Events convened on Friday, 2 November 2001
CC: FORUM on national communications from non-Annex I Parties
Presented by the UNFCCC Secretariat
This event reviewed national communications from Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Ethiopia, Guinea and Togo.
Isidore Dianzinga and Germain Kombo, Congo-Brazzaville, explained that the national communication's GHG inventory covers the energy, agriculture, ranching, forestry, industry and waste sectors. According to the inventory, the energy, agriculture and waste sectors are the primary sources of GHG emissions. The national communication identifies regions particularly vulnerable to climate change, and proposes strategies to address climate change, including strengthening national capacities, reducing GHG emissions, and managing industrial waste.
Abebe Tadege, Ethiopia, provided an overview of Ethiopia's national communication, highlighting that the national GHG inventory covers seven gases in the energy, agriculture, LULUCF and waste sectors. Tadege stated that the energy sector accounts for 88 percent of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, with transport generating 44 percent of these emissions. The national communication identifies a number of win-win mitigation options, such as improving energy efficiency, generating renewable energy, and composting waste. Tadege noted that Ethiopia's financial and capacity-building needs relate to data collection and monitoring, training, research, and awareness-raising.
Ahmed Traore, Guinea, explained that Guinea's national communication examined GHG emissions in the energy, agriculture, waste, and LULUCF sectors. The inventory indicates that CO2 emissions account for 60 percent of all GHG emissions, with forest conversions being the most significant source of CO2 emissions. A vulnerability and adaptation study examined the sensitivity of coastal zones, water resources and the agriculture sector to projected climate changes. Adaptation measures identified include the establishment of an institution addressing water protection and management, and the development of agricultural irrigation schemes.
Kodjovi Edjame, Togo, explained that the GHG emissions inventory of Togo's national communication covers the energy, agriculture, forestry and industry sectors, and demonstrates that land use accounts for 80 percent of all emissions. The national communication identifies a number of mitigation policies and measures, including the regulation of GHG emissions, the restructuring of markets, and the introduction of pollution taxes. The vulnerability and adaptation study recognizes the vulnerability of agriculture and human health to climate change.
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Presented by the Moroccan delegation in collaboration with the Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables (CDER)
Benallou, CDER, described Morocco's national strategic plan for
renewable energy. He noted that Morocco possesses significant
renewable energy potential, particularly solar and wind resources,
but needs to develop the means for their mobilization. He explained
that the strategic plan aims to: reduce dependence on imported
energy; improve energy supply in rural areas; reduce deforestation
associated with unsustainable use of biomass for rural energy;
attract private investment; generate rural employment; and protect
natural resources and the environment. By 2010, the plan expects
to achieve an 80 percent rate of rural electrification, install
1,000 megawatts of wind capacity and 400,000 square meters of
solar collectors, reduce rural use of biomass for energy by 50
percent, and supply 12 percent of the nation's energy with renewables.
development of policy conditions for a natural gas future
Chiaka Gomi, International Gas Union (IGU), explained that the IGU aims to demonstrate the crucial role that natural gas can play in meeting the global need for an environmentally-friendly energy source. He highlighted the IGU's work to: promote the technical and economic progress of the global gas industry; help optimize the economics of the entire gas chain, while emphasizing sound environmental performance, safety and reliability; and promote transfer of technology and know-how. The IGU develops global energy scenarios to facilitate strategic planning in the industry.
Marc Darras, Gaz de France, highlighted the gas industry's efforts to protect the environment and promote economic and social development. The industry is working to promote energy efficiency and conservation, reduce industrial emissions of GHGs and other air pollutants, and implement comprehensive environmental management systems to reduce its impacts. The industry also contributes to local economies, by purchasing local goods and services and providing employment to communities, and promotes community development, by investing in employment training programmes, implementing cutting-edge employment standards and practices, and cooperating with stakeholders on comprehensive public consultation processes.
Yannick Guerrini, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN-ECE), outlined UN-ECE's climate change mitigation strategy for economies in transition (EITs). The strategy's overall objective is to enhance regional cooperation on energy efficiency market formation and investment project development to reduce GHG emissions in EITs. Specifically, it works to accelerate regional networking, create energy efficiency investment zones, and foster regional energy efficiency policies and standards. UN-ECE is also carrying out sub-regional projects, including one to promote rational and efficient use of energy and water resources in Central Asia.
