The following events were covered by IISD Reporting Services on Monday, 10 December 2018:
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This event, moderated by Davinah Milenge Uwella, AfDB, convened to discuss regional hubs in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific, which have been created to support developing countries implement and enhance their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).
Speaking on the Africa NDC Hub, Amadou Hott, AfDB, noted initial concerns about individual countries implementing their NDCs without clear financial support, highlighting that this was the rationale behind engaging institutional partners to set up the African NDC Hub. He underlined the need for bankable projects for the private sector to finance, noting that the AfDB has been working with countries to train stakeholders on how to create these projects.
Mustapha Benjada, 4C Maroc, presented an overview of his organization, which is a center bringing together climate change stakeholders to:
Sara Guibunda, Mozambique, said that 80% of her country depends on smallholder agriculture, which makes food production vulnerable to climate change. She said that her country’s NDC has developed a roadmap to address climate change impacts in agriculture, which involves the ministries of environment, agriculture and finance.
Stressing that climate change actions deliver development benefits, Stephen King’uyu, Kenya, presented the country’s climate change action plan and finance policy, highlighting that, inter alia:
Chris Bartlett, Vanuatu, stressed that the NDC is the single most important tool to address climate change in the Pacific. He noted that many of the first NDCs were focused on energy, and stressed that the Pacific NDC Hub will address all sectors.
Crispin d’Auvergne, Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), spoke on accelerating NDC implementation through Caribbean climate leadership. He noted that the region’s first NDCs were rushed and based mostly on mitigation, but stating that the revised NDCs will be more robust, cross-sectoral and include adaptation. He highlighted the launch of the NDC Finance Initiative, which is a learning platform to support and enhance NDC implementation in the region.
Cameron Diver, Deputy Director General, Pacific Community, highlighted that one goal of the Pacific NDC Hub is placing the needs of the Pacific Island countries at the heart of the Hub. He said the Hub, once operational, will work on: developing NDC roadmaps; enhancing financing; mainstreaming NDCs into development plans; and sharing knowledge.
Jahan Chowdhury, NDC Partnership Support Unit, said that the project-specific perspective on the ground needs to adopte amulti-stakeholder, long-term programmatic approach. He also noted that the lack of engagement from finance and planning ministries in sustainable development will delay the mainstreaming of NDCs. He called for “synchronized dancing” between the public and private sectors in the implementation of NDCs.
Frank Rijsberman, Director General, GGGI, noted that before the Paris Agreement, GGGI was working to support countries in establishing national green growth strategies. He citied opportunities for regional development banks to assist in leveraging private sector and blended finance, and lauded the NDC hubs for promoting regional learning.
Ahmed Al Qabany, Islamic Development Bank, said that climate change is a strategic priority for the Bank, and underlined the importance of aligning voluntary national reviews (VNRs) related to implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals with NDCs to ensure countries are not replicating efforts.
Expressing interest in collaborating with the Caribbean and Pacific Hubs, Julia Wolf, FAO, highlighted the launch of the Thematic Working Group on Agriculture, Food Security and Land Use. She stressed the importance of engaging finance and planning ministries in the development and implementation of NDCs, but also hearing the needs of those in agriculture, food security and the private sector.
Veronica Jakarasi, Africa Group of Negotiators, called for the Hubs to help increase NDC ambition. She noted that countries need guidance to incorporate gender and human rights in their NDCs, but underlined that the guidance should not be too prescriptive. She said that if countries are using markets for NDC implementation, information is needed on how to best increase their bankability.
Wrapping up the session, Anthony Nyong, AfDB, drew attention to the Africa NDC Hub Roadmap, a three-year work programme to assist African countries to develop, enhance and implement their NDCs.
This side event discussed reducing food loss and waste as a global shared obligation in a changing climate, and as an opportunity to both drive the transformation of food systems and mitigate climate change. Opportunities, actions and solutions were presented during the event by the private sector, foundations and other stakeholders.
Moderator Zitouni Ould-Dada, Climate and Environment Division, FAO, noted that sustainable consumption and production are key to the fight against climate change in terms of emissions produced. He highlighted that a third of food produced for consumption is lost or wasted, together with the energy required to produce it, contrasting this revelation with the fact that 821 million people are currently undernourished. He said the issue of food loss and waste should not be underestimated, noting that population growth will continue to put significant pressure on natural resources.
