This session, moderated by Su Wei, NDRC, China, brought together senior representatives from international institutions to disseminate lessons learned from cooperation on climate change between China and those institutions, and explore new cooperation opportunities to address climate change adaptation.
Xie Zhenhua, Vice Chairman, NDRC, China, focused on the delivery and implementation of current commitments, as well as the negotiations under the Durban Platform to formulate policies by 2020, underscoring concrete measures and results. He introduced China’s National Climate Adaptation Strategy, which was welcomed by participants.
Describing the World Bank’s effort to generate a sense of urgency around climate change challenges and raise the ambition level in order to move towards low-carbon pathways, Rachel Kyte, Vice President of Sustainable Development, World Bank, thanked China for their cooperation and experience. Kyte outlined the growing partnership between China and the World Bank, underscoring that the dialogue taking place is positive, dynamic, open and frank.
Corrado Clini, Director General, Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea, Italy, noted that China’s commitment to low carbon development constitutes a strong signal in the present global economic environment. Referring to cooperation pathways between China and Italy, he said that the continuity of this work demonstrates the ways to address climate change and economic growth coincide.
William Ehlers, the Global Environment Fund (GEF) Secretariat, presented recent examples illustrating that climate change is threatening humanity, pointing to, inter alia, greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, energy efficiency and capacity building as keys to addressing the problem. Underscoring the GEF’s leading role and position to support the stewardship of the global environment, he referred to China’s leading role in developing fruitful cooperation.
Anton Hilber, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), stressed that the launch of China’s National Climate Adaptation Strategy constitutes an historic event. He provided examples of cooperation between China and Switzerland, noting that learning has been mutual and that this new knowledge should be shared with other countries as well.
Andrew Steer, President and CEO, World Resources Institute (WRI), pointed to the energy transition towards a low-carbon development pathway, noting that drawing from China’s experience and providing international understanding constitutes a fruitful two-way relationship.
Presentations were followed by a panel discussion. Xueman Wang, World Bank, stressed China’s leading role in carbon markets, green cities and adaptation strategies. Lv Xuedu, Asian Development Bank (ADB), underscored the solid background for further future cooperation on, inter alia, technology transfer, adaptation strategies and energy efficiency.
Goerild Heggelund, UNDP, addressed UNDP projects in China, underscoring south-south cooperation as a key area to focus on in the future.
Wang Jing, China Tianjin Exchange, focused on using markets to tackle climate change, addressing carbon markets in China, including their unique features and substantive framework.
Angelika Smuda, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Germany, stressed that no solution makes sense without the active participation of China and addressed the International Climate Initiative (ICI) as a main channel for funding.
This event moderated by Hiroyuki Kuroda, GISPRI, and Jun Arima, Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO), considered how to mobilize development and diffusion of innovative low-carbon technologies.
Damdin Dagvadorj, Special Envoy on Climate Change, Mongolia, affirmed the importance for developing countries to deploy low-carbon technologies in order to improve climate resilience and support sustainable development.
Hirofumi Katase, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan, highlighted that clean technologies are not currently market competitive with conventional technologies. He said that this can only be addressed through development and diffusion of innovative technologies, and enhancement of global cooperation, outlining Japanese contributions to these efforts.
Jean-François Gagné, International Energy Agency (IEA), shared the work of IEA to foster collaboration on technology potential and policy objectives by bringing together stakeholders to exchange best practices, key solutions and barriers in order to build consensus on goals and milestones.
Amjad Abdulla, Ministry of Housing and Environment, Maldives, highlighted the goal of the Maldives to become carbon neutral by 2020, noting they have the necessary policies in place to achieve this but that they lack the necessary technology and capacity, and welcoming cooperation with Japan to facilitate progress in this regard.
Yasushi Ninomiya, IEEJ, shared the preliminary results from research on the estimation of the CO2 emission reduction potential, highlighting that over 3.7 billion tonnes of CO2 by 2020 and 6 billion tonnes of CO2 by 2030 could be achieved from four major sectors in nine countries. He stressed that the simplified methodology was strategically used to increase consistency and accessibility of results for developing countries.
During the panel discussion, Gagné pointed to the lack of policy to direct the benefits of reductions back to capital investors, while Ninomiya cited financial mechanisms as key to overcoming bottlenecks.
Dolgorsuren Saruul, Ministry of Environment and Green Development, Mongolia, spoke on the importance of promoting policies to mitigate GHG emissions through technology transfer, explaining that the recently signed Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM) between Mongolia and Japan provides a more simplified methodology than Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).
