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Special Report on Selected Side Events at UNFCCC COP-6 Part II
published by the International Institute for Sustainable Development
in cooperation with the UNFCCC Secretariat
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Events convened on Tuesday, 24 July 2001

UNFCCC Article 6: Priorities, cooperation and sharing
Presented by the UNFCCC Secretariat
From left to right: Kevin Grose, Moussa Diakhité and Lisa Moreau, UNFCCC Secretariat, discuss proposals and options for integrating Article 6 into SBSTA's work programme.

At this event, members of the UNFCCC Secretariat outlined findings from country submissions, side events and the Consultative Group of Experts (CGE) on Article 6 (education, training and public awareness) of the UNFCCC.

Moussa Diakhité explained that a document on Article 6 is being prepared for SBSTA, which will include proposals and options for integrating Article 6 into SBSTA's work programme. He recalled the guidance from SBSTA-12, that lessons learned from work already undertaken by Parties and other stakeholders should be compiled and priorities identified.

Lisa Moreau highlighted suggestions from the five submissions made to the Secretariat on this matter (from Austria, Uzbekistan, Switzerland, Kenya and the US). They recommended, inter alia: refining reporting guidelines to increase information comparability; organizing regular international workshops on education issues, training of national specialists and exchange of best practices; providing accessible, easy to understand and translated versions of UNFCCC materials; providing training to national focal points to establish outreach programmes; and using the Internet to share information and educational materials.

Kevin Grose outlined findings from side events held at SB-12, SB-13 and COP-6, which found that integrating communications planning and policy development increases public awareness, enhances the public's sense of ownership and heightens support for government policy. The events also revealed that: sharing experiences enables Parties to learn from each other; access to computers and the Internet is a powerful tool for information exchange and dissemination; experiences and information products should be made accessible through clearinghouses, web sites and resources centers; and involving all sectors of society has multiplier effects.

Graham Sem, UNFCCC Secretariat, notes that elaboration of the UNFCCC guidelines for reporting on national programmes relating to education, training and public awareness is needed to facilitate better reporting.

Graham Sem discussed the CGE's findings from national communications of non-Annex I Parties. The communications revealed that education on climate change is an important part of national development and environment plans in most non-Annex I countries. These countries reported that they are incorporating environmental and climate change issues into formal education systems, and are developing materials to support teaching and learning in educational institutions. The communications also revealed a lack of sufficiently trained scientific and technical personnel and a need for public awareness materials.

Moreau explained that, based on the findings from country submissions, side events and the CGE, the Secretariat formulated a preliminary categorization of needs related to Article 6. These included: increasing information sharing among national focal points and others; facilitating public awareness activities; heightening public participation; developing web sies; integrating climate change into education curricula; and providing training in communications and public information. She noted that public awareness was identified as the area requiring greatest prioritization.

Kevin Grose concluded by noting that a possible work programme for SBSTA on Article 6 would include priorities, sharing and cooperation on matters related to education, training and public awareness.

More information:

Moussa Diakhité <mdiakhite@unfccc.int>
Kevin Grose <kgrose@unfccc.int>
Lisa Moreau <lmoreau@unfccc.int>
Graham Sem <gsem@unfccc.int>

Please visit the UNFCCC's "On Demand" webcast page for RealVideo coverage of this event

Greenhouse gases in economies in transition
Presented by UNCTAD

Gao Pronove, UNCTAD, describes an upcoming UNCTAD/Earth Council workshop to support the emerging GHG markets in EITs.
This event served as a preparatory meeting for a two-and-a-half day regional workshop on international emissions trading opportunities for countries with economies in transition (EITs), to be held in November 2001, most likely in Slovenia, Bulgaria or Romania. The objectives of the workshop will be to: provide a policy forum to move emissions trading forward in EITs; take stock of the current status of emissions trading in EITs; identify barriers and capacity constraints; and provide a venue for advancing bilateral agreements among EITs.