Karol Krajewski, on behalf of Jan Krzysztof Ardanowski, Minister for Agriculture and Rural Development, Poland, said that we are facing a global problem with millions of people suffering from malnourishment. He noted that 24% of European consumers admit to wasting food, even though two thirds of food waste can still be used. He explained that EUR 1 spent on waste prevention equals 265 kilos of food waste saved, stressing that fruit and vegetables constitute the majority of wasted food products. He stressed that Poland is working hard to combat food waste and admitted that it is a complex problem, with losses occurring throughout the food supply chain. He noted that young people, in particular, are wasting more food, and welcomed Polish food banks efforts to tackle the issue.
Martien van Nieuwkoop, World Bank, underscored that the food lost from waste can be used to feed the number of people who are undernourished around the world four times over. He highlighted that the World Bank has produced a report describing a conceptual framework to close the food, land and greenhouse gas mitigation gaps to have a sustainable nutrition system. He stressed the need for an integrated approach to tackling the issue of food waste and loss, and urged building awareness, collaborating with different partners, and supply chain efficiency.
Katie Millen, Farmer Representative, lamented that people have become disconnected from food production and buy much more food than needed because of it. She expressed hope for a change in behavior, noting that New Zealand spends less money on children’s advertising for healthy products compared to sugar-rich ones. She highlighted the need to educate children about food waste and connect them with farming practices so they better understand the origins of food and eventually work towards reducing waste in the future. She stressed that the change in attitudes towards food waste should begin at the individual level.
Raphaël Podselver, ProVeg, stressed that food waste is a pressing issue related to achieving SDG 12 (responsible consumption and production) and said that the current production and consumption system should be questioned. He noted that consumers in Europe are becoming more aware of the environmental costs associated with their food choices, and recognized the opportunity for innovation in the food industry sector through investments in plant-based products. He underscored that it is the role of governments to provide a framework that favors healthy and sustainable food production. He concluded by emphasizing the importance of unlocking the potential of plant-based proteins with major benefits for both health and climate.
Craige Mackenzie, Agri Optics, highlighted that farming must be more efficient in terms of food production, and stressed the need for producing quality food and having “the appropriate food in the appropriate place” as key for food security. He also noted that the sustainable production of food must be profitable for farmers, pointing to the need for farmers to access information on proper food storage techniques.
In the ensuing discussion, panelists responded to questions on: linking food waste with Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs); the role of waste management policy in reducing food waste and ways of increasing food bank donations; changing consumer behavior to opt for locally-grown food products; and emphasizing the educational aspect on food waste with a special focus on parent-oriented education.
This event focused on energy and land use, particularly on what is still needed and how public-private partnerships can support the common objectives of nations, cities, businesses and academia.
In his opening remarks, Han Huang, Vice President, Economic and Technology Research Institute, Global Energy Interconnection Development and Cooperation Organization (GEIDCO), noted that the Paris Agreement is an important tool as countries seek to decarbonize their development pathways.
Via video, Jeffrey Sachs, Director, UN SDSN, lamenting that the world is losing the battle to advance on decarbonization, stressed the need to move away from the words of the Paris Agreement and towards implementing practical pathways to low-carbon development, such as closing coal-fired power plants. Calling to connect low-carbon renewable energy sites with each other to create a world grid of renewable energy, he stated that this will meet the requirements of the Paris Agreement to supply energy to a growing population.
Maria Mendiluce, Managing Director, WBCSD, presented on “New Energy Solutions for 1.5°C.” She stressed the importance of electrifying energy consumption, particularly in the building and transportation sectors, and pointed to the need to better capture how to achieve a circular economy.
Elena Crete, SDSN, moderated the panel on the role of decarbonized electricity in decarbonizing end-use sectors.
Carlos Sallé, Vice-President, Energy Policies and Climate Change, Iberdrola, emphasized the importance of considering the net present value of future impacts of climate change and air pollution and the positive effects generated by a decarbonized economy. He also called for changing current narratives on urgency and externalities, and raising citizens’ awareness.
Pascal Chalvon-Demersay, Solvay, called for raising awareness regarding the fact that growth cannot be at the expense of the planet. As a big energy consumer, he described his company’s commitment to absolute emission reductions, highlighting the importance of long-term goals, digitalization in microgrids, and circularity in the use of materials.
Xiaodong Wang, World Bank, said that the Bank had doubled its commitment to climate change adaptation and mitigation to USD 200 billion. On decarbonizing the power sector, she drew from the Chinese experience, noting the cost reduction in renewable energy through competitive auctions and the need for regional and continental grid connectivity to prevent energy losses.
