberations and shaping of policy options to make CCAC meetings attractive to policymakers.

UNEP stated that the proposals show an evolution in the CCAC toward greater efficiency and impact.

The Secretariat said the recommendations require few changes, activities depend on funding the Trust Fund and the financial advisory group will review resources annually.

The US said the proposal’s aim is to streamline housekeeping burdens.

On proposed funding process, Co-Chair Cerutti suggested an additional round of comments, with WG approval of a revised draft through a written procedure. Florini opined that concept notes cannot yet be required but could be helpful for testing the new process. Cerutti proposed a deadline of 14 October for comments and for initiatives to consider submitting concept notes for the next round of funding decisions, in preparation for an April decision by the WG. There were no objections.

Overview of the CCAC Trust Fund: Co-Chair Cerutti introduced this agenda item (WG/SEP2016/06), calling for ideas for fundraising and on mobilizing donors’ ministers and principals to make pledges during the HLA.

The Secretariat reported on its work and informed participants about Trust Fund management, noting a US$55 million shortfall in funds to support the Secretariat and initiatives in implementing the approved five-year plan, which runs to the end of 2020. Co-Chair Cerutti asked participants to consider whether the number of activities should be increased or decreased, as this will be affected by actual resources in Trust Fund.

Nigeria suggested that some ministers volunteer to be initiative champions and proposed an outreach seminar for donors, to ensure that the CCAC benefits from all available climate financing opportunities.

The Netherlands added that CCAC documents showing initiatives’ results could also suggest what could be obtained with more funding, to tell ministers “what they would get for their money.”

Co-Chair Cerutti asked participants to send additional comments, particularly on ideas for fundraising activities.

SAP members election: Kuylenstierna, SAP, explained that of 15 SAP members, 10 are willing to renew their terms and three will step down. He said that, thus far, nine nominations for SAP membership have been put forward and invited others to submit nominations until 5 October to encourage a diverse pool of expertise. IGSD reiterated the need to consider gender balance and regional representation in SAP composition. Kuylenstierna added that presently neither Africa nor Latin America is represented.

Call for Steering Committee nominations: Co-Chair Cerutti noted that some Steering Committee’s members’ terms end in October, and requested extending the mandate of Chile’s tenure as co-chair through the Santiago WG meeting in April, to which the WG agreed. She asked all countries who are interested in joining the Steering Committee to speak with her and said that all NGOs interested in joining should speak with IGSD. She said a final decision on country membership will be made in November and on NGO membership in December, to ensure continuity through the HLA.

Eric Concepción, Peru, was elected Co-Chair of the Demonstrating Impact Task Force. Task Force Co-chair Reto Thönen, Switzerland, reviewed progress achieved regarding the usefulness of reporting and efforts to revise the current framework.

SLCP Solution Centre: The Secretariat introduced the SLCP Solution Centre (http://www.ccacoalition.org/en/solutioncenter), which will provide support to Partners and stakeholders, and welcomed suggestions for improvement. She said it will: complement solution centers on low emissions development strategies (LEDS) and clean energy; focus on measures and opportunities for reducing SLCPs; increase access to available solutions; scale up learning and exchanges; and provide online training.

The Secretariat noted the Centre’s matchmaking and peer engagement role between policymakers and experts, and said it would act as a one-stop shop for all relevant resources that will support work on developing policies and strategies to reduce SLCPs. She provided examples of how one country could request information and advice on an issue, and another country, which has had success, would share its experiences. She mentioned regulation, cross-sectoral work, and links between urban air pollution and climate change as examples.

The Secretariat noted the intent to expand the SLCP expert roster, and asked for voluntary in-kind assistance. Responding to a query from the floor, the Secretariat said that the Solution Centre is not intended to replace the initiatives, but rather it will address issues not covered by them, while the initiatives can respond to any initiative-related requests. Kenya suggested that a help line be established to get a quicker response.