Gao Pronove, Govida Corporation, stated that some EITs are eager to begin implementing the Kyoto Protocol, and highlighted the workshop as an excellent opportunity to bring together buyers and sellers from the public and private sectors to develop a common programme of action to promote the emerging GHG emissions market in EITs.

John O'Brien, Enviros, emphasizes that EITs might benefit from the UK experience in designing and implementing a domestic emissions trading system.

Participants discussed aspects of the workshop, including goals, agenda, activities, participants, dates, and venue. Proposals for workshop topics included: early crediting for joint implementation projects; further emissions reductions through energy efficiency; drivers for a cap and trade system; standardization and linkages between domestic systems; reduction of transaction costs; and the needs of investors and lenders.

John O'Brien, Enviros, described capacity building needs in EITs related to emissions trading, and possible opportunities for support from the UK Government. He noted that EITs should examine the best mix of policy options for implementing the Kyoto Protocol, and suggested that EITs could benefit from the UK experience in designing and implementing a domestic emissions trading system. He concluded that the UK could assist EITs with capacity building for policy analysis and preparing training modules on design and implementation issues.

More information:

Gao Pronove <gao@govida.net>
John O'Brien <john.obrien@enviros.com>

SouthSouthNorth: Clean Development Mechanism pilot projects
Presented by Pelangi

From left to right: Stef Raubenheimer, SSN; Agus Sari, Pelangi; and Novi Ganefianto, UNOCAL.
This event introduced SouthSouthNorth's (SSN) CDM pilot projects in Brazil, Bangladesh, Indonesia and South Africa.

Stef Raubenheimer, SSN, said that SSN's mission is to promote cooperation between Southern countries, and between countries in the South and the North. He maintained that the principle aims of SSN are to learn by doing, host governments with CDM structures, build capacity, and promote Internet resources. He noted that eight pilot projects have resulted in the design of a useful set of criteria and indicators (C&I) for CDM projects.
Listen to Raubenheimer's presentation

Steve Thorne, SSN, elaborated on the C&I rating methodology for project eligibility, feasibility and sustainability. The eligibility criteria include energy project activities qualifying for the CDM, real and measurable benefits, and contributions to sustainable development. Sustainable development indicators, he said, incorporate global climate mitigation and local environmental, financial and technological sustainability. Presenting project results from South Africa and Brazil, he emphasized the importance of the "learning-by-doing" approach.
Listen to Thorn's presentation
Steve Thorne, SSN [left] and Mozaharul Alam, Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies, share experiences from SSN CDM pilot projects in South Africa, Brazil and Bangladesh.

Mozaharul Alam, Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies, presented an overview of the Bangladesh CDM pilot projects, which include solar home systems in remote rural areas and electric vehicles in Dhaka. He noted that important co-benefits of the projects include: education; recreation and awareness building; local employment generation; replication of projects; reduction of the burdens of fossil fuel imports; and improvement of rural livelihoods.

Agus Sari, Pelangi, described Indonesia's pilot project experience of establishing new and efficient engines for public transportation in Yogyakarta. The project aims to restructure urban public transport management, improve the efficiency of the urban bus system, and provide cleaner engines for two-fifths of existing buses.
Listen to Sari's presentation

Novi Ganefianto, UNOCAL, introduced the Sarulla geothermal energy project in Sumatra. He cited investment costs of US$2.4-$11.4 per ton of CO2 emissions, and noted barriers to project success, such as existing prices per kilowatt-hour of geothermal energy and the limited ability of project partners to secure financing. He noted that projects have considerable sustainability benefits, such as improving land use and water quality and reducing local particulate pollution. Future challenges include refining CDM project documentation, determining appropriate project size, validating the project concept, seeking approval of the central government, and structuring financial arrangements for new investors.

Discussion: Participants noted that institutional barriers are a major concern for CDM project design and implementation, and that SSN projects have overcome these barriers by using a participatory approach to project development.

