Volume 172 Number 36 | Friday, 29 September 2017
Summary of the 21st Meeting of the CCAC Working Group
25-26 September 2017 | Paris, France
The 21st meeting of the Climate & Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (CCAC) Working Group took place from 25-26 September 2017, in Paris, France. The Working Group oversees the cooperative activities of the Coalition, and is the CCAC body that makes regular decisions on operational matters.
The meeting aimed to: prepare for the CCAC High Level Assembly (HLA) taking place in November 2017, in the margins of the 23rd session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 23) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); zoom in on the CCAC objective to ‘leverage finance at scale’ and consider the draft CCAC finance strategy; and consider and discuss next steps on how to address the proposed Pathway Approach for short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs).
The Working Group meeting brought together over 170 participants from Partner States, international organizations and civil society. It featured keynote presentations, panel presentations, breakout groups and discussions.
The meeting consisted of eight sessions. On Monday, after an opening session, participants heard a presentation by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) on its report “Investing in Climate, Investing in Growth”. They then engaged in a session on the Global Pathway Approach, which is based on the recognition that the path the world chooses to reach its ambitious long-term climate target is as important as the target itself, and that early mitigation of SLCPs helps to meet the sustainable development goal (SDG) of climate action. Participants then split into six breakout groups to discuss how the objectives of a Global Pathway Approach can be demonstrated to catalyze global action, and how the Coalition and other fora can support them.
In the afternoon, participants focused on voluntary actions in the 2017 HLA “Bonn Communiqué,” with presentations and discussions on agriculture and municipal solid waste (MSW). The day ended with five breakout groups on building support for the actions and Communiqué.
On Tuesday morning, participants heard reports from the breakout groups that had taken place on Monday. They then engaged in a session on leveraging financing at scale, which took place in the morning and afternoon and included a panel on financing and a session on the draft CCAC finance strategy. The rest of the day featured sessions on: the 2017 HLA, with discussions on the draft HLA agenda and the draft HLA Communiqué; and housekeeping, with updates from CCAC initiatives and from the CCAC Secretariat on planned activities, as well as discussion of the Secretariat’s budget.
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE CCAC
The CCAC is a voluntary international coalition of governments, international organizations, the private sector and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and aims to: reduce emissions of SLCPs; avoid millions of premature deaths; promote food and energy security; and address near-term climate change.
The CCAC was established in February 2012 by Bangladesh, Canada, Ghana, Mexico, Sweden and the US, together with UN Environment. It is open to countries and non-state actors, and currently has 119 Partners consisting of 57 countries, 17 intergovernmental organizations and 45 NGO Partners.
SLCPs include black carbon, methane (precursor to tropospheric ozone) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). These pollutants have a near-term warming influence on the climate, and in many cases, are also harmful air pollutants that affect human health, agriculture and ecosystems. The CCAC’s objectives include raising awareness of the impacts and transformative mitigation strategies of SLCPs. It also seeks to: enhance and develop new national and regional actions; promote best practices and showcase successful efforts; and improve scientific understanding of SLCP impacts and mitigation strategies.
INITIATIVES: The CCAC works on 11 initiatives, of which seven are sectoral and four cross-cutting. Its seven sectoral initiatives include:
- Bricks (mitigating SLCPs and other pollutants from brick production);
- Diesel (reducing black carbon emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles and engines);
- HFCs (promoting HFC-alternative technology and standards);
- Household energy (reducing SLCPs from household cooking and domestic heating);
- Oil and Gas (accelerating methane and black carbon reductions from oil and natural gas production); and
- Waste (mitigating SLCPs from MSW).
The CCAC has four cross-cutting initiatives on: financing mitigation of SLCPs; regional assessments; supporting national action planning on SLCPs; and health.
GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE: The CCAC governance structure includes the HLA, the Working Group, the Steering Committee, the Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) and the Secretariat.
The HLA consists of ministers of State Partners and Heads of non-state Partners, and meets at least once a year to provide strategic guidance and leadership to the CCAC, including setting policy, taking stock of progress and initiating future efforts. The Working Group includes focal points from each CCAC Partner, and convenes at least twice a year to oversee activities.
The Steering Committee is composed of the two CCAC Co-Chairs and up to six State partners, two representatives of international organizations and two NGO representatives. The Steering Committee meets monthly to provide oversight support and recommendations to the HLA and the Working Group. The SAP consists of 15 scientists, including, ex-officio, the UN Environment Chief Scientist. The CCAC Secretariat is hosted by UN Environment in its Economy Division in Paris, France.