PRESENTATION OF DRAFT 2015-16 CCAC ANNUAL REPORT

The Secretariat presented for information, the draft Annual Report (WG/SEP2016/08), noting that it incorporates inputs received through the Demonstrating Impacts Framework and uses, for the first time, specific indicators developed to show output, outcomes and demonstration of real impacts from initiatives. She said each initiative incorporates a theory of change, such as building awareness and political will, ensuring policies and practices are developed and implemented, which will lead to substantial SLCP reductions and other benefits. She said each initiative includes elements, such as technology demonstrations, assessments, inventories, toolkits, outreach, political advocacy, strategic partnerships, training and peer-to-peer assistance.

The Secretariat reported on results from the pilot reporting phase using the new indicators, noted issues with access to finance for scaling up, and said that these are preliminary results which will be improved over the next year. Participants were invited to send comments on the Annual Report by 29 September, with the final report to be presented at the HLA on 14 November.

WORKING LUNCH — INITIATIVE BRIEFINGS

On Tuesday and Wednesday, participants were invited to attend lunchtime briefings by Lead Partners of CCAC initiatives on results to date, tools and information available, and upcoming opportunities and events (WG/SEP2016/09 and WG/SEP2016/08).

CROSS-CUTTING INITIATIVE BRIEFINGS: Esther Badiola, European Investment Bank, discussed the Finance Initiative, noting that policy goals must be translated into specific implementable projects, the design of tailored finance strategies, and the mobilization of finance toward mitigation. She emphasized bankability of projects, raising awareness to finance SLCPs, insufficient or unenforced regulation, and non-financial barriers that limit the efficacy of financial institutions in mobilizing finance and prevent the update of SLCP technologies.

Badiola said that going forward, the Finance Initiative will, inter alia, continue: providing technical assistance on finance to CCAC sector initiatives; and providing support for mobilizing public finance for a regional pilot facility for clean cookstoves.

Carlos Dora, WHO, introduced the Health Initiative, noting lack of engagement with the health sector despite the fact that many SLCP policies have positive health benefits. He supported mobilizing and empowering the health sector to speak and act in support of those policies. He mentioned initiative products related to, inter alia, a knowledge base about health benefits, and communication and engagement. He called for reaching out to a wider range of partners, linking with other agendas, seeking large-scale funding, and encouraging cities to get involved in the “Breathe Life” campaign.

Kevin Hicks, Stockholm Environment Institute, introduced the initiative on Regional Assessments. He discussed generation of local/regional data and information, engagement of all stakeholders, and strengthening of synergies between science and policy initiatives in regions. Reviewing regional assessment activities, he mentioned an integrated assessment of SLCPs in Latin America, a regional partnership for promoting better air in the Asia Pacific region, a programme to make “African quality” fuels and phase out dirty diesel, and a proposal for a European assessment.

Hicks also presented on the SNAP Initiative, which, among other things, develops capacity in countries to scale up. He said 14 countries are receiving institutional strengthening support, four countries have drafted national plans and four are beginning the process. He also cited training on the SNAP toolkit and ongoing technical support. He said that while guidance documents exist for eight countries, the aim is to cover 100 countries by 2018. He also noted the development of linkages with LEDS, and mentioned a regional SNAP meeting for the Middle East and North Africa in October in Amman, Jordan.

SINGLE SECTOR INITIATIVE BRIEFINGS: Matthew Hooper, New Zealand, reported on the Agriculture Initiative, noting that it aims to support actions that promote climate benefits, including minimizing methane and reducing black carbon emissions, in a manner that enhances food security and livelihoods. He detailed four components of the initiative: integrating manure management; reducing enteric methane; using alternatives to agricultural open burning; and mitigating options for paddy rice production.

Reto Thönen, Switzerland, reported on the Bricks Initiative to mitigate SLCPs and other pollutants, including black carbon, from brick production. He detailed activities in four areas: awareness-raising and knowledge creation; policy support to interested countries and subnational entities; capacity building; and climate accounting and measurement analysis, including development of a standardized measurement protocol in order to make measurements comparable.

Franck Portalupi, Canada, gave an overview of the Municipal Solid Waste Initiative, which aims to help 1000 cities by 2020, focusing on both municipal and national-level actions to reduce methane and black carbon emissions by improving waste management policies and practices. He said its goals include enabling cities to develop robust waste management systems and move up the waste hierarchy through transformative actions and providing a knowledge platform to support cities on best practices through technical assistance, financial strategies, information exchange, and networking and training.

