Sustainable Developments Vol. 24 No. 5

Sustainable Developments

SD Main Page ~ Download PDF ~ Download Text ~ Back

The free Adobe(R) Acrobat(R) Reader allows you to view, navigate, and print PDF files across all major computing platforms.


26-30 APRIL 1999

The Cultural Site Management (CSM) Workshop, co-sponsored by the World Bank Institute and the World Bank’s Culture and Development Anchor, took place from 26-30 April 1999 at World Bank headquarters in Washington, DC. The Workshop brought together nearly fifty participants, including cultural site management experts, professionals working on cultural heritage sites from the Bank’s client countries, and World Bank staff involved in cultural heritage and development projects, to discuss issues, challenges and practical approaches to sustainable management of culturally valuable sites.

The rationale for the Workshop was based on the World Bank’s current work on implementing or preparing projects with CSM components in eight countries (Albania, Croatia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Georgia, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey), and the growing demand for guidance on CSM planning from developing countries. The field of CSM is in its early stages of development and is rapidly becoming a multi-disciplinary activity wherein conservation and use are incorporating social, economic and community considerations. The Bank is seeking to encourage project implementation and information dissemination based on an integrated approach to CSM, and the Workshop sought to define the issues, document and analyze the approaches, and begin to develop training materials for CSM.

The Workshop was divided into two parts: definition of issues and practices for CSM planning and operation through discussion of specific sites; and planning and developing an outline for a CSM educational program. The specific objectives of the Workshop were to: identify issues, challenges and problems associated with CSM; ascertain strategies for CSM; identify strategy implications for specific Bank-financed projects with CSM components; formulate an action plan for each CSM component of a Bank-financed project; draft an outline for a CSM educational program; identify financial issues in CSM in preparation for a working group at the upcoming conference on financing cultural heritage conservation in October 1999; and initiate an international network of CSM personnel.

During the first three days of the Workshop, participants heard presentations on specific case studies of CSM and engaged in discussions on four themes: natural and cultural attributes of sites (including environment, land use and zoning, and conservation); the site locale (including community participation, security and infrastructure); authority structure and financial support (including ownership/regulation/incentives, managerial authority structure and financial support); and usage of sites (including tourism, interpretation and education).

They then met in small groups to distill lessons from these discussions and develop site action plans for specific Bank- financed projects in Albania, Croatia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Jordan, and Turkey. Participants also engaged in a video- conference discussion with participants of the Byblos Site Management Workshop at the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. For the remainder of the Workshop, participants worked to develop an outline for a CSM educational program aimed at relevant World Bank staff and client country officials. They also offered suggestions for agenda items for a working group on financial issues in CSM at an upcoming conference on financing cultural heritage conservation and initiating an international network of CSM personnel.


In his opening statement, Workshop Facilitator Peter Auer, Curriculum Development Specialist, World Bank Institute (WBI), welcomed participants and expressed satisfaction at the considerable collective expertise of those present.

Gloria Davis, Director, Social Development Family, Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development (ESSD), World Bank, discussed the Bank’s efforts to examine the impact of its policies on people and society, as well as the impact of people and society on development projects. She noted that the concept of development is being broadened to include explicitly social objectives, particularly poverty reduction and inclusion of socially marginalized groups. She observed that when the Bank began work on culture and development, it focused on heritage in general, but she explained that the concept is being continuously refined to incorporate the important role that culture plays in development. She explained that the role of the Bank is to cooperate with communities whose heritage is affected in designing and implementing culture and development projects that not only benefit tourists but also empower local people, contribute to economic development and reduce poverty.

Kreszentia (Tia) Duer, Leader, Culture and Sustainable Development Program, Special Programs/ESSD, World Bank, described the Bank’s Culture and Sustainable Development Program. Noting that this is a relatively new area of activity for the Bank, she emphasized the importance of quality CSM in ensuring that projects do not introduce pressures that might degrade a site. The Bank’s role in this process is to bring together stakeholders and encourage CSM planning that involves local communities and employs a holistic perspective. The Bank’s comparative advantage is its experience in large-scale, complex development programs as well as its access to government ministers and other high-level decision makers. She noted that the Bank’s program will be at the cutting edge of the development process and that its aim is to establish ongoing participation and communication between relevant groups and individuals.

Dennis Mahar, Manager, Environment and Natural Resources Group, WBI, explained WBI’s involvement in training and capacity building, highlighting its consultation with local populations on projects. He noted that WBI is just beginning work in the area of CSM, and thus the Workshop’s findings would be valuable in guiding its future work.

Arlene Fleming, Cultural Resource Specialist, World Bank, emphasized the timeliness and importance of CSM in this first wave of the Bank’s culture and development projects. In response to numerous requests for Bank assistance with CSM, the Workshop was conceived to bring together CSM experts, staff involved in CSM planning from client countries, and Bank personnel working on cultural heritage projects to ascertain how to create the most successful project components in site management.

She outlined the objectives of the Workshop and explained the four topics to be considered: natural and cultural attributes of sites, which includes environment, land use and zoning, and conservation; the site locale, which includes community participation, security and infrastructure; authority structure and financial support, which includes ownership/regulation/incentives, managerial authority structure and financial support; and usage of sites, which includes tourism, interpretation and education.

Following these opening remarks, participants convened in small discussion groups to identify issues and questions for consideration by the Workshop, which they then presented to the group as a whole. These addressed, inter alia: the nature of the Bank’s relationship with outside partners and how they can help improve the impact at sites; the uneven geographical distribution of current Bank contributions to cultural heritage management projects; best examples of private-public partnerships; how cultural sites should be managed in conflict situations; the Bank’s progress in developing a methodology for evaluating and costing cultural site assets; and how an effective link can be established between income generated from tourism and site preservation.

In response to questions on the relationship between the Bank and other organizations, Tia Duer said partnerships are critical to the Culture and Sustainable Development Program, with current efforts focusing on networking with relevant groups and developing fledgling partnerships. She explained that current inequalities in regional distribution would soon be resolved now that the Bank’s Board of Directors has endorsed further development of this area. Participants discussed development of a methodology for evaluating and costing cultural site assets, which was acknowledged to be in its infancy.


On Monday afternoon, participants heard presentations on specific cultural heritage sites and discussed natural and cultural attributes of CSM, including environment, land use and zoning, and conservation considerations.