On international collaboration projects, Gagné said some technologies are ideal for large collaborative projects, such as nuclear and carbon capture and storage (CCS), especially where there is high risk. He stressed that nations must identify their priorities in order to collaborate with like-minded countries.
Katase said countries should compare notes on successes and failures to determine best practices for technology development and dissemination. He also elaborated on how the JCM balances the needs for simplicity and environmental integrity through a very strict measurement, verification and reporting (MRV) process.
This side event, moderated by Mohammad Al-Hajri, Saudi Aramco, Saudi Arabia, discussed GCC energy efficiency programmes that promote efficiency in the industrial sector, public awareness about saving energy and technological innovations.
Khaled Al-Usaimi, Saudi Aramco, Saudi Arabia, addressed the company’s energy management programme, which aims to: reduce the energy Key Performance Indicators (KPI) in existing facilities by 2% annually; design existing facilities to be energy efficient; and promote energy efficiency at the national level. Focusing on the Saudi Energy Efficiency Program (SEEP), Al-Usaimi noted several of Saudi Aramco’s lead-by-example initiatives, including car fleet efficiency, efficient lighting and air-conditioner efficiency.
Al-Hajri presented the company’s water conservation system that focuses on maximization of wastewater reuse, water demand optimization and water loss minimization.
Rayan Moathen, Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu (RCJY), Saudi Arabia, addressed the energy efficiency applications in Yanbu and other industrial cities in Saudi Arabia that include the road network system, city mosques and the city bus service. Focusing on the Royal Commission’s Environmental Regulation-2010 (RCER-2010), he highlighted achievements, inter alia, reduction in: water consumption; CO2 emissions; operation costs; and power consumption.
Abdulah Alqahtani, Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), focused on energy efficiency in SABIC, which constitutes the second largest diversified chemical company globally. Referring to energy efficiency studies, heat integrated distillation, flare gas recovery and integration of solar energy, he concluded that SABIC’s targets to reduce energy, water consumption and GHG emissions are being achieved.
Approaching challenges and opportunities stemming from energy efficiency in the desert region, Rashid Al Shaali, Ministry of Energy, United Arab Emirates, addressed the demand, efficiency and conservation aspects of the energy pyramid. Al Shaali referred to the cooling degree day (CDD) indicator, as well as the psychrometric chart in order to underscore the importance of climate responsive design, notwithstanding needed investments.
Ahmed Abbas, Petrochemical Industrial Company (PIC), Kuwait, offered an overview of PIC’s history and focused on energy optimization and GHG reduction. He noted the implementation of six-sigma projects, stressing that PIC is committed to reduce its energy consumption by 15% by 2017.
Jameelah Al-Mutairi, Kuwait National Petroleum Company (KNPC), Kuwait, provided an overview of KNPC’s energy management using a comparison chart with the Solomon Energy Intensity Index (EII), which provides a benchmark for energy efficiency. She concluded that, although after recent efforts KNPC ranks well in the index, there is room for improvement.
During discussions, participants addressed the goals of the six-sigma implementation, new building requirements in the United Arab Emirates, whether the studies are at pilot stage and details concerning wastewater management.
Moderator Young Ku, CEO, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, framed the presentations on innovative approaches to low-carbon society with a focus on resource recovery.
Eugene Chien, President and Board Chairman, TAISE, presented successful mandatory recycling programmes in Taiwan that have reduced municipal waste, environmental burdens, GHG emissions, and introduced new employment potential.
Chung-Huang Huang, Taiwan Research Institute, shared innovations from Taiwan, including incentive mechanisms, institutions, policy, partnerships, and research and education, requiring harmonization in order to be effective and affordable.
Yi-Hung Chen, National Taipei University of Technology, presented how the company Singtex has used creative supply chain management to extend the life cycle of coffee ground waste into textiles, adding ultraviolet (UV) protection and odor control.
Shi-Long Chang, Vice President, China Steel Corporation, outlined corporate initiatives such as recycling scrap metal, waste acid and aluminum slag to minimize resources and energy consumption, resulting in lowered carbon emissions and zero industrial waste since 2002.
Bradley Tovosia, Ministry for Environment, Climate Change, Disaster Management and Meteorology, Solomon Islands, provided insights into the Solomon Island National Climate Change policy 2012-2017, formed as a result of several round table initiatives to exchange skills, knowledge, technology and experiences.
Robert Yang, ITRI, outlined ITRI’s emerging green energy technologies designed to deliver: cheaper and safer energy storage; larger and lighter wind turbines; cheaper and more efficient photovoltaics; CCS technologies; and advances in green building technologies.