Leslie Cordes and Donee Alexander, Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, and Jane Metcalfe, ICCT, spoke on the Household Energy Initiative. Cordes noted that it integrates and complements ongoing work on cooking and heating. She summarized the primary components as: enterprise support through expansion of financing, such as the Spark Fund; development of standards and testing protocols to provide clear criteria for evaluating emission reductions of black carbon, particulate materials and other SLCPs; and creation of a high-level advocacy and global education campaign to raise awareness among thought leaders and policymakers.

Denise Sioson, CCAC Secretariat, reported that the HFC Initiative’s long-term goal is to significantly reduce the projected growth in the use and emissions of high-GWP HFCs relative to business-as-usual scenarios, saying that if no measures are taken, HFCs will amount to an estimated 9-19% of carbon emissions by 2050.

IEA PRESENTATION

On Wednesday morning, 21 September, Kamel Ben Naceur, IEA, presented the World Energy Outlook Special Report 2016: Energy and Air Pollution. He noted that: 99% of pollutant emissions are from the energy sector; only 8% of global energy production is combustion free; and the sector accounts for 6.5 million premature deaths, thus creating a global health crisis.

Naceur warned that the report shows that even under a scenario assuming implementation of INDCs, premature deaths will increase by 50% by 2040. He said the report proposes a “Clean Air Scenario” based on existing technologies and tailored to local conditions, which comprises: long-term air quality goals; a package of clean air measures for the energy sector; and an accelerated energy transition to more efficiency and renewables. Naceur said its implementation would add about US$5 trillion in costs to those of INDCs up to 2040. He noted that the report’s cost-benefit analysis did not calculate the benefits of saving lives.

INITIATIVE BRIEFINGS

INTRODUCTION: INITIATIVE BRIEFINGS LINKED TO POSSIBLE HLA AGENDA: On Wednesday morning, Co-Chair Cerutti opened the discussion on initiatives to be addressed at the HLA, namely the Diesel Initiative and the Oil and Gas Initiative (WG/SEP2016/09).

 ZOOM-IN ON THE DIESEL INITIATIVE: Partner Presentations: Fanta Kamakaté, ICCT, and Rob de Jong, UNEP, presented on reducing black carbon emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles and engines. Kamakaté reported that diesel exhaust emissions can be drastically reduced with the use of low sulfur fuels and their deployment needs to be accelerated.

Kamakaté said while many countries already have standards to reduce sulfur emissions to 50 ppm or even 10 ppm, 30% of fuels consumed emit well above 50 ppm, with some countries’ pollution equaling up to 10,000 ppm. She explained that diesel exhaust is a known carcinogen linked to respiratory and cardiovascular problems, and that use of cleaner fuels and vehicles is already providing significant health and climate benefits.

The Diesel Initiative, Kamakaté said, is global in targeted areas and gives regional support on clean fuel and vehicle standards, but also focuses on specific sectors, such as ports and marine fuels and buses. She briefly reported on ongoing projects on global green freight, soot-free urban bus fleets and the marine sector.

De Jong then reported on a new Global Clean Ports initiative and a proposal to obtain HLA endorsement of a new Global Strategy to Introduce Low Sulfur Fuels and Cleaner Diesel Vehicles (WG/SEP2016/10). He said the Strategy’s objective is to significantly improve health and reduce SLCPs by reducing particulate matter and black carbon emissions from the global heavy duty diesel fleet through the introduction of low sulfur fuels and advanced vehicle standards. He said the Strategy shows these goals can be achieved, and provides options and guidelines for doing so.

Plenary discussion: In the ensuing discussion, De Jong, in response to a query from the Netherlands, said that an HLA “endorsement” would recognize what the global targets are in this area and what needs to be done to achieve them. Kamakaté noted that endorsement represents a vote of confidence.

Sweden cautioned that mistakes already made, such as in Europe, can also provide lessons on what approaches are effective and encouraged use of the 10 ppm, rather than the 50 ppm, standard. He also called for adding standards on vehicle inspections to the Strategy.