More information:

Stef Raubenheimer <stef@southsouthnorth.org>
Steve Thorne <steve@southsouthnorth.org>
Agus Sari <apsari@pelangi.or.id>
Novi Ganefianto <novig@unocal.com>
Mozaharul Alam <malam@bcas.bdonline.com>

Standardized verification of small-scale CDM/JI projects: Lessons learned from Swedish AIJ projects
Presented by the Swedish delegation in collaboration with the Swedish National Energy Administration (STEM)

Jürgen Salay, STEM, calls for immediate work on JI projects, and invites interested Parties to cooperate on these projects.
This event, which discussed Sweden's experience with small-scale projects under the AIJ pilot phase of the UNFCCC, was opened by Ambassador Bo Kjellén, Swedish delegation. He commented that small-scale CDM projects will be an essential element in linking the global threats of climate change to local realities.

Jürgen Salay, Swedish National Energy Administration (STEM), shared his experiences and lessons learned from AIJ projects, and highlighted a new Swedish programme for project-based mechanisms. To date, Sweden has implemented 60 AIJ projects in the Baltic States and northwestern Russia, of which two-thirds are boiler conversions to bio-fuel and energy efficiency projects. Lessons learned from these projects include the need to: adapt CDM and JI projects to local priorities; promote close cooperation between national and local organizations; engage local experts in establishing baselines, monitoring and reporting; and provide information in local languages. He stressed the importance of a "learning-by-doing" approach, and added that projects have illustrated differences between host countries, the need for feedback activities and the importance of capacity building. He noted that long-term commitment to future projects is crucial, and that common guidelines for project implementation are required.
Listen to Salay's presentation

Michael Lehmann, DNV, explains the principles of multi-project verification.

On the new Swedish programme for project-based mechanisms, Salay described an International Climate Investment Programme fund of US$28 million that will contribute to the preparation of JI and CDM projects between 1998 and 2004. He noted other activities, including the Prototype Carbon Fund and the Baltic Sea Region Energy Cooperation programme.

Michael Lehmann, Det Norske Veritas (DNV), presented a report entitled "Multi-project Verification of Swedish AIJ Projects: Verification Results and Documentation." The report describes DNV's experience with the verification of Swedish AIJ projects. DNV, a leading independent GHG verifier, used a multi-project verification methodology to evaluate a selection of Swedish boiler conversion and fuel-switching projects in the Baltic region. He explained that the verification process involves several important phases, such as screening, site selection, on-site verification, extrapolation of audit results, discounting for uncertainties, and sensitivity analysis. He noted that trade-offs between costs, scale and certainty determine the number of on-site audits and the accuracy of monitoring arrangements.

Jesse Uzzell, DNV, discussed the "burden" of monitoring and reporting, and suggested that synergies exist between these tasks. Concluding, he emphasized that: multi-project verification is a good alternative for small-projects; project implementers need not wait for sector benchmarks or baselines to commence initiatives; transaction costs for verification can be substantially reduced; and DNV verified 498,710 tonnes of CO2 reductions between 1993 and 1999.
Listen to Uzzell's presentation

More information:

Jürgen Salay <jurgen.salay@stem.se>
Jesse Uzzell <Jesse.Uzzell@dnv.com>
Michael Lehmann <Michael.Lehmann@dnv.com>

The Earth Negotiations Bulletin (ENB) on the side is a special publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) in cooperation with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Secretariat. The Editor of ENB on the side is Kira Schmidt <kira@iisd.org>. This issue has been written by Emily Boyd <emily@iisd.org>, Fiona Koza <fiona@iisd.org> and Kira Schmidt <kira@iisd.org>. The Digital Editors are Andrei Henry <andrei@iisd.org> and Kenneth Tong <ken@iisd.org>. Photos by Leila Mead <leila@iisd.org>. Funding for publication of ENB on the side at COP-6 Part II is provided by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The opinions expressed in ENB on the side are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and funders. Excerpts from ENB on the side may be used in non-commercial publications only and only with appropriate academic citation. For permission to use this material in commercial publications, contact the Managing Editor at <kimo@iisd.org>. Electronic versions of these issues of ENB on the side from COP-6 Part II can be found on the Linkages WWW server at http://enb.iisd.org/climate/cop6bis/enbots/.

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