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Special Report on Selected Side Events at UNFCCC COP-7
Marrakesh, Morocco; 29 October - 9 November 2001
published by the International Institute for Sustainable Development
in cooperation with the UNFCCC Secretariat
<< visit the UNFCCC Secretariat website >>

 Archive  Mon 29 Tues 30 Wed 31 Thur 1 Fri 2 Sat 3 Mon 5 Tues 6 Wed 7 Thur 8 Fri 8

Events convened on Saturday, 3 November 2001

Climate change capacity building for Africa in practice
Presented by the University of Cape Town, the Energy & Development Research Centre and Environmental Development Action in the Third World in collaboration with Kumasi Institute of Technology and Environment

Youba Sokona, ENDA-TM, calls on Africa to be innovative in making the most efficient use of its limited resources, and underscores the need to build partnerships with multilateral institutions and various stakeholders.
Sarah Agbey, Kumasi Institute of Technology and Environment (KITE), presented Ghana's experience in addressing capacity building for climate change. She reviewed some of Ghana's capacity-building initiatives, including the establishment of a knowledge network for sustainable energy in Africa. The network's objectives include identifying practical solutions, addressing emerging needs in Africa, and sharing good practice experience. The network's achievements include the publication and circulation of three electronic newsletters and the identification of potential climate change and CDM projects. Agbey concluded by underscoring the need for governments to implement an efficient, fast, reliable and affordable communication infrastructure.

Youba Sokona, Environmental Development Action in the Third World (ENDA-TM), highlighted key issues to be addressed with regard to capacity building, including the development and implementation of relevant policies; the generation, assessment and dissemination of scientific and technical knowledge; and the integration of scientific and technical knowledge into politics and development. Sokona highlighted several problems being faced by Africa in building capacity, including language barriers, limited GEF funding opportunities, and limited financial and human resources.

Ogunlade Davidson, Energy & Development Research Centre (EDRC), University of Cape Town, explained that the EDRC is a university-based but self-financing institution committed to relevant policy research and communication. It is an interdisciplinary institution linked to various departments within the university, and conducts research on, inter alia, Kyoto Protocol mechanisms and renewable energy. Davidson highlighted that EDRC is in regular contact with the South African energy and environment parliamentary committees, and has links to a variety of stakeholders, such as the national committee on climate change and several energy and environmental NGOs. He concluded by expressing hope that the EDRC will widen its linkages with relevant institutions across Africa.

Saleem Huq, International Institute for Environment and Development, launched a new UNITAR publication entitled "Who needs what to implement the Kyoto Protocol? An assessment of capacity-building needs in 33 developing countries." The publication's main findings include that developing countries generally lack capacity although they exhibit great interest in capacity building; and that distinct regional and sub-regional divisions exist between the levels of awareness and capacity. The publication underscores developing countries' strong desire and need to build capacity and recommends that this be done in the context of a long-term process.

More information:
Sarah Agbey <kite@idn.gh.com>
Youba Sokona <ysokona@enda.sn>
Ogunlade Davidson <ogunlade@energetic.uct.ac.za>
Saleem Huq <saleem.huq@iied.org>

Please visit the UNFCCC's "On Demand" webcast page for RealVideo coverage of this event

Reconstitution of nature in arid regions: Cactus and arganier as species adapted to climate change
Presented by the Moroccan delegation in collaboration with the Moroccan Ministry of Waters and Forests, the Interministerial Task Force for Climate Change, and the Sahara and Sahel Observatory

Tijani Mandouri, MCEF, demonstrates how the cactus is a champion of water economy in arid zones.
Tijani Mandouri, Moroccan Ministry of Waters and Forests (MCEF), discussed the role of cactus and argan trees in combating climate change. He highlighted cactus' great resistance to drought and ability to improve the organic fertility of soil. The argan tree is also highly drought resistant and resistant to grazing. He said cactus and argan trees are excellent fighters against desertification and provide living examples of adaptation to climate change.