PRESENTATIONS: Giovanni Boccardi, UNESCO Program Specialist for Culture, made a presentation on the Baptism Site on the eastern bank of the Jordan River, where remains of a monastery, church and ancient hermits’ caves were identified. He explained that plans are now being prepared to develop the site for tourists. The site now exists in a pristine natural environment but will be visited by millions of pilgrims, and the challenge is how to develop the site without altering its character. He also presented on the Umm Qais site in northern Jordan, site of the ancient city of Gadara and a 19th century Ottoman village. The government is now faced with options for its exploitation, including the return of the previously resettled villagers, or sale to a large investor for a five-star hotel development, and must evaluate what the most appropriate model of development for this site would be.

Naomi Miller, Senior Research Scientist, University of Pennsylvania Museum, discussed environmental issues in site management at Gordion in central Anatolia, Turkey, an important site dating from the late second millenium BC. She discussed the effects of changes in vegetation and said erosion has posed threats to burial mounds such as the Midas Tumulus. She noted that a revegetation project is underway, and although it is mitigating some of the effects of erosion, it raises many questions, including how much intervention is necessary or desirable and whether previous vegetation should be re- established and, if so, from which period. She concluded that effective site management should employ a wider perspective that considers the larger environmental setting as well as the archaeological remains of the site itself.

Nicholas Stanley-Price, Professor, University College, London, emphasized that there are values beyond a cultural heritage site’s historical significance to consider when formulating plans for its preservation. He noted a divergence in the past between natural and cultural heritage, often due to different government ministries being responsible for each. This separation is increasingly recognized as arbitrary, as areas preserved for their natural value often encompass well-preserved archaeological sites and vice versa. He presented the case of the Coa Valley Archaeological Park in northern Portugal, where Paleolithic rock engravings were found on the banks of the River Douro while the area was being surveyed for construction of a hydroelectric dam. Following protests against the potential loss of these sites to inundation, the dam was canceled and an archaeological park created. The problem was how to preserve the area, rarely visited and in a relatively pristine natural environment, while also responding to the public's interests in visiting the relics. He outlined efforts to balance these interests, such as strict limits on the number of visitors, and initiatives to diversify the area’s economy to enable local people to benefit from the park.

Zoraida Demori-Stanicic, Conservation Department, Ministry of Culture, Croatia, made a presentation on the Salona archaeological site, the largest site on the Croatian coast. Describing the ancient settlement’s development, she outlined problems facing the site, including: its proximity to the town of Solin, which has infringed on the site due to urbanization and infrastructure and industrial development; the considerable distance between the site and its museum; and the absence of a connection between the site and the local community. She outlined a plan to protect the site’s archaeological and cultural heritage, present the site more effectively, and improve information for tourist and educational purposes. She stressed the importance of establishing a bond between the archaeological site and the local community.

Tia Duer made a presentation on the Butrint site in southern Albania. She explained that the challenge is ascertaining how to bring tourism into the area without irreparably degrading its pristine natural setting, given corruption and vested interests, shifting government interests in developing mass tourism, the local population’s interests in maintaining its tranquility, the need to incorporate conservation set-asides and heritage areas, and questions of how to stem expansion of a nearby town.

DISCUSSION: Following these presentations, participants engaged in a Plenary discussion, raising questions and issues relating to natural and cultural attributes of sites, including: conflict between different values and the importance of effective decision-making tools; site ownership and who determines it; emphasis on a holistic approach that considers the wider environment within which sites are located; and the importance of dialogue, advocacy and awareness-raising. In discussing key principles, one participant emphasized that CSM planning should: assess and recognize a site’s natural and cultural values by conducting an assessment of its significance at the outset; adopt a formal holistic assessment process that involves all relevant stakeholders; use the assessment to guide management decisions; and recognize time and budget considerations. Participants said one option that may arise from a significance assessment is that it is preferable to leave the site alone. The moral correctness of relocating people or materials from a site was questioned and the importance of public involvement emphasized.

One participant asked how the Bank would respond to a government request for assistance in an infrastructure development project that could potentially threaten a cultural heritage site. World Bank representatives explained that environmental assessments are required during the planning phase for projects seeking Bank support and that these assessments take into account cultural assets. It was noted that the petitioning government, not the Bank, would have to fund the assessment, as the ownership of such an assessment must belong to the government.

One speaker explained that the Bank carries out “sector work” in sectors such as energy or transport, in which a comprehensive study of that sector is undertaken for the country as a whole, and this study sets the framework for Bank policy development in that sector. He proposed consideration of sector work on cultural heritage, with steps including inventory and prioritization of sites. Another responded that the Bank has already begun doing diagnostic work in certain localities, sometimes at a regional level.

A question was posed regarding the Bank’s comparative advantage in doing sector work in this area and what the scope of its intervention should be, given that there are other organizations undertaking such activities, such as UNESCO. It was emphasized that the Bank should utilize expertise that already exists. For World Heritage Sites, Parties to the World Heritage Convention have mandated the World Heritage Committee to oversee operations in these sites prior to Bank intervention. One participant underscored the need for greater coordination between key players to enhance effectiveness in this area. She expressed concern about the absence of a convention that relates to cultural heritage management for World Heritage Cultural Sites. Another responded that the World Heritage Convention does address such management, and UNESCO has encouraged nations to practice better site management, but this has been pushed to the back burner as countries clamber to get their sites on the World Heritage List. One participant observed that the state of documentation has been fragmentary and site development and management under-funded in the past.

A group of participants met later to distill conclusions from these discussions and presented them to the Workshop. They outlined key principles identified by participants, including, inter alia: recognition of the natural and cultural values associated with any cultural heritage project; participation of relevant stakeholders from the outset of project development; provision of adequate time, budgets and expertise to conduct effective assessments as a prerequisite for project support; inclusion of regional and national management planning; and development of a methodology by the Bank for locally-based CSM.


On Tuesday morning, participants heard presentations and engaged in group discussions on the site locale, which included issues of community participation, security and infrastructure.

PRESENTATIONS: Pietronella Van Den Oever, Environmental Sociologist, Environment and Natural Resources, WBI, identified necessary conditions for cultural heritage preservation, including technical, economic, socio-cultural and stakeholder factors. She emphasized that stakeholder participation is essential from the start of the process as it taps into a precious resource, helps distribute benefits equitably, and ensures social inclusion while reducing the likelihood of opposition and conflict. She said the costs of failing to involve stakeholders are considerable. Steps to involve stakeholders include: social and gender analysis, including identifying stakeholders and their respective roles; participation; and mediation/conflict prevention. She presented a model for working through the process of cultural heritage preservation projects that includes motivational assessment of key stakeholders, technical and economic analysis of resources needed for project implementation, and gender and social analysis to determine sufficient conditions for project success.