Greenhouse gas emissions trading: Linkages between domestic trading schemes
Presented by the International Emissions Trading Association (IETA)
Listen to Haites' presentation
Listen to Vis' presentation (excerpt)
Listen to Wriglesworth' presentation
UK Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, described
the UK's emissions trading system and its position on the new
EU directive. He affirmed that the UK strongly supports EU-wide
emissions trading, although it is concerned about the narrow range
of participants and the mandatory nature of the proposed scheme.
to th previous presentations, Johnathan Pershing, IETA, said that
linking trainding systems may require the harmonization of registries,
penalties, banking and coverage of gases.
Matthew Varilek, Natsource, provided his comments on the "Linking Domestic and Industry Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Systems" paper. He said that the absence of linkages would increase the transaction costs of trading and reduce liquidity. He noted that making linkages would not be easy, but that most trading systems have expressed a willingness to explore linkages with others, provided that significant changes to their own systems were not required.
Beyond technical solutions: Climate change, way of life and the role of NGOs
Presented by Groupe d'Etudes et de Recherches sur les Energies Renouvelables et l'Environnement (GERERE)
Discussion: Participants discussed the global impacts resulting from industrialized country lifestyles, and noted that citizens and policy makers in industrialized countries are often unwilling to change their lifestyles despite awareness of their impact on developing countries and the environment. One participant remarked that citizens are often denied the opportunity to participate in political affairs, and that most citizens are not aware of the radical changes that are required in order to achieve sustainability. The need for a positive image of sustainability that can be used as a model for future progress was noted. Participants stressed the importance of addressing consumption and lifestyle issues, and expressed disappointment that these issues are not discussed more often at international climate change meetings.
The challenge of Japanese industry: Voluntary action plan for the mitigation of climate change
Presented by the Japan Federation of Economic Organizations (Keidanren)
Referring to the fourth follow-up to the Keidanren voluntary action plan for the mitigation of climate change, he highlighted: the participation of 36 industries responsible for 42.7 percent of Japan's total CO2 emissions in 1990; the reports of 23 participating industries that their CO2 emissions have declined from 1990 levels; and a declaration that Keidanren endeavors "to reduce CO2 emissions from the industrial and energy-converting sectors in fiscal year 2010 to below the levels of fiscal year 1990."
Hosoya provided examples of various industries' targets and measures to mitigate climate change. The iron and steel industry, for example, established a target of reducing energy consumption by 10 percent below 1990 levels by 2010, using measures such as energy conservation in production processes and effective utilization of waste plastics. The chemical industry aims to reduce energy consumption per unit of output to 90 percent of 1990 levels by 2010, by improving facility and equipment efficiency, streamlining operating methods, and recovering discharged energy.
Hosoya concluded by underscoring the importance and effectiveness of voluntary efforts, the need to minimize regulatory and restrictive measures, and the importance of awareness-raising.
Reforestation in the CDM: Opportunities for ecosystem restoration
Presented by The Nature Conservancy
This event addressed issues related to reforestation projects in the CDM.
Listen to Nelson's presentation
André Rocha Ferretti, Society for Wildlife Research and Environmental Education (SPVS), described three climate action projects that SPVS is undertaking with TNC in Brazil's Atlantic rainforest. The projects contain components on: land acquisition and titling; land stewardship; forest management; sustainable community development; leakage control; carbon monitoring and verification; and an endowment fund to ensure the continuation of project activities beyond the projects' lifetime. He highlighted additional benefits of the projects, including soil conservation, watershed protection, river bank restoration, biodiversity protection and enhancement, sustainable economic development for local communities, and environmental data generation. The projects are expected to have a total carbon benefit of approximately 2.5 million tons over forty years.
Márcio Santilli, Amazon Environmental Research Institute (IPAM), underscored that deforestation is a significant source of global emissions and is likely to compromise emissions reductions in the future. He reiterated IPAM's support for the inclusion of initiatives that reduce deforestation under the CDM, and expressed regret that the Bonn Agreements obviated this possibility. He hoped that afforestation and reforestation would be defined such that they create incentives for the restoration of degraded areas to permanent forests.
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