RECENT MEETINGS: The 8th HLA convened in Marrakech, Morocco, on 14 November 2016, in parallel with UNFCCC COP 22. The Assembly addressed the implementation of the Paris Agreement, seeking to take advantage of the growing momentum to reduce SLCPs. It proposed specific action on methane in the oil and gas sector, and on black carbon in the transport sector, as well as the development of national black carbon inventories.
20th CCAC Working Group and Science-Policy Dialogue: The 20th meeting of the CCAC Working Group took place from 26-27 April 2017, in Santiago de Chile, Chile. Participants: set priorities for 2017 and 2018 to ramp up efforts to reduce SLCPs, especially black carbon; planned for the 2017 HLA; agreed on follow-up actions on previous HLA commitments; decided on future funding for initiatives; and showcased action to access financing for projects and the CCAC Trust Fund.
REPORT OF THE 21ST MEETING OF THE CCAC WORKING GROUP
Opening the meeting on Monday morning, 25 September, CCAC Working Group Co-Chair Dany Drouin (Canada) indicated that the meeting’s objectives are to define the next steps for the Pathway Approach for SLCPs, focus on the financing task team, and continue discussions relating to the HLA in November 2017. He welcomed the Democratic Republic of Congo, Pakistan, Viet Nam and the Economic Community of West African States as the latest CCAC Partners. Drouin presented, and participants approved, the meeting’s agenda (WG/SEP2017/01rev2).
PARTNERS IN ACTION: OECD
Simon Buckle, Head of Climate, Biodiversity and Water Division, OECD, presented on climate, growth and low-emissions pathways. He described the OECD report ‘Investing in Climate, Investing in Growth,’ which was developed in support of the 2017 German presidency of the G20. He explained that the report provides an assessment of how governments can generate inclusive economic growth in the short term, while making progress towards climate goals to secure sustainable long-term growth.
Buckle stressed the need to integrate economic and climate policies and improve enabling environments. He also described the economic consequences of outdoor air pollution and outlined how to deliver on the Paris Agreement, noting that countries’ pathways vary depending on their socioeconomic context. He underlined the need for more granular reporting requirements rather than simply looking at greenhouse gases (GHGs) cumulatively. Buckle pointed to non-climate drivers of action on SLCPs, such as health or impacts on the Arctic.
In ensuing discussions, Switzerland said environmental performance reviews should take SLCPs into account. Responding to participants’ questions about methane emissions from different agriculture sectors, Buckle indicated that one of the key drivers of agricultural emissions is the number of ruminants, and pointed to existing methods for reducing emissions from rice production. Moldova underlined the importance of technology transfer, and Buckle noted that this is a priority area under the Paris Agreement.
INTRODUCTION: Co-Chair Drouin opened the session, emphasizing the importance of the dialogue between scientists and policy makers, and reiterating the meeting’s objective to outline next steps.
Drew Shindell, Professor at Duke University and CCAC Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) Chair, underscored that the temperature pathway that the world chooses to take to reach its ambitious long-term climate target is as important as the target itself. He explained that the Pathway Approach proposed by the SAP establishes a near-term goal of halving the rate of warming in the next 25 years.
Nathan Borgford-Parnell, CCAC Secretariat, outlined the history of the Coalition’s meetings and decisions that led to the development of the Pathway Approach, including the SAP’s presentation of a draft paper on the Pathway Approach in September 2016, and the decision by the Working Group in April 2017 to establish a Pathway Task Team.
Vigdis Vestreng, Norwegian Ministry of the Environment, presented the discussion paper on the Global Pathway Approach (WG/SEP2017/04) prepared by the Pathway Task Team. She explained that the objective of the Global Pathway Approach is to define a measurable pathway for the world to follow to achieve its collective near-term SDGs and long-term Paris Agreement targets. She added that to achieve this objective, the Pathway Task Team has articulated additional objectives that will be refined during this meeting.
Carmen Gloria Contreras Fierro, Chilean Environment Ministry, emphasized that countries such as Chile, with economies in development, often face the dual challenge of air pollution and climate change, noting that 10 million people (approximately 65% of the total population) in Chile are exposed to high levels of fine particulate matter air pollutants. The Pathway approach, she argued, establishes a path that simultaneously achieves near-term air quality and climate goals. She added that it is important to Chile as it allows for the evaluation of the near-term impacts of both GHG and SLCP policies simultaneously, thereby ensuring efficiency and effectiveness, and reaping near-term benefits while working to meet long-term goals.
Vesteng then outlined national milestones in relation to combining air pollution and climate policy research in Norway. She highlighted: a 2013 action plan on SLCPs; a 2015 white paper on low-carbon transition; and a 2016 mandate to carry out an integrated study on SLCPs and climate. She said the CCAC’s work has been “inspiring” and noted the challenge of staying on top of scientific knowledge, in particular in relation to black carbon.