Joseph King, Coordinator, Africa 2009 Program, ICCROM, emphasized the importance of community involvement in all phases of the site planning process: implementation, monitoring, maintenance, and adjustment for the future. He stressed the need to utilize and respect a community’s existing mechanisms for participation, while recognizing that a variety of interests and values will exist within any community and ensuring that all are given a voice in the process. He also noted that site security can be significantly enhanced with community involvement.

Yoseph Libsekal, Director, National Museum of Eritrea, presented information on a number of valuable cultural heritage sites in Eritrea. He highlighted methods to involve local communities in the planning of the Gohayto site, including discussions with them to learn their oral history, understand the local ecology, assess community sentiments about the site, inventory the site’s cultural assets, and develop programs to train local people as guides, interpreters and site managers. He reiterated that actively involving the community contributes to protection of sites from degradation.

Mario Bravo, Cultural Heritage Consultant, discussed recent stakeholder involvement in CSM in Ouro Preto, Brazil. He detailed the tensions between the city’s economic requirements and its preservation as a historic site. He identified its key challenges: managing change without transforming the environment; building consensus out of public discord and a lack of trust; identifying viable alternatives to attract industries that would not degrade the site; and implementing change within a relatively short time frame. Steps to revitalize the economy while preserving cultural heritage included: cross-dialogues between all sectors of society; education and a public information process, particularly through engagement of the local school children; and a long-term perspective. He concluded that there are considerable benefits from communications campaigns that aim to involve the community, adding that an informed and educated community is necessary and stakeholder involvement throughout the process is essential.

Atakilti Hagege, Director, Bureau of Culture, Tourism and Information, Ethiopia, outlined the challenges and viable solutions in cultural heritage management in Tigrai, northern Ethiopia. He proposed: establishing training institutions in client countries and cooperating with existing local institutions of higher learning to develop viable curricula in cultural conservation to address the shortage of skilled architects, archaeologists and curators; investing in cultural infrastructure to transform cultural resources into tourism products; and developing and implementing training programs for site personnel, making them direct beneficiaries from tourism revenues, and improving international information exchange on trafficking of stolen artifacts to reduce theft of movable cultural heritage. He highlighted the creation of interdependence between tourists, host communities and attraction sites as a fundamental basis for sustainable cultural heritage management. He also noted that war is the primary threat to cultural heritage and urged enforcement of basic principles, conventions and international law in this regard.

DISCUSSION: In an ensuing discussion, participants raised a number of issues and questions for the presenters. One highlighted political tensions between different parties involved in site management, such as certain parties who may seek to hamper full participation of all stakeholders, and stressed the need to address this issue. Another speaker noted that, when discussing different stakeholders’ values and needs, one must consider the temporal dimension and tensions between “the real” (the short term) and “the ideal” (the long term). For instance, while a local community may value the cultural and historical significance of a site, if they are living in poverty, the urgency to fulfill their basic needs may be more pressing than CSM concerns.

Participants then broke into small groups to address the problems identified, propose solutions, and identify any other issues and concerns related to the site locale, then presented their conclusions to the Workshop as a whole. The first group noted that specialists must be trained to work well with the public and that trained staff should originate from the community to reduce suspicion and increase local understanding. They emphasized the importance of capacity building and said all projects should include a training component. They noted that evaluation is important but cautioned that measuring only economic benefits may be too simplistic and that a methodology for evaluating all benefits should be developed. The second group emphasized the importance of scale and the need to address and integrate national, regional and local factors to achieve successful outcomes. Highlighting the local perspective, they said a strategic approach to identifying and resolving crucial problems is required, as is the use of cultural resources to produce cultural products so the local population benefits. Relevant stakeholders should be identified and encouraged to educate each other about important issues in order to promote understanding and agreement.

The third group stressed the importance of mechanisms for achieving effective participation, such as: ensuring that all stakeholders can participate and receive comprehensive information about the alternatives and their likely outcomes; increasing the number of stakeholders; involving a facilitator who is neutral and trusted by all parties; empowering all stakeholders to negotiate and trade; and guaranteeing follow-up on participatory decisions. The group noted that mechanisms for conflict resolution should be developed. The fourth group said a successful CSM process should: identify stakeholders in a systematic way; link the aims and interests of heritage conservation with broader concerns and community needs; minimize the social and economic costs and avoid disruptions caused by relocation; work with communities to identify pressures early enough to be able to influence them; ensure participation in all stages of the planning and management of sites; and foster trust among stakeholders.


On Tuesday afternoon, participants heard presentations and engaged in group discussions on authority structure and financial support, including issues of ownership/regulation/incentives, managerial authority structure and financial support.

PRESENTATIONS: Sharon Sullivan, former Executive Director, Australian Heritage Commission, presented a planning model for the management of archaeological sites. She said the first steps should be to document a site’s history and identify and involve key groups that have an interest in the site or influence its management. A significance assessment to determine the site’s values and a management assessment to identify constraints and opportunities that will influence its management should both be undertaken. Management policies can then be defined and strategies developed to achieve management objectives, including strategies for maintenance, conservation, visitor management, ongoing local involvement, and business. Implementation, monitoring and reassessment are the final steps. She emphasized the importance of moving strategically in small steps and involving local actors and managers in the management plan.

Giora Solar, Director of Conservation, Getty Conservation Institute, presented the case of the Beit-Shean site in Israel as an example of a successful management plan. He highlighted employment generation for the local community and discovery of the scientific and touristic values of the site as evidence of the plan’s success. He described the creation of a decision- making mechanism that included the National Parks Authority, the Antiquities Authority, a financing body, and town residents, with the town mayor acting as Chairman. An implementation committee decided on the need for a master plan for the town, which recognized that the site was to be developed and should bring benefits to the town. He highlighted efforts such as the implementation of a program to train local maintenance personnel and tour guides that enabled the community to reap economic benefits from the site.