Rasmus Valanko, WBCSD, moderated the panel on key enablers for passenger transport electrification.
Stressing the need to reduce pollution and resource use in the electric car business, Nicola Tagliafierro, Enel X, highlighted that the company focuses on circular economy models, and said that Enel X has a target of providing 28,000 charging stations in Italy, Spain and Romania by 2022.
Anirban Ghosh, Chief Sustainability Officer, Mahindra Group, stressed that electric vehicles by themselves are not the solution, pointing to the need for an entire mobility ecosystem change. He also drew attention to electric vehicles in India catering to passengers going to the airport as a shift in the ecosystem that provides a clean, competitive service.
Yeom Tae-young, Mayor of Suwon, Republic of Korea, on behalf of ICLEI’s Ecomobility Alliance, said that the Korean government has focused on supporting hydrogen vehicles through subsides. He noted that 10% of subsides are provided by local governments.
Wolfgang Teubner, ICLEI Europe, moderated the panel discussion on electrification of buildings, digitalization and smart cities.
Gilles Vermot Desroches, Schneider Electric, stressed the need to focus on digital energy efficiency in buildings. Noting that buildings are responsible for 30% of carbon emissions and that by 2050 innovation will be required to avoid poor quality buildings, he underlined the need to become three times more energy efficient while providing sufficient energy for all.
Leszek Drogos, Director of Infrastructure Department, City of Warsaw, underlined the urgency of energy efficiency in buildings. He highlighted the Warsaw Housing Standard for both existing and new buildings, drawing attention to the need to align buildings with mobility strategies and environmental conservation.
Meg Argyriou, ClimateWorks Australia, spoke on Australia’s transition to energy efficient buildings, highlighting that it will save the country USD 20 billion by 2030, as well as improve quality of life. She called for energy market reforms and stated that a delay of five years would lead to billions of dollars in wasted energy costs, which cannot be recovered through retrofits.
In concluding remarks, Bertrand Piccard, Co-Founder and Chairman, Solar Impulse, stressed the need for a paradigm shift to protect the environment, while creating jobs and growth. Noting his company’s 1000 efficient and profitable solutions (#1000solutions) initiative, he emphasized the importance of using solutions based on existing technologies, saying “innovation of yesterday has brought solutions of today.”
L-R: Etienne Coyette, European Commission; Zoe Norgate, Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS), UK; Karsten Sach, German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU); Xin Chen, Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, China; Camila Rodriguez, Ministry of Environment, Colombia; Sören David, NAMA Facility
This side event was a presentation of the NAMA Facility, an initiative that aims to support mitigation projects internationally through financial and technical support. It featured representatives from donor and partner countries, and aimed to showcase the results of NAMA Facility-funded projects, as well as announce its 6th Call for applications. Etienne Coyette, European Commission, introduced the panelists.
Karsten Sach, German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), began the panel by saying that the NAMA Facility is unique as a programme as it combines a wide-scale approach, ambitious mitigation action and financial support, which leverages both private and public capital. He explained the Facility’s attempt to develop policy frameworks and capacity of applicants, be country-driven, and, ideally, have high government buy-in across sectors. The objective of the Facility, he explained, is to empower national and sub-national actors to independently reproduce NAMA-like projects in the future.
Xin Chen, Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, China, began her presentation by outlining that waste management in urban areas, especially in China, needs to be a multi-level joint effort if it is to be successful. She explained that reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions generated from waste is an important facet of China’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) and presented an integrated model of waste management systems across China, which aims to reduce 352 million tonnes of potential CO2-equivalent by 2030. Underlining the need to integrate the full spectrum of waste management techniques into this plan, including anaerobic digestion, she celebrated the fact that the Chinese waste management NAMA Facility project has provided technical assistance packages to reduce GHG emissions in municipalities by 140,000 tonnes of CO2-equivalent per year.
Camila Rodriguez, Ministry of Environment, Colombia, gave an overview of the ways in which the NAMA Facility has spurred Colombian efforts to implement its national climate change policy. She outlined the non-conditional goals of Colombia’s NDC, to reduce emissions by 20% by 2030 across economic sectors, and addressed the priorities of the country’s NAMAs, namely building mitigation potential, multi-sectoral engagement, stakeholder commitment and replicability. She presented the example of the transportation sector, which through the NAMA Facility’s support, is aiming to transition the government fleet to electric vehicles. Rodriguez concluded by stressing that including stakeholders, including the private sector, in the development of climate action plans is essential for national ownership of NAMAs.