Solrun Skjellum, Norwegian Ministry of the Environment, presented on Norway’s strategy towards using the Pathway Approach, which was initially met with skepticism in her country. She noted that although the integration of different disciplines was agreed to in principle, the organizational structure did not support this integration. Skjellum added that through communication, coordination and champions, the Pathway Approach was successful applied. She stressed that Norway continues to focus on underscoring mutual short- and long-term climate effects, co-benefits and cost benefits.
Vestreng advised that when undertaking the Pathway Approach in their home countries, Partners should be conscious that awareness raising takes time and does not necessarily lead to action,. She also called for: using clear terminology, for example, using the term “black carbon” rather than “SLCP;” adopting a common understanding of the Pathway Approach; looking at short- and long-term climate effects rather than the impacts of GHGs and SLCPs; and the integration of approaches.
Shindell presented on the recently-developed ‘pathway analysis tool,’ which utilizes well-established methods to evaluate the temperature response of mitigation measures. Using examples of emissions scenarios provided by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), Norway and Finland, he explained how the tool calculates global average temperature change over time caused by emissions, and can be used to show the implications of fast or delayed mitigation. He highlighted the importance of using mean temperature instead of absolute temperature, noting that it allows for analysis of near-term impacts as well as of non-climate benefits such as human health, which are improved with early emissions reductions. He outlined next steps, including making the tool more user-friendly, testing it in different countries with varying emissions profiles, addressing regional differences, and possibly extending to longer timescales.
Participants asked questions regarding: how different industries contribute to achieving the overall target; how to measure black carbon; what sectors were ‘low-hanging fruit,’ given that benefits were cumulative; and what additional work could be done by the Montreal Protocol Article 5 countries (developing countries) in response to the phase-out of HFCs. Others emphasized the importance of the interface between policy and research, including dissemination.
Shindell stated that the Kigali Amendment provides a means for enhanced action on HFC phase-out. Johan Kuylenstierna, Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) and SAP member, mentioned a tool being developed in West Africa by the CCAC, where countries are able to set priorities in different sectors, based on the results of common calculations. Vestreng encouraged CCAC country Partners to continue to work with scientists, particularly as new findings are released every day.
COUNTRY PERSPECTIVES AND CONCLUSION ON NEXT STEPS: Contreras Fierro explained that six breakout groups would be constituted, namely four for country Partners, one for intergovernmental organizations and one for NGOs. She explained that the breakout groups will address the following question: How could the objectives of a Global Pathway Approach be demonstrated to catalyze global action, and how can the Coalition and other fora support them?
She outlined options to move forward, including: sharing readily available data; utilizing a harmonized approach across Coalition countries to evaluate and quantify collective action of coalition Partners toward meeting the Global Pathways Approach objectives; and sharing and developing case studies and best practices.
VOLUNTARY ACTIONS IN 2017 HLA “BONN COMMUNIQUÉ”
INTRODUCTION: On Monday afternoon, Working Group Co-Chair Drouin introduced the draft HLA Bonn Communiqué (WG/SEP2017/03), which was drafted by the Co-Chairs in consultation with the Steering Committee, taking into account the comments provided by the Working Group. He noted that it includes a preamble as well as sections on the Coalition’s accomplishments, priority actions, the Kigali Amendment, the role of cities and sub-national actors, financing, and conclusions.
Drouin explained that the accompanying factsheets on agriculture and waste are intended to complement the HLA Bonn Communiqué by providing more details on the voluntary actions. He indicated that Partners had submitted numerous comments to the draft, mainly touching upon the need for the Communiqué to be more action-oriented, and to identify the Communiqué’s audience and the appropriate level of detail. He also called for shortening the Communiqué in order to convey it more easily to ministers, adding that factsheets could complement it by providing more detail.
AGRICULTURE: Pam Pearson, International Cryosphere Climate Initiative and Co-Chair of the CCAC Agriculture Initiative, informed participants that the Initiative met the previous day. She reported that the Initiative had identified the need to make the Communiqué “more digestible” for ministers and to provide them with a menu of actions. She outlined the Initiative’s proposal that in Bonn, governments commit to a plan of action in the agriculture sector in four key areas: enteric fermentation; rice paddy; manure management; and open burning, and then report on these actions in 2018.
Bala Abubakar Bappa, Nigerian Ministry of Environment, described his country’s successful experience in: identifying partners; forming advisory and taskforce groups; raising awareness; and undertaking projects in the four key areas highlighted by Pearson.
Victoria Hatton, Ministry for Primary Industries of New Zealand, identified self-determined action plans as a priority for the Communiqué and called on the CCAC Secretariat to provide a platform to share such plans. She cautioned against overcomplicating the reporting, suggesting that it could overlap with other reporting mechanisms, such as those under the UNFCCC.