Geoffrey Wainwright, former Chief Archaeologist, English Heritage, focused on economic and political issues involved in recent CSM developments at Stonehenge. Noting that Stonehenge is one of Britain’s heritage icons, he said it has been described by a parliamentary committee as “a national disgrace.” Problems include the proximity of two roads and substandard visitor facilities. He reported that English Heritage and the National Trust plan to improve the site. Reforms include closing one nearby road and tunneling another, which will be funded by the British Government. A new visitor center is planned for a nearby town, and a commercial partner is being sought to develop it. The landscape around Stonehenge will be restored and nearby fences pulled down in an effort to improve visitors’ experience and revitalize the surrounding landscape. He explained that these reforms were possible only after a protracted political process lasting sixteen years and involving four government departments. He emphasized the importance of political will.

Frank Penna, Principal, Frank J. Penna and Associates, Inc., discussed measures to mobilize investment in tourism, highlighting the Bank’s efforts to encourage investment in coastal tourism development in southern Albania. He said the challenge is to harness tourism to produce societal benefits while preventing site degradation. He emphasized that mobilizing investment requires that the investment climate be improved to make it more attractive to the tourism industry. He noted that the Bank lends heavily for both components of the investment climate: legislation on land use, zoning and regional planning and its enforcement, and infrastructure. He described an innovative initiative by the Bank to seek direct participation from the trekking and small hotel industries to make recommendations on where and how to best target investment. He also highlighted the formation of joint ventures between local communities and foreign tour operators to foster the trekking industry in Bolivia.

Jane Covington, MBA student, University of Virginia, discussed Zanzibar’s Stone Town Conservation Plan to preserve the location’s historic character and benefit residents and visitors. The Aga Khan Trust for Culture, in partnership with the government, implemented this project, which included four elements: surveying the town, including documenting building types, significant buildings and infrastructure quality, and conducting a household survey with economic and employment details; developing an action plan for new construction in order to manage change; enacting necessary legislation; and disseminating information about the plan to relevant stakeholders through a variety of methods, including training sessions, television and newspapers. She emphasized the Aga Khan Trust’s effectiveness at sharing responsibility for funding and encouraging community self-reliance.

Tulin Sermin Ozduran, Architect, Ministry of Culture, Turkey, made a presentation on the Pamukkale-Hierapolis site in Turkey. She noted efforts to develop and maintain the site to protect its natural and archaeological characteristics and prevent degradation by tourism. She described a national competition to be launched by the government to spur efforts to enhance archaeological remains at Hierapolis. Some initiatives undertaken thus far include restoration works and landscaping.

DISCUSSION: Participants convened in small groups to discuss the implications of these presentations for site management in general. Highlighting management structure, authority structure and financing as key elements, they noted that major sites require national government participation, political will and high-level support, and underscored the Bank’s role in ascertaining political commitment. They stressed that community participation and support can help secure political backing and endorsement of CSM plans. On financing, they recommended that mechanisms be established to ensure that revenue collected from sites is reinvested in CSM activities and that investment is appropriate to site conservation and best usage. Tourism development investment should consider carrying capacity, and the potential for revenue from heritage-related copyrights should be explored. They identified several fundraising sources, including user fees, endowment funds, memberships, activities and entertainment, and market linkages for arts and crafts.


On Wednesday morning, participants heard presentations on usage of sites, including tourism, interpretation and education. A small group met that evening to distill key findings on site usage from these presentations.

PRESENTATIONS: Ricardo Francovich, Professor of Archaeology, University of Siena, Italy, presented information on San Silvestro Park in Tuscany, a site that displays the development of a community and its mining activities from the Etruscan period to the 20th century. He highlighted methods for providing a stimulating experience for visitors, including: restoration of the medieval hilltop settlement; use of landmarks; sensitive vegetation management; effective yet discreet signage; and facilities designed to cater to visitors with varied levels of interest and mobility. He emphasized that successful implementation required a viable concept with strong scientific underpinnings that demonstrated benefits for visitors and the local community.

Douglas Comer, Chief, Applied Archaeology Center, US National Park Service, described the Cultural Site Analysis Initiative, a historic preservation project in Cape Coast, Ghana. He explained that it complements an earlier castle restoration project that attracted visitors to the area but did not generate significant revenue for the local community. The project aims to generate awareness and provide appropriate access to other historical and cultural sites in Cape Coast. It seeks to: increase visitors’ length of stay by providing services and attractions to draw them into the historic town; protect cultural resources for the benefit of visitors and the local community; and bring economic benefits of tourism to the local population. The project uses GIS and remote sensing and examines environmental parameters, infrastructure, historic and archaeological sites, and districts and traditional use areas, and is conducted in collaboration with local groups. He highlighted the useful applications of spatial analyses, including for planning and prioritizing infrastructure improvement, identifying needs for public involvement, and planning interpretative programs, and noted that they can be constructed from data that are accessible and relatively easy to obtain.

John Stubbs, Vice President of Programs, World Monuments Fund, highlighted issues related to usage of the Angkor site in Cambodia. He described the economic under-development of Cambodia due to extended civil war and problems and opportunities presented by the war’s recent end, particularly for exploiting its tourism development potential. He noted that the site is now being revitalized as a place for research and tourism. Highlighting problems of lack of funding, threats to conservation, looting, a negative public image, and poor education and infrastructure surrounding the site, he said efforts to address these problems should employ best practices. He emphasized the need for interpretative displays, museums and other initiatives to provide information about the site’s history, development of connections between tourists and the local people, and programs to train potential site managers, such as the recently established education and training center for Cambodians in cultural conservation and site management. He noted plans to construct large hotels and a tourist village at Angkor Wat and upgrade the road to Phnom Penh, and emphasized the crucial importance of appropriate planning and control of such developments to ensure Angkor’s integrity.

Donald Hawkins, Professor and Director, International Institute of Tourism Studies, School of Business and Public Management, George Washington University, discussed tourism and CSM, particularly the role of various stakeholders. Noting that the tourism sector is demonstrating a more enlightened attitude regarding the long-term benefits of preserving cultural assets, he said the private sector, the scientific community, the public sector, local communities and other stakeholders must cooperate on project development. He drew participants’ attention to the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development’s current meeting to discuss sustainable tourism. He underscored that countries and sites can achieve a comparative advantage in tourism by adding value through effective management and innovative use of technologies such as the Internet. He emphasized the importance of marketing, highlighting the need to identify target audiences and develop strategies to attract the desired market segment. On finance and investment, he said revenue must be reinvested in the site itself and in educating the local community about the site. He highlighted the potential use of World Bank Learning and Innovation Loans (LILs) and of certification programs such as Green Globe in promoting sustainable tourism.