Peru said his country’s transition to low sulfur fuels will be delayed for one year. Chile asked about analyses for scaling up in Latin America. ClimateWorks Foundation said political leaders must understand this issue, and emphasized the need to desulfurize fuel stocks, including bunker fuels, as a climate and air pollution imperative, stressing that this message must be conveyed to the HLA. The Netherlands said the Strategy must be packaged in such a way that ministers feel comfortable, and, noting significant business interest, called for a bigger role for business on fuel issues at COP 22.

The US expressed support for the Strategy. Canada called for a ministerial commitment to adopt sulfur fuel emission standards for heavy duty vehicles, and consideration of how this Strategy could fit into other international initiatives, such as those of the International Maritime Organization.

Ghana lamented that Africa is a dumping ground for waste and urged that this be addressed. Morocco noted removal of diesel fuel subsidies in her country.

Côte d’Ivoire asked whether the 2020 timeframe and 50 ppm target are for all countries. Kamakaté said most countries can achieve this goal by 2020 and all by 2025.

Liberia called for a communication strategy, noting difficulty in conveying to policymakers the importance of the Strategy for the environment. Co-Chair Cerutti cited the “Breathe Life” campaign video as a good example of communicating impact. Kamakaté said they will be working with partners on a communications strategy.

De Jong said: the Paris Agreement can only be realized if a clean fleet is achieved worldwide; pointed to communication and awareness as the biggest issues; and called for conveying to decision makers the Strategy’s import and implementability.

He said that although Côte d’Ivoire provides fuel to 14 African countries, investments toward clean fuel production are lacking. He mentioned that an upcoming ministerial meeting in West Africa would aim to harmonize standards and transition to low sulfur diesel. He highlighted Chile and Morocco as developing countries that have made the transition.

Co-Chair Cerutti confirmed that there were no objections to the Strategy.

ZOOM-IN ON THE OIL AND GAS INITIATIVE: Partner presentations: Philip Swanson, Oil and Gas Initiative Coordinator, CCAC Secretariat, noted that oil and gas is the largest industrial source of methane. He said eight companies, representing 10% of world gas production, are partners in the Oil and Gas Methane Partnership. He described reporting on nine core emission sources and introducing good practices, and said a report summarizing surveys for 45 operations in seven countries will be released in October.

Noting that methane emissions is a new area for many, Swanson said companies want to see that governments are prioritizing methane emission reductions in the oil and gas sector, and called for discussion on this issue at the HLA.

Drew Nelson, Environmental Defense Fund, introduced a component on obtaining better data on methane leaks from the oil and gas sector for addition to the Oil and Gas Initiative (WG/SEP2016/11), noting that reducing methane emissions is cost effective and easily achievable.

Nelson described efforts on and challenges in determining the source of oil and gas methane emissions, citing the need for better global data, understanding where emissions are coming from and multi-scale studies to close the data gaps. He said the study will have a steering group to determine budget and priorities.

Mentioning agreement by Canada, Mexico and the US to reduce methane emissions by 40-45% below 2012 levels by 2025, Nelson said if this goal were scaled up globally it would have the same impact as closing one third of the world’s coal fired power plants. The WG decided to include this additional component in the Oil and Gas Initiative.

Markus Klingbeil, IEA, presented on an upcoming 2017 IEA special report on methane emissions, saying its aim is to, inter alia, provide clarity on methane’s contribution to global warming, determine knowledge gaps, assist policymakers, determine policies and measures the sector can implement, and identify abatement costs and best practices. He noted that barriers include reluctance in the oil and gas sector to engage on this topic. He said the report will be published in June/July 2017.

Bahijjahtu Abubakar, Nigeria, then reported on the non-methane Oil and Gas Initiative Technology Demonstration Component. She said it aims to support the CCAC objective to achieve measurable SLCP emission reductions from the oil and gas sector by reducing black carbon flaring and leaking and by deploying innovative technologies to recover readily condensable and valuable natural gas liquids. She said three countries – Nigeria, Mexico and Colombia – currently participate in this component and three countries - China, Norway and Ecuador – have secured support to participate.

