ENB on the side
published by IISD, the International Institute for Sustainable Development
in cooperation with the Climate Change Secretariat.
Special Report on Selected Side Events at SB-20

16 - 25 June 2004, Bonn, Germany

Summary of the Side Events from

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Events convened on Friday, 18 June 2004

Projects under Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol: Joint Implementation

Presented by the UNFCCC

Highlighting that Joint Implementation (JI) was a critical element of the Marrakech Accords, Christine Zumkeller, UNFCCC, noted that a balance was struck in Marrakech between environmental integrity and economic attractiveness. Acknowledging that more attention has been given to the CDM than to JI so far, she stated that the UNFCCC Secretariat envisions a dynamic process for JI following the first COP/Meeting of the Parties and the establishment of a JI supervisory committee.

Sushma Gera, Canada’s Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, outlined the results of the first UNFCCC Workshop on the Implementation of Article 6 Projects, held in Moscow, Russian Federation, from 26-27 May 2004. She explained that Workshop participants discussed, inter alia, setting up national institutions, facilitating arrangements, and unlocking project potential. Gera noted that potential host and investor countries described their experiences with early project activities, and members of the CDM Executive Board also shared their experiences. She highlighted that all presentations from the Workshop are available on the UNFCCC website.

Daniela Stoycheva, Bulgaria’s Ministry of Environment and Water, underscores that JI projects provide Bulgaria with economic, environmental and social benefits.

Sergey Tulinov, Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and
Environmental Monitoring, identified the need to accelerate the establishment of simple and transparent national procedures for JI in the Russian Federation. He said the first UNFCCC Workshop on Implementation of Article 6 Projects was a good start as it allowed participants to exchange views, information and experiences.

Regarding JI projects in Bulgaria, Daniela Stoycheva, Bulgaria’s Ministry of Environment and Water, highlighted that her country has signed Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs) with the Netherlands, Austria, Denmark, Switzerland and the World Bank Protocol Carbon Fund, and noted that Denmark is helping Bulgaria update its JI procedures and criteria. She said Bulgaria is exploring the possibility of introducing a green investment scheme, and expressed concern that the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and Linking Directive might limit JI possibilities. Emphasizing that it is arduous for Bulgaria to follow the different criteria imposed by various investor countries, Stoycheva noted that the Netherlands will host a workshop to consider establishing common formats and procedures, at least within the EU. She expressed concern that the majority of JI investments will go to the Russian Federation, and urged investor countries to consider geographical balance.

Jan Pretel, Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, highlighted a reasonably high JI potential in the Czech Republic. He noted that the Czech Government recently approved a national climate change action plan, which is relevant for JI activities, and that the country would have a registry in place by the end of this year or next.

Peter Pedersen, Danish Environmental Protection Agency, highlighted that while Denmark has achieved considerable domestic emission reductions, it also intends to use the Kyoto Protocol mechanisms as they are cost effective. He said Denmark is interested in “greening” JI projects, such as Bulgaria’s potential green investment scheme, and would like to maintain a diverse portfolio of JI projects in a variety of Central and Eastern European countries.

Reginald Hernaus, Netherlands’ Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and Environment, said the Netherlands will manage risk by maintaining geographical balance in its JI activities, and has already signed MOUs with Bulgaria, Latvia, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. He said that harmonization of JI documents may be worthwhile, and expressed satisfaction that increased attention is now being given to JI.

Georg Børsting, CDM Executive Board, said the UNFCCC Workshop on the Implementation of Article 6 Projects demonstrated that while there is considerable potential for, and interest, in JI, there are also significant challenges. He stated that it is possible to learn from the experiences of the CDM, particularly with regard to institutions and procedures, accreditation, and methodolocial issues, but underscored that there are important differences between the CDM and JI.

Panelists discuss the first UNFCCC Workshop on the Implementation of Article 6 Projects, held in Moscow, Russian Federation.
Christine Zumkeller <czumkeller@unfccc.int>
Sushma Gera <sushma.gera@dfait-maeci.gc.ca>
Sergey Tulinov <tulinovs@mecom.ru>
Daniela Stoycheva <dstoytcheva@moew.government.bg>
Jan Pretel <pretel@chmi.cz>
Peter Pedersen <pep@mst.dk>
Reginald Hernaus <reggie.hernaus@minvrom.nl>
Georg Børsting <georg.borsting@md.dep.no>

Adaptation to climate change in the frame of local disaster risk reduction

Presented by German Technical Cooperation (GTZ)

Holger Liptow, GTZ Climate Protection Programme (CaPP), outlined GTZ’s approach to adaptation, including pilot projects in Mozambique and steps being taken by the GTZ toward mainstreaming adaptation into sustainable development.