Harry Clark, New Zealand Agricultural GHG Research Center and Associate SAP Member, remarked that many countries are already taking actions to reduce methane, but current accounting does not recognize them. He added that comprehensive accounting is hindered by a lack of coordination between scientific institutions and ministries. He also mentioned the need to look towards in-depth institutional strengthening for participating countries.
In ensuing discussions, Switzerland commended the Communiqué, but warned against compulsory components, stressing the need to respect ministries’ competencies. He questioned the need for action plans, underlining they may not be well received in his country. Canada emphasized the importance of measuring, reporting and verification (MRV), particularly given the challenges of smallholder farming. In response to Switzerland, he said the proposed menu of actions would be non-binding and may address varied interests.
Australia voiced concern over the language in the Communiqué regarding open burning, noting it may restrict indigenous practices of early dry season burning. Pearson explained that the intention of the strong wording in the Communiqué is to strive for a level of commitment. She added that the Initiative should encourage environment and agriculture ministers to engage in dialogue.
Costa Rica mentioned that based on pilot projects in the coffee sector in her country, mechanisms to measure and finance reduction initiatives were found to be necessary.
Colombia noted that there are constraints to measuring emissions in rural areas. Uruguay called for reference to the intensity of emissions in the livestock sector. Moldova urged sharing of good practices. Mexico called attention to old agricultural machinery that uses diesel fuel.
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE: Anja Schwetje, German Federal Environment Agency and MSW Initiative member, underlined that action on MSW is embedded in previous commitments, including the Global Action Agenda and many nationally determined contributions (NDCs) under the Paris Agreement. She explained that the MSW Initiative was asked to re-shape the proposals related to waste made in April by the Working Group. She said that as a result of this re-visiting, three proposals are suggested on: diverting organic waste from landfills; capturing landfill gas; and reducing open burning.
On diverting organic waste from landfills, she noted that the proposal is in line with SDG 12 (responsible consumption). She invited participants to discuss whether the proposal’s scope includes both food loss and food waste, or is restricted to food waste alone. She also highlighted a fourth proposal to establish, with the private sector, a voluntary partnership on avoiding methane emissions from large biodegradable waste generators.
On capturing and utilizing remaining methane emissions, Schwetje explained that the relevant actions relate to supporting the capture and utilization of this methane. She also invited Partners to discuss whether they would endorse all four proposed actions, or whether they would want to prioritize some of them.
In the ensuing discussions, Schwetje clarified that the proposed partnership with private entities would strive to ensure that large waste generators assume responsibility for their organic waste. Sweden asked whether reporting on progress will be differentiated between agriculture and waste, or whether there will be a single set of reporting.
Belgium suggested that the MSW Initiative reach out to the Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy, which brings together local and regional authorities voluntarily committed to implementing EU climate and energy objectives in their territory. Morocco called for an exchange of experience and technology to support developing countries in finding solutions to their waste issues. Two participants drew attention to the momentum in the regulation of oil and gas methane.
BUILD SUPPORT FOR THE ACTIONS AND COMMUNIQUÉ: On Monday afternoon, Drouin highlighted the importance of ministerial support and encouraged breakout groups to increase coordination internally in their governments. He indicated that the late afternoon breakout groups would consist of one in Spanish, one in French, and three in English. He said the groups will aim to develop options for engaging both state and non-state partners in building support for the voluntary actions and mutual cooperation.
REPORT BACK FROM BREAKOUT GROUPS ON BUILDING SUPPORT FOR THE ACTIONS AND COMMUNIQUE
On Tuesday morning, CCAC Working Group Co-Chair Drouin invited the breakout groups to report on their discussions from the previous day.
Reporting on behalf of the five breakout groups on the Pathway Approach, Vestreng noted general support for the Pathway and stressed that: multiple benefits are critical for analysis; the Approach will be different between regions and countries; and information on mitigation costs is key to promoting implementation of measures. She underscored the importance of having a common message, and recommended that: the mandate of the task team on the Pathway be extended; case studies be available upon request; and tools be tested in various countries with different emissions profiles. She requested that the SAP produce a paper before the April 2018 Working Group meeting, on relevant issues, including considerations of: short- and long-term impacts; regional differences; and terminology.
Five participants then reported on the breakout group discussions on next steps, which were held on Monday afternoon. Bert Van Loon, Belgium Environment Ministry, on behalf of the Francophone group, recommended presenting best practices at the regional, national and city levels. He stated that at some levels, capacities are insufficient, particularly at subregional level, but noted that this may be too sensitive to include in the Communiqué. He also suggested taking socioeconomic factors into account during implementation and connecting the Communiqué with international agreements on climate change and air pollution.