Manuel López Luna, National Climate Change Director, Honduras, discussed advances in the national strategy to engage with stakeholders and put into place laws that ensure improved sustainable development, reduced dependency on oil and decreased carbon emissions.
Anthony Nyong, AfDB, moderated the event, highlighting green growth as a tool for sustainable development in the face of climate change. He stressed the importance of exchanging experiences and best practices. He said this event will help replicate successes and learn lessons from those that worked less well.
Ana Paulo Chichava, Vice-Minister, Ministry for the Coordination of Environmental Affairs, Mozambique, described the launch of their green growth roadmap at the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD, or Rio+20) in 2012. She emphasized the need for analysis of policy options, institutional capacity building, awareness raising, a green private sector, green financial flows, integration into the education system, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E).
Frank Sperling, AfDB, discussed the early lessons learned from the transition towards green growth. He said it requires more upstream diagnostics and a clear long-term vision. He stressed it is ultimately about development pathways, saying the entry points are, inter alia, poverty reduction strategies and country-level roadmaps.
Feng Zhao, AfDB, discussed building human capital for green growth and introduced AfDB’s strategic approach to interventions in this area. He said the take away messages are: green growth cannot occur in Africa without human capital development; environmental and human capital returns cannot be overlooked; the demographic dividend will only be realized with investment and job growth in critical services; and service quality improvements and universal access to social services will create large demand for skilled workers.
Samantha Smith, WWF International, emphasized the importance of natural capital and social justice, noting the need for inclusive development. She hoped that governments do not keep looking towards the solutions of the past, but rather leap over old technology, such as what happened with mobile phones in Africa.
Pedro Conceicao, UNDP African Bureau, said there is an imperative to change the nature of growth in Africa, and that green growth is fundamental to this transformation. He said numbers demonstrate that wellbeing would be improved if economic growth was combined with structural transformation.
Peter Carter, European Investment Bank (EIB), said EIB is mandated to provide long-term finance including for development in Africa. He highlighted that the “risk-reward ratio” must be worked on if private investment is to be attracted, such as through mainstreaming of payment for ecosystem services (PES) and helping the private sector measure and manage risks.
Eric Usher, UNEP, noted results including that 12 countries in Africa have policies in place to encourage renewable energy investment, saying it is one of the most exciting markets globally in this sector. He identified South Africa as a leader in mobilization of finance through the renewable energy feed-in tariffs (REFIT) programme, noting other leaders include Kenya and Mozambique.
Moderator Jonathan Smith, Qatar National Food Security Programme, opened the session by inviting each panelist to share progress made in climate related initiatives.
Majid Al-Suwaidi, Directorate of Energy and Climate Change, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, United Arab Emirates, reflected that although the United Arab Emirates has been a predominately fossil-fuel based economy, inspired by a strong leadership, efforts are being made to diversify.
Salman Al-Dossari, Saudi Aramco, Saudi Arabia, pointed to the vulnerability and volatility of the global oil market, along with unemployment, as drivers to diversify economic opportunities. He shared integrative approaches to develop natural resources that maximize value and generate social, environmental and economic benefits while increasing resilience to climate change.
Suzan Mohammed Alajjawi, Supreme Council for Environment, Bahrain, reviewed how Bahrain has launched national initiatives to implement renewable energy and energy efficiency projects, such as: tapping wind and solar energy; developing and retrofitting green buildings; and rolling out regulations to phase out incandescent lamps in the domestic sector.
Fahad bin Mohammed Al-Attiya, Chairman, Qatar National Food Security Programme, posed that economic diversification be evaluated with consideration of the constraints on available water and food resources, further suggesting that diversification efforts focus on the knowledge economy and education initiatives.
Axel Michaelowa, ClimateNet, expressed the need to close the gap, at the global level, between mitigation targets and emission paths. He noted that although the GCC has started with substantial ambitions, there is a need to fully integrate mitigation into national policy.
During discussions, panelists responded to questions about the role of the private sector by expressing interest and hope, with Al-Suwaidi adding that it is important for governments to create enabling environments for business through stable policy and regulations.
On the topic of translating regional actions to political capital, Al-Suwaidi explained that solutions must be achieved at the multilateral level, considering the regions dependency on imported food, and expressing hope that the voluntary mitigation actions taken within the region would inspire big emitters to follow the example. Al-Attiya shared his work to develop an alliance of countries to help address risks, prevent crisis and provide aid post-crisis.