Ihab Amarin, Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities, Jordan, described the process of site management of the Petra Archaeological Park in Jordan. He noted a series of management plans and projects that were undertaken to formulate recommendations to address threats facing the site, protect the archaeological and cultural heritage resources, secure sustainable economic development opportunities for the local community, define planning and design options, and minimize tourism’s detrimental impacts. He described the Petra Component of the Bank’s ongoing Second Tourism Development Project, designed to complement conservation and protection work and focus on enhancing the surrounding areas and improving site management. The Petra Component plans to improve the visitor center, enhance site management, and develop a visitor management plan.

Tulin Sermin Ozduran presented information on plans for the ruins on Nemrut Dag in Turkey. She noted that the site currently lacks tourist facilities and outlined steps to facilitate tourism, including: determining the desired level and nature of tourism; allocating task responsibilities; identifying and developing financial sources; creating a CSM plan; and restoring and developing the site. She emphasized the substantial potential for tourism and thus the need for careful preparation.

Dennis Mahar described the increasing importance of learning and knowledge on the World Bank’s agenda. He demonstrated the Bank’s comparative advantage in learning and capacity building, given its fifty years of experience in development, links to institutional clients (including non-traditional audiences), neutral perception, global and interdisciplinary expertise, convening power with high-level officials, and pedagogical skills. He explained that WBI provides training, policy services, and knowledge networks to clients.

Mr. Mahar then described a case of site management in Rondônia, Brazil, where the Bank sought to guide land use in a way that protects both natural and cultural heritage. The main instrument used to guide land use was socio-economic-ecological zoning to delineate areas for different types of land use. He explained that the project attempted to identify stakeholders and their incentives to support or oppose zoning. He noted that there was little consultation with people in the area before the zoning was enacted into law, as the government did not cooperate with relevant NGOs and certain parties opposed to the zoning were excluded from the process. While several violations of the zoning have occurred, the project was effective in that deforestation was extremely limited in the area demarcated for an indigenous reserve, despite its close proximity to roads and extractive zones. This was largely due to strong lobbying both nationally and internationally to protect indigenous areas. He said this zoning project demonstrates that it is possible to protect both natural and cultural heritage simultaneously.

DISCUSSION: A small group of participants met later to extract conclusions from these presentations and circulated them to participants on the final day of the Workshop. They underscored the need for interpretation to explain and educate about all elements of a site’s significance rather than focusing on a single period or theme, and highlighted regional planning for interpretation as beneficial in providing an integrated experience and preventing duplication. They noted the benefits of: visitor management and control; well-organized tours with trained guides; simple, low-tech visitor facilities; and attractive, well-targeted education programs that target decision makers. They emphasized that fees for site visits and use should be channeled back into site conservation, provision of good interpretation and cultural products that stimulate the economy can contribute to site conservation, and conservation of a site’s cultural values must be an overriding aim of all site development and interpretation.


Participants met in small groups to distill lessons from discussions and presentations during the first two and a half days of the Workshop and apply these to specific Bank-financed projects in Albania, Croatia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Jordan, and Turkey. The groups assessed progress, identified challenges and recommended future actions to apply to these projects, and reconvened in a Plenary session to report their findings.

The group considering the Butrint project in Albania highlighted political challenges and stressed the need to defuse pressure in southern Albania for mass tourism and “get-rich- quick” schemes. The need for a pressure group advocating for conservation values in the region was noted. Future actions could include constituency development, NGO involvement and technical analysis.

The group that discussed the Salona project in Croatia said the first step is to develop the CSM plan. Priorities include setting objectives and defining specifics about the site and its economic, social and historical significance. They noted that this should be a reiterative process that can review its objectives and methods. Elements addressed in the plan should include consideration of new excavations, staffing, financing, and local community involvement. The group supported a regional perspective that considers other cultural assets in the region.

In the case of the Axum site, the group discussing projects in Ethiopia and Eritrea highlighted the need to establish a system in which national entities become service support units for the regional pilot on the ground. They expressed uncertainty regarding how the proposed World Bank loan would operate, as concern remains about the steering committee’s ability to enable the local pilot. They noted that the ongoing war is a political distraction at a high level but confirmed that they are in a position to make progress at the implementation level. Regarding Eritrea, the group noted the particularities of working in a country that only recently gained independence. Priorities identified included the need to: develop localized inventories; provide training to deal with cultural assets; prepare to conduct national surveys; involve other stakeholders; and establish an appropriate legal framework.

The group considering the Petra project in Jordan discussed three pressing problems: social conflict in the area; the failure to generate adequate revenue from the site to benefit the local people; and the need to protect the site itself. They suggested that the social conflict, which has arisen due to the villagers’ desire to further develop the area, could be addressed through public awareness efforts that explain the potential consequences of over-building the area. The group suggested that the Bank might establish a financing mechanism to enforce existing rules on building and zoning and assist people in housing renovations so these changes could be controlled and the success of the project ensured. To increase revenues, visitors could be encouraged to extend their stay by providing entertainment activities at the site and including Petra in a wider context of regional sites and itineraries of other under- exploited sites in the area. To protect and preserve the site, the group considered that the Bank could invest part of its loan in capacity building in site protection and management and conservation work.

The group discussing three sites in Turkey agreed that the first step in establishing a CSM plan is to understand that economic development depends on the long-term conservation of cultural assets. In developing such plans, they highlighted the importance of, inter alia: defining the proper audience and aims; undertaking detailed site surveys that assess natural, cultural and social values; conducting management assessments; ensuring that there is a site manager in place, preferably of local origin; considering appropriate levels of private and public involvement; and ensuring local community involvement in the decision-making process at all stages. The group also discussed methodologies in developing CSM plans, long-term financing of sites, such as development of a foundation or endowment fund for long-term site development, and the importance of ensuring that the Ministry of Culture understands the CSM plan development process so it can apply this process in developing future sites.