Luisa Fernanda Gonzalez, Environment Ministry of Colombia, on behalf of the Spanish-speaking group, called for institutional coordination and recommended communicating non-climate co-benefits of SLCP mitigation to draw ministers’ attention to issues. She urged the adoption of a systemic rather than linear approach and stated that a shift towards sustainable consumption is key.
The other three speakers reported from the English-speaking groups. Chris Malley, Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), noted agreement that the Communiqué should be shorter, use less technical language and include tangible commitments. He indicated support for: focusing on only two sectors; placing activities in these sectors in a broader context; emphasizing cross-sectoral approaches; and highlighting a basket of choices of possible activities to address both agricultural and waste emissions.
Arnico K. Panday, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), called for rethinking the purpose of the Communiqué and shortening it. He said the Communiqué should include concrete new information and actions so as to attract ministers’ attention, and could be linked to the NDCs and the Paris Agreement. He stressed the need for urgent methane mitigation and for involving ministers other than those from environment in addressing emissions from the agriculture and waste sectors.
On the Communiqué, Ahmad Noubani, Jordan, noted the need for: further consultation across ministries; pragmatism about what can be achieved; a focus on taking and enabling action by others; creativity in relation to cooperation; experience sharing; and funding for hands-on assistance. On actions, he suggested that the November Working Group meeting discuss: how to implement actions; what type of cooperation will enable implementation; and what kind of cooperation can be provided.
In the ensuing discussions, Sweden stressed the need to include SLCPs in the broader climate agenda. Canada called for including the outcome of Monday’s discussions in other documents, and keeping the Communiqué “short and punchy.”
Mexico informed Partners about the devastating impact of recent earthquakes. She indicated her country’s willingness to apply several of the Coalition’s initiatives and guidance to rebuild better: transform the bricks production (as in the case of Nepal) using climate-friendly building materials and equipment; and introduce clean cookstoves and other measures. She pointed to the opportunity for the Coalition to provide early assistance to this end. Partners expressed their solidarity with the Mexican people affected by the earthquakes.
LEVERAGING FINANCING AT SCALE
PANEL ON FINANCING: On Tuesday morning, Co-Chair Drouin introduced the panel.
Valerio Micale, Climate Policy Initiative, provided an overview of current trends in climate finance. While noting that the trend is optimistic, he underscored that “we are still far behind what is needed for the two degree pathway.” He identified barriers that affect incentives and investors’ ability to invest in new technologies, including: policy gaps; knowledge gaps on investment opportunities and on incorporating climate risks in investment decision making; and risk, viability and funding gaps. Stressing the need to unlock innovation, he presented the Lab, a public-private partnership that brings together and catalyzes broader government and private sector efforts to scale up climate finance.
Dan McDougall, CCAC Secretariat, presented on barriers to accessing funding. He described knowledge barriers, including the highly technical nature of SLCPs; analytic barriers, including the limited modeling capacity within SLCPs; the barrier of diversity, such as the range of initiatives and regional conditions; and access to capital barriers, such as competition with other climate projects. He highlighted solutions, including: continuing to focus on a strong enabling environment; increasing focus on technical support; leveraging trust fund sources; and structuring projects to engage the private sector.
Renco Fischer, Programme Officer, UNEP Finance Initiative, underscored that the “tremendous” climate finance gap cannot be bridged purely through public finance. Noting that private investments can only go towards activities that are commercially viable, he stated that many solutions and technologies to mitigate SLCPs already exist. Fischer explained that even in these cases, private financing is insufficient. He then identified barriers to private investments and called for: nuanced and holistic CCAC strategies to unlock private sector investments; and adequate policy and regulatory frameworks.
In the discussions, the ClimateWorks Foundation urged the CCAC Secretariat and the panelists to provide more specific, rather than general, suggestions for financing. Peru recommended greater involvement by the academic community. Mali stated that mobilization and access to funding are challenges. Sweden praised the efforts of the CCAC Working Group and the Financing Task Team. The US commended the work carried out by the Lab.
CASE STUDIES: Ruth Coutto, UN Environment, for the Global Environment Facility (GEF), outlined the opportunities for GEF financing, noting areas of overlap between the CCAC and the GEF including, HFCs, agriculture and diesel. She highlighted ongoing impact programmes relevant to the CCAC, such as the programme on sustainable cities. She underscored the requirement of co-financing and pointed to opportunities for least developed countries to seek grants through the Green Climate Fund (GCF). Drouin pointed to the importance of including co-benefits in GEF funding proposals.
Victor Gancel, Climate-KIC, presented on the work of his organization, the EU’s largest climate innovation programme. He focused on the Low Carbon City Lab, which provides funding to cities, as well training and capacity building. He gave examples of the Lab’s activities, including MRV for waste and sustainable infrastructure finance training.