Zoe Norgate, Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS), UK, celebrated the fact that the NAMA Facility has had wide impacts, both geographically and sectorally, and that the demand has adequately convinced the UK to commit to future funding for the programme. She announced £45 million of additional funding from the UK government. She provided examples of successful projects in Peru, Thailand and Mexico, citing that an important facet of the impacts of NAMAs is their capacity to affect peoples’ lives. Norgate concluded by saying that NAMAs remain relevant in the age of the Paris Agreement, given that they are “the building blocks of NDCs.”
Sören David, NAMA Facility, closed the panel by informing the audience that the 6th Call for applications will be open between 10 December 2018 and 15 March 2019. He also reminding them that further information is available on the NAMA Facility’s website.
In the ensuring discussion, participants considered: evaluation criteria used to assess proposals, relevance of NAMAs for least developed countries and their participation, the possibility of trading carbon credits for emission reductions, caps for funding for NAMA initiatives, and the inclusion of national governments in proposals. David mentioned that the 6th Call for applications is not focused on specific thematic areas, and welcomed all applications. Chen and Rodriguez provided advice from their experience as funding recipients, recommending that parties thoroughly engage with both the private sector and affected stakeholders in developing the proposals.
The side event celebrated the 10-year anniversary of REDD+ as a key milestone to look ahead and take stock of a decade of coordinated actions on REDD+ through the development and implementation of readiness, investment and financial support to help countries in their forest-based mitigation efforts.
Moderating the event, Mario Boccucci, Head, UN-REDD Programme Secretariat, lauded all partners working on deforestation for their support of over 70 countries in all phases of REDD+.
Laura Tuck, Vice President for Sustainable Development, World Bank, highlighted the Bank’s Forest Action Plan, and underlined the positive impact forests have on other sectors and in mitigating climate change. She announced that the World Bank signed its first Emission Reductions Payment Agreement (ERPA) with the Democratic Republic of Congo of USD 55 million in performance-based payments, and expressed the World Bank’s commitment to redouble efforts in the forest agenda.
Maria Helena Semedo, Deputy Director-General, Climate and Natural Resources, Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO), congratulated all countries working on REDD+ and their efforts in operationalizing REDD+, and called attention to all the UN bodies working on this issue. She noted the collaborative partnership has been successful in data gathering, addressing deforestation and enhancing safeguard systems. Looking forward, she called for building on and replicatingresults to further address deforestation, food security and, ultimately, the threat of climate change.
Abdoulaye Mar Dieye, Assistant Secretary-General and Director of the Bureau for Policy and Programme Support, UN Development Programme (UNDP), said reaching the 10-year anniversary of REDD+ is the result of the commitment of theseven countries and three agencies that created REDD+, and underscored that “forests are the soul of civilization“ and one of the most important tools to address climate change. He underlined that Katowice is the make-or-break moment for the Paris Agreement.
Mafalda Duarte, Head, Climate Investment Funds (CIF), acknowledged the complexity of REDD+, reflecting that the CIF has learned that:
Siti Nurbaya Bakar, Minister for Environment and Forestry, Indonesia, expressed her gratitude for UN-REDD’s assistance in implementing the REDD-readiness phase through strengthening multi-stakeholder participation. She stated that partner institutions have been supportive in the country’s efforts to shift the paradigm in forest management since 2015, and highlighted the country’s success in reducing its deforestation rate.
Malgorzata Golinska, Secretary of State in the Ministry of the Environment, Poland, lauded this anniversary as an important event for Poland, reminding attendees that, during COP 19, delegates adopted the Warsaw Framework for REDD+. She appreciated forests as the “green lungs of the planet,“ and stated that deforestation is a global problem that affects us all.
Stressing that forests are a sanctuary and habitat for many species, Tomasz Chruszczow, High-Level Climate Champion and Special Envoy for Climate Change, Poland, said that five years ago the REDD+ Framework changed the game for forests, which continued to help countries develop forest management plans and policies. He underlined that forests are going to be part of the transition to carbon-neutral economies.
Sveinung Rotevatn, Ministry of Environment, Norway, highlighted that climate policies, new technologies and new energies are difficult to implement whereas preserving the forest is an easy task, noting that “we don’t need new technologies to know not to cut the trees.” He stressed that Norway is committed to REDD+, underscoring his country’s commitment to keep investing in land-use preservation.
Florian Eisele, UN-REDD | firstname.lastname@example.org