On Thursday morning, CSM Workshop Facilitator Peter Auer welcomed participants from the Byblos Site Management Workshop at Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) to the video- conference to exchange information on CSM. Ron van Oers, Byblos Workshop Project Manager and Assistant Course Director of the TU Delft Master of Science Course on Renewal and Redesign of City Areas, explained that the Byblos Workshop, sponsored by UNESCO, had convened over the past three days to discuss harbor protection and site management for Byblos, Lebanon. Frits van Voorden, Chair of the Byblos Workshop and the Scientific Committee of the Faculty of Architecture, TU Delft, said their aim was to integrate different disciplines to weigh the conservation implications, develop ideas and present findings on local plans to develop a modern jetty and marina for yachts. He said a detailed report based on the Workshop’s findings would be produced in draft form in May and completed in June.

Arlene Fleming briefed Byblos Workshop participants on the CSM Workshop, explaining that the Bank is encouraging countries to borrow for culture as related to the mission for social and economic development. She said the Bank has a number of projects for CSM and wanted to bring together CSM experts, Bank staff managing such projects, and relevant people working in client countries. She stated that since all these projects, with one exception, are still in the planning stage, the CSM Workshop is timely, and as Lebanon has requested CSM assistance, the Byblos Workshop is of particular interest.

Noting that Byblos’ status as a living city creates some complex CSM issues, participants from the Byblos Workshop asked CSM Workshop participants for advice on several issues, including: data and information collection; local community participation, education and training; and short-term action versus long-term planning.

On the lack of sufficient data, CSM Workshop participants suggested a variety of information-gathering techniques, including using remote sensing data and tapping into local people’s knowledge. Byblos Workshop participants responded that from an integrated management perspective, there is a lack of data not only for conservation and infrastructure but on a wide range of elements, from social and economic indicators on the local community to information about the maritime seabed. Additional challenges associated with a conservation site in a living city were noted. Byblos Workshop participants highlighted the need for pre-project data collection and means of recouping associated costs. A CSM Workshop participant noted that the Bank had recently started work on preparing a loan project for Lebanon, a part of which was related to Byblos. The Bank is planning to help the Lebanese Directorate of Antiquities employ a consultant and to commission work necessary to acquire a strong understanding of the site, as this will help develop a project proposal that the Bank can analyze and appraise.

Byblos Workshop participants noted the importance of education and training, such as for municipalities and relevant personnel, and asked if it would be possible to secure Bank funding for such training. A CSM Workshop participant responded that this was possible, as the committee that will oversee the project and discuss such issues will include mayors of five local municipalities, the Lebanese Ministers of Tourism and Culture and the Directorate of Urban Planning.

The CSM Workshop was asked to advise on the tensions between the parallel processes of long-term planning and the need for immediate or early action to tackle pressing problems. Participants noted that it is essential to address short-term issues without compromising long-term conservation. At the same time, the difficulties facing decision-makers who lack sufficient information to address immediate problems was acknowledged, and taking only the minimum action necessary to mitigate such problems was advocated, as this would reduce risks that such actions might have negative consequences in the long term. The importance of involving key local stakeholders was also highlighted. Byblos Workshop participants explained that they had developed a step-by-step process for formulating long- term strategies, starting with ensuring a wide ownership of CSM objectives before engaging in information gathering and strategy setting.

Frits van Voorden noted two conclusions from the Byblos Workshop: that a site must always have a management system, and that the local authority must be involved in the process. Arlene Fleming asked the Byblos Workshop for comments on the CSM Workshop’s plan to develop an outline for a program to educate governments and their departments about their role in CSM. Participants stressed the importance of training programs and capacity building, and noted steps to develop international networks of training centers.


On the last two days of the Workshop, participants worked to develop an outline for a CSM educational program. On Thursday morning, they engaged in a general discussion to identify the objectives and target audience of such a program, then spent the remainder of Thursday and most of Friday working in smaller groups to elaborate its content and structure and the methods by which it could be disseminated.

AUDIENCE: In discussing the appropriate audience, one participant highlighted the need for appropriate training of cultural resource managers in countries where such training is non-existent, and recommended that a curriculum be addressed to cultural resource managers rather than to students. World Bank policy makers and task managers, their governmental decision maker and site manager counterparts in other countries, and experts in CSM were also identified as targets. Participants agreed that officials in client countries must be a primary target, as CSM will only succeed if such officials, including staff of various relevant ministries, participate in and contribute to CSM plans. It was suggested that the audience should also include cultural heritage, tourism and educational organizations as well as relevant university departments, as their decisions and programs affect the sustainability of cultural resources. Some expressed doubt that these institutions could be covered and targeted by the same program as that geared toward Bank personnel and client country officials. World Bank task team leaders were identified as particularly important targets. The Workshop agreed that the audience for the curriculum should be World Bank personnel, especially project task team leaders, and client country officials involved in or relevant to specific Bank projects. The need to convince this array of actors of the importance of cooperation among them on CSM projects was emphasized.

AIM: Workshop participants discussed what the precise aim of this educational program should be. One participant explained that the Bank’s Board has emphasized that cultural aspects underpin development and mandated that culture be mainstreamed into the Bank’s projects, thus it is necessary to educate all Bank staff as to how and why culture is integral to their work and ensure that cultural considerations are incorporated into all types of projects, including infrastructure and education projects. Another participant responded that the objectives must then be to “sell” to the Bank the concept that cultural components in projects can be directed at poverty reduction and that culture is an essential component of the development agenda, and persuade Bank personnel that cultural heritage has to be taken into account in all projects. It was noted that the Bank is now revising its cultural policy to emphasize that it will not undertake projects that destroy significant material cultural property, and an educational program is needed to help instill this policy.

One speaker reminded the Workshop that the Bank identifies and appraises projects, and while policies on environmental and social considerations are in place, a specific policy for including cultural components in projects is lacking. He explained that there may be some resistance within the Bank to having this as an additional requirement given the profusion of existing requirements that must be met in planning projects. Therefore, the outcome of this exercise should outline how to mainstream consideration of cultural heritage into all sectors and formulate a framework with which Bank task managers can incorporate this into project planning. The need for greater awareness of all Bank staff to recognize when and where cultural heritage is present and needs to be protected was underscored.

Following this discussion, Workshop participants concluded that the aim of the educational program should be to protect and enhance cultural heritage by increasing the commitment of key stakeholders to the integration of cultural heritage in World Bank development projects.

CONTENT: In discussing the possible content of the proposed educational program, participants said it should include: relevant definitions and vocabulary; statements about the value of cultural heritage; significant characteristics of cultural heritage; principles for cultural heritage conservation and management; the Bank’s mission statement and role in relation to cultural heritage; cultural heritage as an integral part of each Country Assistance Strategy; and case studies. They proceeded to elaborate on each of these items, noting the value of including a rationale.