Abubakar linked financing and investment to demonstration of technologies and to “green economy” goals. She described neighborhoods around oil and gas facilities in Nigeria that are covered with black soot, where the farmlands are not productive and the children are ill from respiratory conditions. She underscored that militancy comes from such neglected communities, making this a national security issue.

Plenary discussion: Opening up the floor for discussion, Co-Chair Cerutti asked participants to consider which oil and gas issues to highlight in the HLA.

ClimateWorks Foundation said that outside the US, methane leakage is a key issue for philanthropy. The ICCT emphasized the importance of regulatory action.

Norway discussed his country’s experience with reducing emissions from flaring in the petroleum industry, noting that 1% of emissions come from flaring. He described regulatory measures, such as permits and a carbon tax, and review of industry efforts to limit flaring and associated emissions. He discussed the search for better and safer ways to estimate emissions from flaring, new technologies to help with abatement, and the government’s good relationship with industry.

UNECE reported its work to update and disseminate a best practice guidance document on using methane in, and reducing methane emissions from, coal mines, as methane is used in reducing the likelihood of mine explosions.

The US noted the many health and agriculture co-benefits of methane reduction, given methane’s contribution to ground level ozone. She cited the US’ aggressive stance, including efforts to reduce oil and gas methane production by 40-45% by 2025 and its expanded efforts on best practices for the transmission and distribution sectors, which 43 companies have adopted. She asked for information on planned outcomes relating to scope and breadth of the initiative.

Nelson noted that the EU is the seventh largest emitter of oil and gas methane in the world and that reductions are needed in order to reach either the 2°C or 1.5°C Paris Agreement goal. He said local distribution systems did not generally fall into the global scope but that knowledge gaps are still being explored. He said that an area-wide approach captures more emissions information than a component-based one.

On the demand for leak-proof gas, he said the intention should be that big gas purchasers will demand gas from members of the Oil and Gas Methane Partnership but that what it means to be a “member” should be clarified over time.

Co-Chair Cerutti recommended consideration of multiple strategies for achieving results, saying that pledges are important, but need to be supported by processes to achieve goals.

HIGH LEVEL ASSEMBLY, NOVEMBER 2016

On Wednesday afternoon, CCAC participants discussed the upcoming HLA’s agenda (WG/SEP2016/12) and messages for its draft communiqué (WG/SEP2016/13). Co-Chair Cerutti highlighted two objectives for the HLA: scaling up policy work on black carbon, particularly on data, national reporting and information sharing, and focusing on action on black carbon and the multiple benefits of integration of climate-air pollution-health policies; and securing commitments/decisions from ministers to drive reductions of SLCPs, specifically black carbon and methane, in the transportation (heavy duty vehicles) and oil and gas sectors. She asked for ideas, noting there would be further review of the agenda and communiqué before the HLA.

Various comments from participants called for adding language on, inter alia: the urgency of SLCP reductions and related co-benefits of the reductions for health and agriculture; the fact that leakage control is very economical; use of the Arctic Council’s reporting framework on black carbon and other existing procedures, in order to avoid duplication; enhancing work on and financing for the initiatives; the G7’s recent communiqué mentioning the CCAC and support for related domestic measures; the level of air quality needed per WHO guidelines; conducting black carbon inventories according to LRTAP guidelines; production, processing and distribution of oil and gas methane as significant sources of methane leaks; welcoming action items and expressing readiness to act on them; links between CCAC work and the SDGs and other international goals; reducing methane emissions by consuming less oil and gas and improving energy efficiency; working together to develop a global goal on oil and gas; the 2 °C or 1.5 °C targets; the need to do something in the short term; committing to develop black carbon inventories by a specific date; a specific methodology to be used for calculating and reporting black carbon emissions; other sources of black carbon such as open burning, fires and brickworks; and successful ongoing developments in regional cooperation.

Other comments called for omitting language on: entry into force of the Paris Agreement; specific financing possibilities; specific dates; and commitments on adopting or strengthening ultra-low sulfur fuel standards and tailpipe emissions standards for heavy duty vehicles.