Elisabeth Mausolf, GTZ, explained that CaPP aims to mainstream climate protection and impact concerns into the daily project work of GTZ, integrate adaptation into national sustainable development programmes and build institutional capacity. Noting that CaPP takes a holistic approach to adaptation, she said that GTZ intervenes only upon request from developing countries. She added that CaPP’s approach consists of awareness raising within German development cooperation, outreach through supporting initiatives like the International Secretariat for Disaster Reduction, and specific country initiatives. Mausolf elaborated on the process of identifying areas for adaptation and initial screening for prioritizing sectors. She emphasized that CaPP works with the experienced disaster response community.

Wolfgang Stiebens, GTZ, showcased a documentary titled “Local disaster risk management in relation to climate change as part of rural development in Central Mozambique.” He explained that this project was initiated as a response to the floods in the Buzi River Basin in 2000, and provides a model for disaster risk management. Stiebens highlighted that project activities include supporting the local Red Cross for disaster preparedness, creating local district committees for risk management, and promoting better construction to prevent cyclone damage. He emphasized that GTZ’s approach was based on field experiences in El Salvador, which focus on the concept of a permanent risk analysis approach, rather than an emergency-based one.

Discussion: Answering a question on the scarcity of resources for the transfer of early-warning techniques to the community, Stiebens replied that GTZ’s approach prepares local committees for risk management and uses the district’s resources for risk management, integrating the whole process into rural development. With regard to a question on the role of local knowledge, Stiebens noted that GTZ’s approach works not only on the basis of community acceptance but also attempts to recover traditional coping strategies. Responding to a concern regarding the need to consider land-use planning in the adaptation approach, Stiebens noted that the GTZ had not addressed this yet. Several participants also expressed concern about coordinating adaptation efforts with National Adaptation Programmes of Action.

Elisabeth Mausolf, GTZ, highlights that risk is a function of hazard and vulnerability of people and the ecological system.
Wolfgang Stiebens, GTZ, notes that the disaster risk management techniques were introduced into district planning and integrated into rural development.
Real Audio
Holger Liptow <holger.liptow@gtz.de>
Elisabeth Mausolf <elisabeth.mausolf@gtz.de>
Wolfgang Stiebens <stiebens@vt.edu>

PROCLIM as a response to climate change and air pollution in Peru

Presented by Peru’s National Environmental Authority

Maria Paz Cigaran, Peru’s National Environmental Authority, presented Peru’s integrated programme to deal with climate change and air pollution (PROCLIM). She noted that PROCLIM seeks to strengthen national capabilities in order to deal with climate change and air pollution in priority areas. Noting Peru’s particularly high vulnerability to climate change, she described PROCLIM’s thematic lines relating to: vulnerability and adaptation; inventories, mitigation and the CDM; and information dissemination and training. Highlighting that the programme benefits both public and private institutions, Cigaran emphasized the participatory nature of this initiative and explained the process of creating Peru’s National Strategy on Climate Change and a strategy on air quality. Drawing attention to the poor air quality in Lima due to the bad fuel quality and aerial point sources, she noted PROCLIM’s attempt to integrate air pollution control and greenhouse gas mitigation measures.

Pierre Chevallier, France’s Research Institute for Development, presented a case study showing the effect of climate change on a tropical glacier in Peru and its impact on water resources in the Rio Santa Basin. He demonstrated increasing temperature trends over the past 50 years in this area, and a strong relationship between temperature change and glacier outflows. The study computed future discharge in the river basin and predicted that while the water flow would increase in the near future, ultimately climate change would have a serious impact on water resource allocation and use in the basin.

Julio Garcia, Peru’s National Environmental Authority, discussed vulnerability and adaptation issues and highlighted the impacts of the El Niño phenomenon. He noted increased annual trends in emergencies related to natural hazards, stating that 85% could be climate change related.

Cigaran then emphasized some of the lessons learned from PROCLIM, including: the need to spend time on project design; the importance of a good follow-up scheme; and the need to involve the entire organization and allow time for the project to mature. Responding to a question on whether the institutions involved in PROCLIM were private or public, Cigaran said that all types of institutions, including non-governmental organizations, were involved.

Maria Paz Cigaran, Peru’s National Environmental Authority, stresses the importance of integrating national efforts to reduce local air pollution with international processes.

Julio Garcia, Peru’s National Environmental Authority, underscores the importance of having a vision of sustainable development that that includes climate change measures, and not vice versa.

Maria Paz Cigaran <mpcigaran@conam.gob.pe>
Pierre Chevalier <chevalli@msem.univ-montp2.fr>
Julio Garcia <jgarcia@conam.gob.pe>

Climate-friendly technologies: The role of governments, business and the
finance sector

Presented by the International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer (ICETT)

Shigetaka Seki, Japan’s Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry, said the Climate Technology Initiative (CTI) is a multilateral initiative that facilitates the transfer of environmentally sound technologies.

Elmer Holt, US Department of Energy, highlighted CTI’s close collaboration with the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Expert Group on Technology Transfer (EGTT). He outlined CTI’s activities, including technology needs assessments (TNAs), seminars and symposia, implementation activities, training courses and information dissemination.