Definitions and Vocabulary: The importance of defining cultural heritage was stressed, as it is essential that the meaning of the term is made clear and that everyone is working from the same basic premise. The definition should address how cultural heritage can relate to economic factors, while respecting the primacy of intrinsic cultural values.

Statements about the Value of Cultural Heritage: Participants agreed that such statements should: include reference to relevant conventions and national legislation; assert cultural values, including aesthetic, historical, social, symbolic, national, and scientific values; and note the specific benefits of cultural heritage, including its direct use, indirect use, financial, small business and social empowerment values. Participants said statements on the value of cultural heritage should also include new emphases, including its value as an increasingly important asset and the fact that travel and tourism is the world’s largest industry. They agreed that cultural heritage should be placed within a broader, holistic understanding of development and be recognized as, inter alia: encouraging employment; being part of our social capital; reinforcing cultural identity; being able to foster peace and stability; acting as a filter for local communities to understand global change and make it meaningful; promoting the importance of cultural diversity; and reflecting the importance of the unique, especially within the context of globalization.

A small group of participants met during the final day of the Workshop to distill the salient points from the above discussion. They elaborated on the relevant conventions and charters to which the program should refer, including the Venice and Burra Charters and the World Heritage and 1954 Hague Conventions, as well as World Bank policies and relevant national legislation on, inter alia, archaeology, national parks, building and zoning, master plans and urban plans. They reaffirmed the cultural values outlined by the group and explained that economic values should reflect efforts to measure cultural values in economic and financial terms. They described direct benefits on the local level, including job creation, increases in property values, merchandizing connected to the site, and spill-over effects to nature conservation. Direct benefits on the national level include tourism spill-overs that translate into educational, health and social protection investments. The group emphasized that cultural heritage becomes a catalytic factor for investment in other social protection activities, such as improved sanitation, security, roads and public services, as well as education, and cooperation on cultural heritage projects strengthens local and national cohesion on all other social interventions, catalyzing action and adding value to social development as a whole.

Significant Characteristics of Cultural Heritage: Participants said the educational program should highlight significant characteristics of cultural heritage, including that it: cannot be replaced; can often be threatened by development; is authentic and unique; has a variety of manifestations; is intrinsically related to its particular environment and context; offers insight into a different dimension of time; possesses value because it is real in an increasingly “virtual” world; has resulted from human activity; may be difficult to identify in a landscape, being at times not visible, easily comprehensible or tangible; is part of a larger landscape, often including a complex of sites; and may or may not retain its original function.

On the final day of the Workshop, a small group of participants identified from the above discussion the critical characteristics that need to be conveyed to the target audience. They stressed the authenticity of cultural heritage and its inseparability from its environmental and cultural context. They underscored that cultural heritage has a variety of manifestations and may not necessarily be reflected in tangible remains, and offered several possible terms to reflect this, such as “diverse,” “complex,” “polymorphic” and “multi- dimensional.” They emphasized the uniqueness of cultural heritage and stressed that as a resource, it is fragile, irreplaceable and non-renewable. They noted the problematic use of the word “resource” to characterize cultural heritage, with one participant highlighting its implication that cultural heritage is something that can be exploited as one drawback of using the term. Others advocated adding to the list of characteristics that cultural heritage: is testimony to the memory of a community; embodies ways in which a culture or community inter-related with its environment; is ubiquitous; and is “potentially contested,” as a particular site may have different meanings and values for different groups.

Principles for Cultural Heritage Conservation and Management: A small group met on the final day to elaborate principles for cultural heritage conservation and management. They emphasized that management planning is an essential process for conservation of cultural heritage sites and can be divided into the following components: identification and assessment; conservation and management; economics and conservation; interpretation and presentation; and monitoring, maintenance and evaluation.

Identification and assessment must begin with an assessment of the natural and cultural values of the site, including a survey of structures, archaeological sites, documentation and history, as well as an assessment of the contemporary cultural significance. It must also include stakeholder identification, analysis and involvement, and identification of economic and social factors that will affect site management. They stressed that: assessment must precede management decisions, as decisions taken before proper assessment could destroy a site’s significance and economic potential; adequate budget, expertise and time are required; and assessment should be a prerequisite for any development or other funding.

Clear objectives then need to be developed for long-term site conservation and management, with a view to ensuring the economic and social sustainability of the site in its regional context. Regarding management, the group stressed the importance of national government participation and highlighted the benefits of empowering one authority with overall responsibility for site management. The group underscored the need for political will and highlighted the Bank’s ability to foster political commitment and necessary inter-governmental and intra- governmental cooperation. The group also emphasized the need for: the site manager to have the authority, budget and control to carry out the conservation plan and work effectively with the local community; the local community to have an ongoing role in major CSM decisions and to be included in site staffing and management structures, where appropriate; and site managers to consult with appropriate national, regional and local cultural heritage agencies and professionals.

Regarding economics and conservation, the group stressed that: sufficient revenue generated from cultural heritage projects should be channeled into cultural heritage conservation; planning to open a site for tourism must include assessment of the site’s carrying capacity with provisions for monitoring and review; the economic and social benefits from cultural heritage projects must be equitably distributed; and mobilization of investment for tourism development should consider infrastructure appropriate to a country or region’s resources, and mass tourism restricted to specific areas according to regional planning.

It was also emphasized that interpretation of a cultural site should be in accordance with its identified cultural and natural values and should enhance its management objectives, and that management planning requires continued monitoring and evaluation and should include mechanisms and financial resources for ongoing site maintenance.

The World Bank�s Mission and Role in Cultural Heritage and Incorporation into Country Assistance Strategies and Other World Bank Instruments: Participants agreed that Bank staff should elaborate issues of content for the educational program relating to the Bank�s mission statement and should explore incorporation of cultural heritage in Country Assistance Strategy development. Several noted in relation to the Bank�s mission and role, however, that the economic benefits and poverty reduction resulting from cultural heritage activities should be emphasized.

Case Studies: Participants noted that the purpose of case studies in the educational program should be to encourage Bank personnel and client country officials to integrate cultural heritage into Bank projects, and that they should illustrate best practices. They discussed where in the outline to place case studies, indicating that rather than being in a separate section, it would be more useful to use examples throughout the program to illustrate specific points, in order to give vitality to particular arguments. Participants identified specific case studies that would illustrate successes and/or failures relating to the values and significant characteristics of cultural heritage and principles for its conservation and management, and recommended them for use in the educational program.