Moderator Jochen Flasbarth, President, German Federal Environment Agency (UBA), introduced the session, underscoring the CCAC is complementary to the UNFCCC process. He emphasized co-benefits, saying 2 million premature deaths can be prevented per year by addressing short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs).
Tine Sundtoft, Minister of Climate and the Environment, Norway, noted the importance of reducing SLCPs in order to deliver “first-aid” to the climate. She said the Coalition will foster real and scaled-up actions on the ground, highlighting the launch of major initiatives. She noted that the elements in the Oslo Communiqué must be followed up with concrete action.
Rachel Kyte, Vice President of Sustainable Development, World Bank, said if SLCPs can be reduced, it will buy time for vulnerable countries to adapt to a 2°C world. She outlined developing innovative funding mechanisms to address SLCPs such as a “pay-for-performance fund” to provide incentives for methane reduction, and identified the possibility of similar mechanisms for black carbon.
Helena Molin Valdes, CCAC Secretariat, addressed initiatives underway, including on heavy duty diesel vehicles and engines, municipal solid waste, brick production, oil and natural gas production, household cooking and domestic heating, and support for national planning for action on SLCPs (SNAP). She noted upcoming initiatives, inter alia: the next high level assembly; update on results; launch of the Oil and Methane Partnership; and the Black Carbon Finance Study Group.
Nathaniel Koehane, Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), discussing the CCAC Oil and Methane Partnership, said the CCAC approach is complementary to other efforts in the same field, filling in gaps in current systems. He identified three proposed elements: preparing implementation plans identifying the shape and pace of participation; identifying and inventorying emitting sources, and developing a reduction commitment; and reporting results annually to CCAC and public recognizing efforts.
Audun Rosland, Norwegian Environment Directorate, offered the Norwegian perspective on national action plans for SLCPs, underlying the objectives, the scope as well as the challenges. Stressing that there is no international consensus for weighting factors for SLCPs, he provided tentative findings of the upcoming report. He concluded that while cost-effective measures targeted at SLCPs are possible, other factors matter as well.
Bahijjahtu Abubakar, Co-Chairperson, CCAC Nigeria, said joining the CCAC was natural for Nigeria since it is a developing country with ambitious targets and natural resources. She noted Nigeria will be the guinea pig of the CCAC, offering to be the first country hosting an agency to reduce and eliminate SLCPs in national development.
|UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) resources
Side events website
Schedule of all side events
Resources for the Warsaw Climate Change Conference - November 2013
Conference overall schedule
Conference daily programme
COP 19 website
CMP 9 website
SBI 39 website
SBSTA 39 website
ADP 2-3 website
Host country website
Gateway to the UN System’s Work on Climate Change
IISD RS resources
IISD RS summary report of the Thirty-seventh session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-37), 14-17 October 2013, Batumi, Georgia (English: HTML - PDF) (French: HTML - PDF) (Japanese: HTML - PDF)
IISD RS coverage of the Twelfth Session of IPCC WGI and IPCC-36, 23-26 September 2013, Stockholm, Sweden
IISD RS coverage of the Bonn Climate Change Conference - June 2013, 3-14 June 2013, Bonn, Germany
IISD RS coverage of Selected Side Events at the Bonn Climate Change Conference - June 2013, 3-13 June 2013, Bonn, Germany
IISD RS coverage of the Bonn Climate Change Conference - April 2013, 29 April - 3 May 2013, Bonn, Germany
IISD RS summary report of the UNFCCC Expert Meeting on Technology Roadmaps and Fifth Meeting of the Technology Executive Committee (TEC), 25 and 26-27 March 2013, Bonn, Germany (Technology Roadmaps summary: HTML - PDF) (TEC summary: HTML - PDF)
IISD RS coverage of the Doha Climate Change Conference - November 2012, 26 November - 8 December 2012, Doha, Qatar
IISD RS coverage of Selected Side Events at the Doha Climate Change Conference - November 2012, 26 November - 7 December 2012, Doha, Qatar
IISD RS coverage of the Bangkok Climate Change Conference - August 2012, 30 August - 5 September 2012, Bangkok, Thailand
IISD RS coverage of the Bonn Climate Change Conference - May 2012, 14-25 May 2012, Bonn, Germany
IISD RS coverage of Selected Side Events at the Bonn Climate Change Conference - May 2012, 14-25 May 2012, Bonn, Germany
IISD RS coverage of the Durban Climate Change Conference - November 2011, 28 November - 11 December 2011, Durban, South Africa
IISD RS coverage of Selected Side Events at the Durban Climate Change Conference - November 2011, 28 November - 9 December 2011, Durban, South Africa
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