Omar Askarn, MCEF, described Morocco's national programme of action to implement the Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD). He explained that the development of the programme involved numerous multi-stakeholder consultations, consideration of local and regional issues, and incorporation of gender issues, particularly those relating to fuel-wood collection. The programme makes recommendations on institutional frameworks, financial mobilization, and participation of local communities. It contains components on capacity building to combat desertification, revenue-generating activities including eco-tourism, drought mitigation, and the development of know-how and observation systems for desertification.

Mohamed Yassin, MCEF, outlined the activities of the Long-Term Ecological Observatories Monitoring Network (ROSELT) and the Sahara and Sahel Observatory (OSS). OSS is a network of observatories in 21 African countries, which aims to provide scientific and technical information on desertification. ROSELT is a component of OSS and works to monitor desertification, facilitate cooperation and information exchange between African countries and between observatories, and build capacity.

More information:
Tijani Mandouri <rechfor@iam.net.ma>
Omar Askarn <ces@athena.online.co.ma>
Mohamed Yassin <rechfor@iam.net.ma>

Preliminary assessment of carbon pools and flows in Russian forestry and agriculture
Presented by the World Resources Institute and the International Forest Institute of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences

Dmitri Zamolodchikov, IFI, explains that the Russian Federation does not have a developed carbon accounting system at the federal level, although detailed federal account data are available for managed forest and agricultural lands and can be used for carbon accounting.
Lars Laestadius, World Resources Institute (WRI), explained that Russian forest and agricultural land is an important part of the global carbon balance. Recognizing that official information about carbon pools and flows in Russian forestry and agriculture is lacking, WRI initiated a project in cooperation with the International Forest Institute (IFI) to study this issue. The objectives of the study are to: describe the availability and quality of relevant data; present preliminary results based on available information; identify gaps and weaknesses; and recommend areas for further research. Laestadius stressed that they have just begun the study and the results are incomplete, although a preliminary assessment can be made from official statistics and other available information.

Dmitri Zamolodchikov, IFI, described federal account data for forest and agricultural land. Using a series of graphs, Zamolodchikov demonstrated the results of preliminary assessments of: the vegetation carbon pool by forest type; the soil carbon pool; carbon sequestration by land type; soil carbon in agricultural land; the carbon content in removed wood and logging residue; carbon emissions from forest fires in actively protected areas; and reforestation activities in the Russian Federation. He also highlighted the significant potential for carbon sequestration from reforestation and afforestation activities in the Russian Federation if funding is made available. He concluded that carbon accounting could be improved if more detailed ecological information were collected and included in the federal forest and land account, and that remote sensing is the only feasible approach for carbon accounting of the unmanaged areas in the Russian Federation.
Listen to Zamolodchikov's conslusions

Discussion: Participants discussed the potential impact of melting permafrost on Russia's carbon flows and baseline scenarios.

More information:
Lars Laestadius <larsl@wri.org>
Dmitri Zamolodchikov <dzamolod@cepl.rssi.ru>

Implementing the UNFCCC: Three GEF projects and thoughts on future directions
Presented by the World Bank

At this event, project coordinators made presentations on GEF-supported projects in Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Morocco.

Jayantha Nagendran, Sri Lanka, underscores the need to integrate renewable energy into national policies.
Imran Ahmad, Pakistan, introduced Pakistan's study on climate change impact assessment and adaptation strategies. The study examined the impacts of climate change on water resources, agriculture and forestry, and assessed the health, industry and energy sectors' vulnerability to projected climate change. The study highlighted the vulnerability of ecosystems, outlined adaptation options, and provided input into the IPCC's Third Assessment Report. Ahmad noted that the study revealed the need to improve data availability and provide for continuity of projects in the area of climate change.

Jayantha Nagendran, Sri Lanka, introduced Sri Lanka's energy service delivery credit programme. He explained that the credit programme promotes private sector participation in providing grid and off-grid electricity services using renewable energies. One of the programme's objectives was the addition of 21 megawatts of private sector mini-hydro capacity to the grid, which was successfully achieved through the implementation of 16 projects. He highlighted the programme's innovative measures resulting in market acceptance of renewable energy projects.