Ray Minjares, ICCT, presented the findings of an upcoming paper on soot-free bus financing. He explained that using a total cost ownership perspective that includes fueling costs, the study finds that clean technologies are more affordable than the technologies currently used. He added that a transition to soot-free technology would pay for itself in 17 of the 20 cities over a period of five to nine years.
Romina Picolotti, Institute for Governance & Sustainable Development (IGSD), introduced the work of an ad hoc taskforce of Latin American and Caribbean countries, which assists countries in applying for GCF funding. She explained that the taskforce identified priority sectors for developing GCF project proposals, namely transport, agriculture and bricks. She concluded by highlighting challenges related to the length and cost of the GCF proposal submission process and stressed the opportunity to link implementation of the Kigali Amendment with energy efficiency.
Chile and Colombia then presented their experience in applying for GCF and GEF funding, emphasizing coordination among ministries in order to bring projects to life.
Mats Eriksson, ICIMOD, described a project led by his organization that aimed at improving the efficiency of brick kilns in Asia, noting that the project received initial funding from the CCAC. He called the project a ‘success story,’ as it led to higher quality bricks, reduced emissions and a decreased carbon footprint, as well as opened the door to other funding opportunities from the UK Department for International Development and the GCF.
María Amparo Martínez Arroyo, Mexican National Institute for Ecology and Climate Change, presented on an SLCP GEF-funded project in her country that resulted in emissions reductions, increased collaboration and improved capacity, and that currently serves as a platform for other projects.
In the ensuing discussions, the World Meteorological Organization drew attention to its work on the Integrated Global Greenhouse Gas Information System, which uses atmospheric observations and carried out inverse modelling to identify potential mitigation sources and reduce uncertainty of national reporting. Jordan reported that it is in the process of applying for GCF funding for an electric bus project. Canada highlighted a collaborative project with Chile on methane reduction.
CCAC FINANCE STRATEGY: Dan McDougall, CCAC Secretariat, presented the report of the Financing Task Team and elements for the proposed CCAC finance strategy (WG/SEP2017/05), stressing that at the national level, it aims to create the enabling conditions under which actions can take place. Recognizing that the CCAC does not have the capacity to work on individual projects, he explained that the Coalition provides broad support for project implementation. He stated that the CCAC’s first five years have been “very successful” and that the initiatives are very diverse. Noting that no single model of financing is applicable universally, he emphasized the need for tailored approaches relative to the sector, as well as to the project’s circumstances.
In the ensuing discussions, Switzerland noted that the proposed strategy is not “action oriented” and questioned the benefits to ministers of launching it at the HLA. Co-Chair Drouin suggested, and participants agreed, to adopt the proposed strategy “in principle,” and invite comments from Partners in order for the finance task team to produce a new version by the end of October, with a view to the Working Group and then the HLA officially approving it in November.
UN Environment underscored that governments’ endorsement is key for financial institutions. The World Bank agreed, adding that if ministers do not talk about the strategy, “there would be very little traction for it.”
The International Union of Air Pollution Prevention and Environmental Protection Associations preferred a strategy that is not detailed and avoids directly funding projects. He recommended addressing enabling conditionsfor leveraging funding for SLCP mitigation. McDougall clarified that the proposed strategy does not get into direct project funding. The European Commission indicated that it would make sure SLCPs is on the radar of the European Investment Bank.
2017 HIGH LEVEL ASSEMBLY
On the preparations for the 2017 HLA, Drouin introduced the draft agenda (WG/SEP2017/02), stating that the date is set for 14 November, but the time is still to be confirmed. He outlined the agenda items, including: a keynote address; a call to action; financing, including specific guidance for ministers; and the HLA Communiqué.
On the draft agenda, Switzerland urged members to encourage ministers to report on the year’s achievements, in order to motivate countries to follow through on their promises. IGSD requested that HFCs be considered in the agenda. The US encouraged Partners to have a conversation with ministers regarding implementation prior to the HLA. Participants approved the draft agenda with these suggested changes. Co-Chair Drouin invited suggestions for keynote speakers to be sent to the Secretariat.
Regarding the Communiqué, the ClimateWorks Foundation stated that it should be brief, powerful and inspiring, be framed as an ongoing desire to cut methane emissions and include non-climate benefits. Mali raised concern about the ability of ministers to attend the HLA. Helena Molin Valdés, Head of the CCAC Secretariat, responded that the HLA was scheduled to coincide with the UNFCCC COP’s high-level segment and that agriculture ministers would be encouraged to attend.
Neeraja Penumetcha, Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, reported progress on the work of the Household Energy Initiative, noting that lead Partners will be able to present a revised initiative strategy to the April meeting of the Working Group.