Participants disagreed over: whether to refer, in the communiqué, to the need to ratify the Gothenburg Protocol or to a full list of other commitments; expanding the number of priorities mentioned; referring to other CCAC initiatives; whether to refer to the “two-target” approach; and focusing on health as a cross-cutting issue instead of on heavy vehicles specifically.

Several participants called for: a crisp, concise and clear communiqué on what the HLA agrees to; deleting a call for early ratification of the Paris Agreement; bringing into the HLA an effective high-level speaker on CCAC successes and actions taken; and replacing language on inventories with wording on: tools; indicators; reductions that can be measured; or comparisons with measures for other GHGs.

Participants also: said the CCAC will be successful if ministers and principals are more committed, and suggested that one or two be “champions” of the Coalition; proposed ministerial action groups on oil and gas and agriculture, for example, which can communicate every few months; stressed that methods should be tailored to developing countries; and cautioned that another methane target was not necessary.

Others suggested “sharing information” instead of “reporting” on actions so ministers do not feel compelled or bound to take action.

A number of participants said it was premature to discuss the two-target approach at the upcoming HLA.

Co-Chair Cerutti said the communiqué will be redrafted and set out a timeline for comments and redrafts: initial comments to be sent to the Secretariat by 5 October; Co-Chairs to work with the Steering Committee and send out a second version of the communiqué by 18 October; final round of comments to be submitted by 1 November; and final draft to be sent out to the WG by 4 November. She said the 19th WG meeting will take place on 12 November in Marrakesh where final tweaks to the HLA communiqué will be made. She expressed hope that the HLA will be interactive, rather than consisting of a lot of prepared ministerial statements.

CLOSING DISCUSSION

Carmen Gloria Contreras, Chile, discussed the upcoming 20th WG meeting in Santiago, Chile, in April 2017 (WG/SEP2016/14). She said the main idea for organizing the meeting in Latin America is to show the region’s interest in collaboration on SLCPs. She said the meeting will discuss the two-target approach and entail much scientific debate. She noted progress made in Mexico, Peru and Chile, in particular, on SLCP reductions, and expressed hope that their efforts will inspire other countries to take action.

The floor was then opened for comments, which addressed: organization, format and substance of the meeting; outreach in the region; sharing of experiences on methane reduction; and work of the Global Research Alliance in Latin America on enteric methane.

The Secretariat said discussions with the SAP resulted in the proposal for a science-policy dialogue to precede the WG meeting.

Sweden asked about possible visits to projects that have received CCAC support. Contreras said plans are being made to visit a water treatment project, a center for the analysis of air quality to see how contamination is managed, and a laboratory for vehicle control.

Peru recalled a regional CCAC workshop in Lima in May, which, among other things, discussed: implementation of a regional action plan against atmospheric pollution; harmonization and standardization of fuels for vehicles; integration of regional health organizations to work on solutions for evaluating health impacts; and showcasing, through the CCAC Solution Centre, research being done in Latin America.

Norway supported discussing the two-target approach as one of the main issues at that meeting.

Chile said the proposal for the WG meeting will be revised and distributed.

WRAP UP AND CLOSE OF MEETING

Co-Chair Cerutti listed items requiring follow-up, including: nomination of experts on black carbon, by 5 October, for a SAP-organized workshop to be held in March, likely hosted by Canada; nominations for the Solution Centre roster and consideration of best practices to share; comments on the financing task team’s work on the funding process by 14 October; any potential pledges to be announced at the HLA; attendance at the Montreal Protocol meeting in Kigali, Rwanda, in October; and comments on the Annual Report, by 29 September.

Co-Chair Cerutti thanked participants and the Secretariat for two days of productive discussions and closed the meeting at 17:00.