Morihiro Kurushima, New and Industrial Technology Development Organization, elaborated on the Industry Joint Seminar on technology diffusion in Southeast Asia and small Pacific island States. He explained that the objectives of the Seminar were to heighten awareness of climate change issues and promote interaction among all stakeholders. Kurushima noted that the outcomes of the Seminar included an assessment of the current energy situation, renewable energy options, regional cooperation and governmental assistance.

Noting Canada’s financial contribution to the CTI, Margaret Martin, Natural Resources Canada, discussed the seminar on technology transfer and diffusion held in New Delhi, India in March 2004, which focused on challenges and lessons learned from transferring and implementing climate-friendly technologies in India. She outlined the seminar’s recommendations, including make information on
climate technology and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) more accessible to Indians, and the need to discuss both conventional and renewable energy technologies. Martin underscored that enabling environments are necessary for lasting and meaningful technology transfer.

Martin, Seki, and Holt discussed the role of governments, business and the finance sector in the promotion, diffusion and implementation of climate-friendly technologies. Martin noted the difficulty of linking policy with practice and products, and highlighted CTI’s involvement in assisting this process. Holt addressed the challenge of involving the finance community in creating climate-friendly technologies and highlighted the UN Environment Programme’s focus on innovative finance as a solution. Holt announced a UNFCCC Workshop on the further engagement of the private sector in climate technologies that will be held in Canada in September 2004.

In the ensuing discussion, one participant asked how previous experiences on technology transfer are integrated into new TNA programmes. Holt responded that it occurs through dissemination of information and development of networks of experts, especially at regional and national levels. Other questions addressed the successes and follow-up projects of TNAs, access to TNA databases, technical collaboration and the need for strengthened regional organizations as nodes for communication.

Elmer Holt, US Department of Energy, stresses that technology transfer is a multi-stakeholder activity.
Morihiro Kurushima, New and Industrial Technology Development Organization, discusses seminars and symposiums held by the CTI and industry on technological diffusion.   
Shigetaka Seki <sek-shigetaka@meti.go.jp>
Elmer Holt <elmer.holt@hq.doe.gov>
Morihiro Kurushima <kurushimamrh@nedo.go.jp>
Margaret Martin <memartin@nrcan.gc.ca>

Earth observations: The GEO initiative and synergy with GCOS

Presented by the delegations of the European Commision, Japan, South Africa and the US

Anver Ghazi, European Commission, outlined the structure of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), which is comprised of 50 countries and 29 organizations. He highlighted the commitments made at the first Earth Observation Summit in 2003, which recognized the need to move toward a comprehensive, coordinated and sustained Earth observation system or systems, and called for the preparation of a 10-year implementation plan as well as the creation of an ad hoc Group on Earth Observations.

Naoko Sugita, Japan’s Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, noted the adoption of the Framework Document for a 10-year implementation plan at the Earth Observation Summit II held in held in Tokyo, Japan in 2004. She outlined the Framework Document, which addresses: key Earth observation areas; shortcomings of current observation systems benefits; the components of a 10-year implementation plan for establishing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS); and the outcomes of the GEOSS. Sugita concluded that by 2005, implementation of the 10-year implementation plan would require the establishment of a ministerial-guided successor mechanism.

Linda Moodie, US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, said that the Implementation Plan Task Team (IPTT) was created at a GEO-3 meeting to prepare the 10-year implementation plan. She said the IPTT is preparing a draft outline for the plan that includes the plan’s: scope; origin and purpose; societal benefits, such as health, energy and climate benefits; and requirements. In closing, Moodie said the technical draft would be available by 19 July 2004.

Paul Mason, Natural Environment Research Council, highlighted the Global Climate Observing System’s (GCOS) mission and their strategy to, inter-alia, identify observational requirements for climate application, build on existing systems to the extent possible, and develop strategies for resource mobilization. Mason said that a draft implementation plan for GCOS has been prepared in response to a request at the ninth Conference of the Parties (COP-9) to the UNFCCC and is available for review at the GCOS website.

Stefan Rösner, Germany’s National Meteorological Service, highlighted COP-9 Decision 11/CP.9 (Global observing systems for climate), which invites the GCOS Secretariat and the ad hoc Group on Earth Observations to collaborate closely in developing their respective implementation plans. He noted socioeconomic benefits of the Framework Document and stressed the importance of governmental participation in the GEO process, as well as civil society and intergovernmental participation in Earth observations.

Naoko Sugita, Japan’s Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, highlights improved management of energy resources as one benefit of the Framework Document for a 10-year implementation plan.

Stefan Rösner, Germany’s National Meteorological Service, highlights that a benefit of the Framework Document is the participation of developing countries and their opportunity to derive socioeconomic benefits.

Real Audio
Anver Ghazi <anver.ghazi@cec.eu.int>
Naoko Sugita <nsugita@mext.go.jp>
Linda Moodie <linda.moodie@noaa.gov>
Paul Mason <p.j.mason@reading.ac.uk>
Stefan Rösner <stefan.roesner@dwd.de>

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