Andrin Fink, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, provided an update on the Bricks Initiative, explaining that lead Partners have developed a concept note to revise the Initiative’s 2013 strategy. He noted that key challenges identified will mark priorities in the new strategy, including: sustainability; contributing to NDCs, nationally appropriate mitigation actions, and others; and moving to scale. He also underlined the need for the Initiative to better communicate its achievements, including by creating links to the SDGs and highlighting co-benefits.
Reto Thönen, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, reported on the work of the Demonstration Impact task force, which was established in 2014. He indicated that the task force’s mission has been fulfilled, pointing to the approval of indicators, the definition and testing of a methodology, and the launch of a web-based tool. He presented results that have been collected on the CCAC’s work on: catalyzing ambitious action; mobilizing robust support; enhancing science and knowledge; and leveraging finance at scale.
Molin Valdés introduced the activity update and proposed Secretariat budget 2018-2019 (WG/SEP2017/07). Recalling that the CCAC is celebrating its fifth anniversary, she explained that the annual report will include highlights and trends from the previous five years, as well as from 2017 specifically, and Partners’ efforts. She invited feedback on the draft by 6 October. Regarding the Trust Fund, she noted that nearly US$80 million has been pledged in total since its creation, US$49 million has been allocated to initiatives to date, and the current annual budget for the Secretariat is US$4 million. She noted that the Secretariat budget includes: support to governance meetings and travel costs of developing country delegates; Trust Fund management; science and SAP support; coordination and support to initiatives; and financing for the SLCP Solution Center with expert assistance to countries.
In the ensuing discussions, Switzerland, supported by the US and the European Commission, expressed reluctance to approve the two-year budget for the Secretariat given the outlook of the Trust Fund. The US requested clarification regarding the funding of the Secretariat’s activities and the project support costs that support UN Environment for administration rather than implementation. Molin Valdés clarified that the UN General Assembly had agreed on a 13% project support cost for extra-budgetary resources allocated to the UN for facilitation services. She explained that this amount was exceptionally reduced to 8% on implementation (activity) funds for the CCAC.
Co-Chair Drouin suggested, and participants agreed, to adopt the budget for 2018 and revisit the funding situation at future meetings.
Soraya Smaoun, UN Environment, provided an update on the plans for the third meeting of the UN Environment Assembly (UNEA). She listed the events scheduled to take place around the Assembly, including the Global Major Groups and Stakeholders Forum, the Science Policy Business Forum and the Sustainable Innovation Expo. She provided an overview of the UN Environment Executive Director’s background report “Towards a pollution-free planet.” Smaoun outlined the resolutions submitted to the UNEA Secretariat, highlighting three on: exposure to lead in paint; air quality in cities; and environment and health.
Regarding plans for COP 23, Molin Valdés affirmed that the CCAC at COP 23 will be actively participating in many segments of the Marrakech Partnership for Global Climate Action. She also highlighted the Preparatory Working Group on 11 November, the HLA on 14 November, and several side events taking place throughout the Marrakech Partnership agenda, including the Climate and Clean Air Award Ceremony. The World Health Organization confirmed that Health Day at COP 23 will be a 1.5-hour event rather than a full day.
Drouin noted the Global Methane Forum scheduled to take place in Toronto, Canada, from 16-18 April 2018, to be followed by the CCAC working group and the Global Methane Initiative meetings. He then introduced the updated draft HLA Communiqué, which had been revised based on the request by participants on Monday to shorten it. He proposed, and participants agreed, to approve it at a later date, so that both Working Group Co-Chairs, including Alice Akinyi Kaudia (Kenya), would have time to reflect on the comments, including reference to new data on methane and to ‘unpack’ the acronyms. He invited participants to send feedback by 16 October and indicated that the final revised version will be sent back to all Partners by 18 October and be submitted to the HLA in Bonn in November. Chad requested that a French version be made available as soon as possible.
The Democratic Republic of Congo expressed his country’s commitment to the Coalition as its most recent Partner. Co-Chair Droin brought the meeting to a close at 6:14pm.