STRUCTURE AND METHODS: Following from their discussions on identifying the audience, aim and content of a CSM educational program, participants observed that what is needed is actually not a curriculum for site management as had been originally suggested, but rather a social marketing, instructional strategy and educational program to raise awareness at the Bank of precisely how to mainstream cultural heritage into development projects. Participants endorsed the need for a Bank communications strategy that should be mandated and supported by the top levels of the Bank�s hierarchy. This would be a task for the Bank�s communications experts and other relevant staff. However, participants suggested that those developing the strategy should consider including measures for private sector involvement and secondment of outside cultural heritage experts to the Bank. Noting the difficulty in reaching the target audience, they advocated a multifaceted strategy that includes encouragement and enforcement mechanisms aimed at fostering their responsiveness to the program�s message. Participants also stressed that the strategy should be multi-media, using television, interactive television, video, video-conferencing, the Internet, and print. The idea of a simulation game was also suggested. It was proposed that the product be electronically transmittable and easily and widely disseminated. Site visits by Bank staff were endorsed as an extremely effective educational tool. These should be very carefully managed, provide examples of good practice and use sites similar in character to project sites, preferably in the same region.


Participants proceeded to discuss another of the stated objectives of the Workshop: to initiate an international network of CSM personnel. Noting that at this stage the Bank has no plans to develop its own cultural heritage expertise, Peter Auer stated that the Bank can nevertheless add value due to its access to high-level decision makers and by incorporating cultural heritage values into its own programs and thus is seeking foster a network to promote partnership and cooperation with other groups active in the field.

Some participants expressed concern that a network could become confused or unproductive if not developed in a clear and precise manner. They endorsed the concept of the existing network, convened at the World Bank in January 1998, including major groups such as the J. Paul Getty Trust, ICCROM and UNESCO, while noting that it requires a considerable amount of work. They said the Bank needs to make a strong financial commitment to this area, both for practical reasons and to demonstrate that this is a real priority. It was noted that, in other areas of Bank activity, in-house expertise has been developed. Participants supported a suggestion that the Bank launch an informal mailing list of people from the Workshop and other relevant individuals and that it produce a regular newsletter to be transmitted via e-mail and fax.

On collaboration between the Bank and other organizations active in the cultural heritage area, participants suggested that the Bank compile and disseminate information about relevant courses and training programs, especially distance learning or short courses that could be more feasible for Bank staff. The Bank could hold in-house courses that make use of its multi- lingual interpretation capacity. One participant suggested that the Bank commission a study to demonstrate the economic advantages of heritage tourism.

Participants supported proposals that the Bank continue to convene meetings with a broad range of organizations involved in the cultural heritage area. The need for the Bank to assist in capacity building to help prospective partners in developing countries was reiterated. One participant cautioned that attempting to partner with the Bank can be difficult and complex, but that the value of developing partnerships, if organized carefully, could be considerable.


Arlene Fleming drew participants� attention to an upcoming conference on financing cultural heritage conservation, scheduled for October 1999 in Florence, which is being organized by the Italian Government, the World Bank and UNESCO. She noted that one of the conference working groups will be on financing CSM, and asked participants to suggest pertinent topics for the workshop�s agenda. Participants recommended agenda items relating to:

  • economic advantages of cultural heritage;

  • case studies of public-private partnerships, such as American Express and the World Monuments Fund;

  • new opportunities for private sector partnerships;

  • global tourism and how to connect it with heritage site financing;

  • pricing mechanisms for admission to sites and questions of differential pricing and return of revenue to sites;

  • cost-benefit analyses of cultural heritage that identify components or a methodology for decision makers;

  • heritage asset costing, possibly assessing methodologies developed for Stonehenge and the Everglades;

  • tool kits on financial aspects for management;

    self-help for CSM projects, including trusts and mass membership schemes;

  • current grant and trust activities;

  • the role of cultural heritage in economic and social regeneration; donor conferences;

  • heritage-related copyrights as a means of raising revenue; and

  • mechanisms for channeling tourism income into site protection.

    Participants noted the wide variety of financing methods, suggested that case studies of failures as well as successes would be instructive, stressed the need for business planning to be part of CSM planning, and recommended that the working group endeavor to develop templates for private sector partnerships.


    Tia Duer, Leader, Culture and Sustainable Development Program, Special Programs/ESSD, World Bank, expressed her appreciation to participants for their fruitful discussions and useful outcomes. She encouraged them to maintain the momentum generated by the Workshop by continuing to work together in the lead-up to the Florence conference and after, not only to network with one another to identify exemplary case studies but also to bring other people into the network who are knowledgeable and able to contribute to their work. She highlighted the timeliness and value of the Workshop�s findings to the Bank.

    Workshop Facilitator Peter Auer thanked presenters for the hard work that went into their informative presentations. He highlighted the richness of discussions, including in the video- conference, where it was enlightening to discover that people working on other side of world and focusing on the single CSM project for Byblos identified the same issues, problems and directions as participants at the Bank�s CSM Workshop, which dealt with a diversity of sites. He said the quality of the Workshop�s output was outstanding, thanks to participants� expertise and hard work. He thanked the support staff and his colleagues at the Bank, especially Arlene Fleming, Cultural Resource Specialist, who conceived and organized the Workshop, and brought the Workshop to a close.

    Sustainable Developments is a publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) (, publishers of the Earth Negotiations Bulletin �. This issue is written and edited by Kira Schmidt ( and Chris Spence ( Digital Editing by Andrei Henry ( The Managing Editor of Sustainable Developments is Langston James "Kimo" Goree VI ( Funding for coverage of this meeting has been provided by The World Bank. The authors can be contacted at their electronic mail addresses and at tel: +1-212-644-0204 and by fax: +1-212-644-0206. IISD can be contacted at 161 Portage Avenue East, 6th Floor, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 0Y4, Canada; tel: +1-204-958-7700. The opinions expressed in the Sustainable Developments are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and other funders. Excerpts from Sustainable Developments may be used in other publications with appropriate academic citation. Electronic versions of Sustainable Developments are sent to e-mail distribution lists (ASCII and PDF format) and can be found on the Linkages WWW-server at ( For further information on Sustainable Developments, including requests to provide reporting services, contact the Managing Editor at (