UPCOMING MEETINGS

CCAC Side Event: Urban solutions to reduce air pollution, slow global warming and protect human health: This side event will: showcase solutions at the city and national levels that reduce emissions of SLCPs across sectors, including soot-free urban bus fleets and best practices in municipal solid waste management, and encourage more cities and countries to take action to bring these solutions to scale. It is being organized by the CCAC, the WHO and Local Governments for Sustainability (ICLEI), and will take place during Climate Chance 2016: Climate Actors World Summit, which is being held from 26-28 September.  dates: 26 September 2016  location: Nantes, France  contact: Yekbun Gurgoz, Finance & Cookstoves Initiative Coordinator, CCAC Secretariat  phone: +33-1-44-37-14-73  fax: +33-1-44 37-14-74  email: Yekbun.Gurgoz.Affiliate@unep.org www: http://www.ccacoalition.org/en/events/ccac-side-event-climate-chance-climate-actors-world-summit

Mexico City Workshop on Soot Free Urban Bus Fleets: This workshop is convening under the Soot Free Bus Fleets project of the CCAC Heavy Duty Diesel Initiative. It is being organized by the CCAC, the ICCT and Mexico City.  dates: 26-27 September 2016  location: Mexico City, Mexico  contact: Denise Sioson, Diesel and HFC Initiative Coordinator, CCAC Secretariat  phone: +33-1-44-37-14-73  fax: +33-1-44 37-14-74  email: Denise.Sioson@unep.org www: http://www.ccacoalition.org/en/events/mexico-city-workshop-soot-free-urban-bus-fleets

The International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project 2016 Science Conference: This event will: highlight cutting edge scientific research on atmospheric chemistry; foster international collaborations on scientific research; engage early career scientists with an eye to the future; highlight scientists and scientific research from developing and emerging countries; and promote networking between scientists, policymakers and industry leaders. Approximately 600 scientists, industry leaders and representatives from major US funding agencies are expected to attend. CCAC WG Co-Chair Marcelo Mena, Chile, will make a presentation on the CCAC and the role it plays in protecting the atmosphere.  dates: 26-30 September 2016  location: Breckenridge, Colorado, US  contact: Sunday Leonard, Science Officer, CCAC Secretariat  phone: +33-1-44-37-14-73  fax: +33-1-44 37-14-74  email: Sunday.Leonard@unep.org www: http://www.ccacoalition.org/en/events/international-global-atmospheric-
chemistry-igac-project-2016-science-conference

CCAC Side Event: Nexus between Energy, Air Pollution, Public Health and Climate Change: This event, will take place on the sidelines of the World Sustainable Development Summit, which is taking place from 5-8 October in New Delhi, India. It will bring together policymakers, air pollution and climate science experts, civil society, business and financial institutions, and the media to highlight the importance of air pollutant reduction and its associated benefits related to human health, agriculture and climate. The workshop aims to target interventions in different sectors, such as residential cooking and transport to reduce their contributions to the particulate matter and Ozone concentrate.  dates: TBC  location: New Delhi, India  contact: Sunday Leonard, Science Officer, CCAC Secretariat  phone: +33-1-44-37-14-73  fax: +33-1-44 37-14-74  email: Sunday.Leonard@unep.org www: http://www.ccacoalition.org/en/events/world-sustainable-development-summit

28th Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol: MOP 28 is scheduled to consider a number of issues, including an amendment to eliminate HFCs and nominations for critical- and essential- use exemptions. OEWG 38 may reconvene prior to MOP 28, subject to availability of funds.  dates: 10-14 October 2016  location: Kigali, Rwanda contact: Ozone Secretariat  phone: +254-20-762-3851  fax: +254-20-762-0335  email: ozoneinfo@unep.org www: http://conf.montreal-protocol.org/

44th Session of the IPCC: The forty-fourth session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-44) will discuss the outline of the Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above preindustrial levels and related GHG emission pathways in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty. Other AR6 products under consideration are: the outline of the Methodology Report(s) to refine the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories; workshop on Climate Change and Cities; and an Expert Meeting on Mitigation, Sustainability and Climate Stabilization Scenarios.  dates: 17-20 October 2016  location: Bangkok, Thailand  contact: IPCC Secretariat  phone: +41-22-730-8208/54/84  fax: +41-22-730-8025/13  e-mail: IPCC-Sec@wmo.int www: http://www.ipcc.ch/scripts/_calendar_template.php?wg=8