Latin American and Caribbean Carbon Forum 2017: The tenth Latin American and Caribbean Carbon Forum (LACCF) will bring together representatives from the private and public sectors to discuss the state of climate change mitigation in the region and engage with cooperating agencies, potential investors and service providers. dates: 18-20 October 2017 location: Mexico City, Mexico contact: Latin American Carbon Forum email: firstname.lastname@example.org: http://www.latincarbon.com/
People’s Climate Summit 2017: This event will take place immediately prior to, and in parallel with, UNFCCC COP 23. The People’s Climate Summit will provide a space for networking and information exchange that inspires and strengthens work on issues related to climate justice. dates: 3-7 November 2017 location: Bonn, Germany contact: People’s Climate Summit email: email@example.com: https://pcs2017.org/en/
UNFCCC COP 23: The 23rd session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 23) to the UN Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will be organized by Fiji and hosted at the headquarters of the UNFCCC Secretariat in Bonn, Germany. dates: 6-17 November 2017 location: Bonn, Germany contact: UNFCCC Secretariat phone: +49-228-815-1000 fax: +49-228-815-1999 email: firstname.lastname@example.org: http://unfccc.int/meetings/bonn_nov_2017/meeting/10084.php
CCAC High Level Assembly: The High Level Assembly of the Climate & Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (CCAC) will take place on the margins of UNFCCC COP 23. date: 14 November 2017 location: Bonn, Germany www: http://www.ccacoalition.org/en
Sustainable Innovation Forum 2017: This business-focused event will be held during COP 23. Now in its eighth year, the event is expected to gather over 600 participants, including national and local policy makers, UN agencies, business leaders, investors and international NGOs. Debate and discussions will be held on: renewable energy; circular economy; sustainable land and water management; carbon markets; climate finance; and climate innovation in emerging regions. The Forum is being organized by Climate Action, in partnership with UNEP. dates: 13-14 November 2017 location: Bonn, Germany contact: Climate Action phone: +44-20-7871-0173 fax: +44-20-7871-0101 email: email@example.com www: http://www.cop-23.org/
11th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Vienna Convention (COP11) and 29th Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol (MOP29): COP11 and MOP29 are scheduled to hold jointly to consider issues such as HFC management and implementation, and other matters. dates: 20-24 November 2017 location: Montreal, Canada contact: Ozone Secretariat phone: +254-20-762-3851 fax: +254-20-762-0335 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www: http://ozone.unep.org/en/meetings
Global Major Groups and Stakeholders Forum Prior to UNEA 3: Civil society will host the Global Major Groups and Stakeholders Forum, which facilitates the participation of civil society in UNEA and associated meetings. This event will take place prior to the third meeting of UNEA, which is taking place in Nairobi, Kenya, from 4-6 December 2017, and will address the theme of pollution. dates: 27-28 November 2017 location: Nairobi, Kenya www: http://www.unep.org/environmentassembly/
4th Global Science Conference on Climate Smart Agriculture: The 4th Global Science conference on Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) will be organized around the theme “Catalysing local innovations and action to accelerate scaling up of CSA.” The Conference is hosted by the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD). dates: 28-30 November 2017 location: Johannesburg, South Africa contact: Conference Organizers email: email@example.com: http://csa2017.nepad.org/en/
Third Meeting of the UN Environment Assembly: The third meeting of the UN Environment Assembly (UNEA 3), will be held, on an exceptional basis, from 4-6 December 2017, with the high-level segment taking place on 5-6 December, and the Open Ended Committee of Permanent Representatives from 29 November to 1 December. The event will consider the overarching theme of pollution. Outcomes are expected to include: a political declaration on pollution, linked to the SDGs; resolutions and decisions adopted by Member States to address specific dimensions of pollution; voluntary commitments by governments, private sector entities and civil society organizations to clean up the planet; and the Clean Planet Pledge, a collection of individual commitments to take personal action to end pollution in all its forms. dates: 4-6 December 2017 venue: UN Office in Nairobi, Kenya contact: Jorge Laguna-Celis, Secretary of Governing Bodies phone: +254-20-7623431 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org: http://www.unep.org/environmentassembly/
Cities & Climate Change Science Conference: The aim of the conference is to: identify key research and knowledge gaps related to cities and climate change; inspire global and regional research that will lead to peer-reviewed publications and scientific reports; and stimulate research on cities and climate change. Its outcomes are anticipated to support cities and citizens in building low-carbon, climate-resilient and sustainable cities towards the implementation of the Paris Agreement on climate change, the New Urban Agenda, and the SDGs. dates: 5-7 March 2018 location: Edmonton, Alberta, Canada contact: Conference organizers email: https://www.citiesipcc.org/en/ contact: www: http://www.citiesipcc.org/
Global Methane Forum: The Global Methane Forum will take place in April 2018, immediately preceding the CCAC Working Group meeting. Organized by the Global Methane Initiative, the CCAC, and Environment and Climate Change Canada, the Forum will focus on options for methane reduction and abatement activities. dates: 16-18 April 2018 location: Toronto, Canada www: http://www.globalmethane.org/
22nd Meeting of the CCAC Working Group: The next CCAC Working Group meeting will take place in Toronto, Canada. dates: 19-20 April 2018 location: Toronto, Canada www: http://www.ccacoalition.org/en