Mohammed Berdai, Morocco, presented Morocco's recently launched project on market development of solar water heaters. The project's objectives include the introduction of incentives to develop a market for solar water heaters, and the improvement of product and service quality. The project is expected to achieve energy savings, generate employment and reduce GHG emissions by 2010. Berdai explained that a barrier analysis has identified several obstacles to implementing the project, such as low reliability of equipment and services and high investment cost. Lessons learned thus far include the need to involve local experts and to obtain local financing.

More information:
Imran Ahmad <ihahmad@hotmail.com>
Jayantha Nagendran <jayantha.nagendran@dfccbank.com>
Mohammed Berdai <berdai@mem.gov.ma>

Please visit the UNFCCC's "On Demand" webcast page for RealVideo coverage of this event

The role of ISO standards in finding climate change solutions
Presented by the International Organization for Standardization
Mark Barthel, ISO, emphasizes that ISO has the expertise and infrastructure to make a positive contribution in the prevention of climate change.

Mark Barthel, International Organization for Standardization (ISO), explained that ISO is a federation of 140 national standardization bodies and has developed and published over 13,000 international standards. ISO's Climate Change Task Force and Ad Hoc Group on Climate Change examine how ISO standards can play a role in the UNFCCC process. ISO is in the process of establishing an inventory of existing and proposed ISO standards that relate to climate change, including standards for road vehicles, building construction, refrigeration, thermal insulation, solar energy and hydrogen technology. He highlighted that ISO also operates a developing country programme, which aims to identify funding, raise awareness and strengthen capacity in matters related to standardization.

Kevin Boehmer, ISO, noted that under the CDM, proposed projects will need to be validated against eligibility criteria, and completed projects will need to be audited by a third party to verify the credits generated by the project. He explained that ISO has worked actively with the UNFCCC Secretariat to promote the use of existing ISO guidelines for the CDM. He said that existing ISO standards will likely be borrowed for accreditation and conformity assessment under the CDM. He added that ISO standards could also play a role in emissions trading.

Barthel noted that if ISO develops GHG emissions standards, they should facilitate compatibility between Kyoto Protocol Parties and the US, as it would be complicated to have two different systems. He emphasized that ISO will continue to maintain dialogue with the UNFCCC and other stakeholders, promote existing ISO standards that relate to climate change, and develop new standards that facilitate positive action to address climate change.

More information:
Mark Barthel <mark.barthel@bsi-global.com>
Kevin Boehmer <kevin.boehmer@csa.ca>

Please visit the UNFCCC's "On Demand" webcast page for RealVideo coverage of this event

How can shipping contribute to greenhouse gas emissions reductions?
Presented by the Norwegian Shipowners' Association

John Magne Skjelvik, ECON, notes international shipping accounts for two percent of global CO2 emissions, but is not included in the Kyoto Protocol.
Kjell Olav Skjølsvik, MARINTEK, and John Magne Skjelvik, Centre for Economic Analysis (ECON), presented the results of a recent study produced for the International Maritime Organization, which examined options for reducing GHG emissions from shipping through various technical, operational and market-based approaches.

Skjelvik stated that there is considerable scope for emissions reductions at moderate cost, including operational measures that could reduce emissions by up to 40 percent. He highlighted difficulties with regulating shipping emissions, including defining the territory of services (since shipping takes place beyond national control); determining the owner or responsible party; and capturing bunker fuel sales, which are sold offshore and independently of oil companies. The study found that voluntary measures, such as environmental indexing to indicate a ship's environmental performance, are not likely to be efficient tools to reduce emissions. It found that technical measures which focus on energy efficiency or emissions reductions would be more viable for new ships than for existing ships, as the latter would not be cost-effective.

The study noted that a carbon charge on bunker fuel would be difficult to implement, as it could be easily evaded, and collection and allocation of the revenue would be difficult. The study found that emissions allowance trading would be inviable for similar reasons, although credits from emissions reductions could be viable, as they could: allow sales of credits to emitters onshore for abatement measures beyond a baseline; connect baselines to technical standards; and provide strong economic incentives to reduce emissions.