Habitat III: The UN Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat III) aims to secure renewed political commitment for sustainable urban development, assess progress and accomplishments to date, address poverty and identify and address new and emerging challenges. The conference is expected to result in an action-oriented outcome document and the establishment of a “New Urban Agenda.”  dates: 17-20 October 2016  location: Quito, Ecuador  contact: Habitat III Secretariat  email: Habitat3Secretariat@un.org www: http://www.habitat3.org

70th Session of IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee: The Marine Environment Protection Committee of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) considers any matter within the IMO’s scope that is concerned with prevention and control of pollution from ships.  dates: 24-28 October 2016  location: London, England, UK  contact: IMO Secretariat  phone: +44 (0)20 7735 7611  fax: +44 (0)20 7587 3210  e-mail: info@imo.org www: http://www.imo.org/en/MediaCentre/MeetingSummaries/Pages/Default.aspx

Middle East and North Africa Region SLCP Workshop: This meeting is being organized by the UNEP Regional Office West Asia and IUAPPA.  dates: 26-27 October 2016  location: Amman, Jordan  contact: Elsa Lefèvre, SNAP Initiative Coordinator, CCAC Secretariat  phone: +33-1-44-37-14-73 fax: +33-1-44 37-14-74  email: Elsa.Lefevre@unep.org www: http://www.ccacoalition.org/en/events/middle-east-and-north-africa-region-slcp-workshop

Workshop on Soot-Free Buses in Asian Cities: This workshop is being organized to establish the technical framework for Asian cities to establish a new procurement strategy, guide public policy decisions around infrastructure investment, and engage industry partners towards identifying common obstacles and opportunities to accelerate the deployment of soot-free buses. The ICCT and UNEP are organizing the workshop. The CCAC Diesel Initiative has undertaken a two-year project, implemented by ICCT and UNEP, to secure commitments from 20 target cities to shift new bus purchases to soot-free emissions. Bangkok, Dhaka, Manila and Jakarta are targeted through this work. dates: 27-28 October 2016  location: Jakarta, Indonesia  contact: Denise Sioson, Diesel and HFC Initiative Coordinator, CCAC Secretariat  phone: +33-1-44-37-14-73 fax: +33-1-44 37-14-74  email: Denise.Sioson@unep.org www: http://www.ccacoalition.org/en/events/workshop-soot-free-buses-asian-cities

19th CCAC Working Group: The 19th CCAC WG will be the preparatory session for the 8th HLA, taking place on the margins COP 22.  dates: 12 November 2016 (TBC) location: Marrakesh, Morocco  contact: James Morris, Partnership & Programme Officer, CCAC Secretariat  phone: +33-1-44-37-14-73 fax: +33-1-44 37-14-74  email: James.Morris@unep.org www: http://www.ccacoalition.org/en/events/19th-ccac-working-group-preparatory-session-8th-high-level-assembly

8th CCAC High Level Assembly: This event will take place on the margins of COP 22, and is expected to adopt a ministerial communiqué.  dates: 14 November 2016 location: Marrakesh, Morocco  contact: James Morris, Partnership & Programme Officer, CCAC Secretariat  phone: +33-1-44-37-14-73 fax: +33-1-44 37-14-74  email: James.Morris@unep.org www:  http://www.ccacoalition.org/en/events/8th-ccac-high-level-assemblyy

UNFCCC COP 22: During COP22, parties will, inter alia, begin preparations for entry into force of the Paris Agreement.  dates: 7-18 November 2016  location: Marrakesh, Morocco  contact: UNFCCC Secretariat  phone: +49-228 815-1000  fax: +49-228-815-1999  email: secretariat@unfccc.int www: http://unfccc.int/

20th CCAC Working Group: The 20th CCAC WG and associated meetings will take place in Santiago, Chile. A science-policy dialogue will precede the WG meeting.  dates: 24-28 April 2017 (TBC)  location: Santiago, Chile  contact: James Morris, Partnership & Programme Officer, CCAC Secretariat  phone: +33-1-44-37-14-73 fax: +33-1-44 37-14-74  email: James.Morris@unep.org www: http://www.ccacoalition.org/en/events/20th-ccac-working-group