The study concluded that: technical measures will have limited potential to reduce emissions; operational measures are the most promising means of controlling emissions but are difficult to pursue; and emissions reduction initiatives for new ship designs should be encouraged.

More information:
Kjell Olav Skjølsvik <kjellolav.skjolsvik@marinteck.sintef.no>
John Magne Skjelvik <john.skjelvik@econ.no>

Please visit the UNFCCC's "On Demand" webcast page for RealVideo coverage of this event

Climate regulation for aviation
Presented by Germanwatch

Beatrice Schell, T&E, notes that emissions from international aviation are one of the biggest loopholes in the Kyoto Protocol, and that COP-7 discussions on bunker fuels do not appear likely to produce concrete results.
Manfred Treber, Germanwatch, noted that the aviation sector is a significant source of global GHG emissions and is experiencing rapid growth. To illustrate the emissions intensity of aviation, he explained that one person flying in an airplane for one hour emits the same amount of GHGs as one person in Bangladesh in one year. He underscored the importance of introducing climate-friendly technologies immediately, given the inertia of the sector and the long lifespan of airplanes.
Listen to Treber's presentation

Beatrice Schell, European Federation for Transport and Environment (T&E), noted that bunker fuels continue to be a loophole in the UNFCCC, and international aviation emissions are not included in the Kyoto Protocol, although Article 2.2 does direct Parties to work through the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to limit or reduce these emissions. She said a resolution adopted at ICAO's recent assembly contained no guidance for immediate action, but did identify emissions trading, levies and voluntary measures as possible instruments and encouraged short-term action by States, particularly through voluntary measures. She said the resolution falls short of what is needed, as it focuses only on CO2 (which constitutes only one third of international aviation emissions) and lacks concrete reduction objectives.
Listen to Schell's presentation

Schell outlined several measures needed to reduce international aviation emissions, including: a reduction target, of perhaps five percent; allocation of emissions to Parties; more in-depth discussion of ICAO options, possibly in a workshop; and a concrete implementation plan, such as immediate implementation of emissions charges. She advocated the introduction of a charge on international aviation emissions, as they are easy to implement in the short term, could be earmarked to address environmental impacts, and can influence demand as well as supply by providing incentives to the industry to optimize technology, load factors and routes.

Discussion: Participants discussed how a charge on international aviation emissions would be designed. It was noted that the EU, which has long been interested in implementing such a charge, is currently conducting a study on the issue. Participants also discussed the effect of the recent terrorist attacks; one participant noted that, with airlines' profits plummeting, the implementation of a charge in the near term is unlikely. Regarding the impact of a charge on the price of a plane ticket, it was suggested that the increase would be marginal but could have a significant impact on reducing the projected growth in emissions.

More information:
Manfred Treber <RioKonkret@germanwatch.org>
Beatrice Schell <beatrice.schell@t-e.nu>

For further RealVideo coverage of these and other side-events at COP-7,
please visit the UNFCCC's "On Demand" webcast page

The Earth Negotiations Bulletin (ENB) on the side is a special publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) in cooperation with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Secretariat. The Editor of ENB on the side is Kira Schmidt <kira@iisd.org>. This issue has been written by Fiona Koza <fiona@iisd.org>, Dagmar Lohan <dagmar@iisd.org>, and Kira Schmidt <kira@iisd.org>. The Digital Editors are Andrei Henry <andrei@iisd.org>, Leila Mead <leila@iisd.org> and Kenneth Tong <ken@iisd.org>. Funding for publication of ENB on the side at COP-7 is provided by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The opinions expressed in ENB on the side are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and funders. Excerpts from ENB on the side may be used in non-commercial publications only and only with appropriate academic citation. For permission to use this material in commercial publications, contact the Managing Editor at <kimo@iisd.org>. Electronic versions of these issues of ENB on the side from COP-6 Part II can be found on the Linkages WWW server at http://enb.iisd.org/climate/cop7/enbots/.

� 2001, IISD. All rights reserved.

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