EAS Congress 2006 Bulletin


Published by the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)


Vol. 131 No. 1
Wednesday, 13 December 2006

EAS CONGRESS 2006 highlights:

Tuesday, 12 December 2006

The East Asian Seas (EAS) Congress 2006 opened on Tuesday in Haikou City, Hainan Province, People’s Republic of China. Convened by the GEF/UNDP/IMO Regional Programme on Partnerships in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia (PEMSEA), this five-day event is expected to provide a region-wide platform for dialogue, knowledge exchange, capacity building, strategic action and cooperation for the sustainable development of the seas of East Asia. The theme of the Congress is “One Ocean. One People. One Vision.”

An International Conference on Coastal and Ocean Governance, a Ministerial Forum, an inaugural meeting of the EAS Partnership Council and a Youth Leaders Forum will all convene as part of the Congress.

In the morning, delegates attended the opening ceremony and heard a keynote address by Thailand’s former Prime Minister Chuan Leekpai. Delegates also convened in the Conference’s thematic sessions on, inter alia: communities in sustainable development; securing the oceans; ecosystem-based management; certifying sustainability; and applying management-related science and technology.


Chen Lian-zeng, Deputy Administrator of China’s State Oceanic Administration, welcomed delegates to the EAS Congress and expressed hope that the Congress will boost capacity at all levels to implement integrated coastal resources management (ICRM).

Yu Xun, Deputy Governor of the Hainan Provincial Government, emphasized that local coastal management and conservation on Hainan Island has benefited from international experiences, and welcomed the opportunity to gain further awareness to help economic development and environmental protection.

Chen Ci, Mayor of Haikou City, described the oceans as “the cradle of life” and “a bonanza of resources.” Adding that Haikou benefits from marine transportation, fisheries and tourism, he emphasized the value of oceans legislation and zoning measures for sustainable marine management.

Chua Thia-Eng, PEMSEA Regional Programme Director, outlined the Congress’ objectives, including providing a common platform for stakeholders within and outside of the East Asian region to share information on all aspects of coastal and ocean governance. Thia-Eng emphasized the need for an innovative partnership approach for East Asian seas management to: resolve transboundary issues “from the hilltops to the sea”; facilitate the participation of civil society and all stakeholders in the planning, implementation and assessment of management interventions; and work with international organizations and donors to accelerate the achievement of global targets. Noting the signing of the Putrajaya Declaration as a major accomplishment of the 2003 EAS Congress, Thia-Eng highlighted the inaugural meeting of the EAS Partnership Council and the Youth Leaders Forum that would be held during the EAS Congress 2006.

Youth participants from China and the Philippines drew attention to pollution and other environmental challenges in their countries, urging delegates to “keep working hard” to protect oceans for the children.

Alfred Duda, Global Environment Facility (GEF) and EAS Congress 2006 Chair, said the Congress theme is “deceptively simple” in describing the problems of shared marine ecosystems and diverse socioeconomic and environmental agendas. He noted that marine and coastal areas in East Asia are among the world’s most threatened ecosystems, and that to reverse current trends of environmental degradation, commitments made in the Sustainable Development Strategy for the Seas of East Asia (SDS-SEA) and partnership agreements to be signed at the EAS Congress 2006 need to be successfully implemented. He further highlighted that the GEF has provided US$900 million to date in global funding for water systems, with two-thirds of this funding devoted to marine ecosystems.


Chuan Leekpai, Thailand’s former Prime Minister, called for a wider vision for protecting the region’s coasts, oceans and waterways. He reported that the East Asian region’s coasts are home to 1.9 billion people and support significant fisheries, aquaculture and marine transportation industries. However, he highlighted that overexploitation of fisheries, introduction of marine invasive species, pollution, and loss of coastal biodiversity and habitats, such as coral reefs and mangroves, are causing severe economic losses and affecting human health.

Leekpai cautioned that current efforts to protect marine environments are inadequate because: many incorrectly regard environmental protection as less urgent than economic development; environment protection can be expensive and takes time to show results, therefore it is often a low political priority; and vested interests frequently cause decision-makers to opt for short-term gains. He said that choosing short-term gains is no longer acceptable, and called for a region-wide cross-sectoral platform for development and cooperation. In closing, he urged participants to share information, learn from one another, and map out a joint course of action to ensure the future of oceans and coasts.


COMMUNITIES IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: Theme keynote: Biliana Cicin-Sain, University of Delaware and Global Forum on Oceans, Coasts and Islands, examined the World Summit on Sustainable Development’s commitments relating to oceans and coasts. These included creating a Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment by 2006 and developing integrated water resources management plans by 2005. Cicin-Sain highlighted achievements and challenges to date and emphasized the need to, inter alia, form coalitions, and enhance inter-sectoral and national institutional capacity.

Achieving the MDGs through enhancing local capacities for ICRM: Capacity building and lessons learned: Erna Witoelar, UN Special Ambassador for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Asia and the Pacific, and Francisco Fellizar, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, co-chaired the workshop.

Co-Chair Fellizar discussed the convergence and capabilities of the MDGs and ICRM, noting that ICRM principles are compatible with those of the MDGs. He said ICRM capacity development is imperative for achieving the MDGs.

Gabriel Navarro, Mayor of the Municipality Government of Bani, Philippines, discussed Bani’s coastal resource management programme, which aims to rehabilitate mangroves and strengthen marine protected areas. He emphasized the need for political will to implement fishery laws and local stakeholder participation in the planning and implementation of such programmes.

Tridoyo Kusumastanto, Bogor Agricultural University, discussed local community capacity development in Indonesia’s Aceh Province, through the Fisheries Livelihood Program, in the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. He said the programme aims to recover local fisheries livelihoods by providing fishing vessels and building institutional capacity.

In the ensuing discussion, the speakers discussed emergency management capacity in Bani; ways in which civil society can overcome lack of political will to address capacity building; core governance criteria for ensuring that ICRM objectives and the MDGs are achieved; and disaster risk options factored into the assessment and selection of interventions in the Aceh Province.

Iouri Oliounine, Executive Director, International Ocean Institute, discussed stakeholders’ contribution to achieving the MDGs. He said that a global partnership is vital for achieving the MDGs, and that developing effective partnerships requires coordination between the public and private sectors and civil society, with the political will of policy-makers and the role of NGOs being indispensable.

Meryl Williams, Australian Center for International Agricultural Research, emphasized the importance of capacity building at the individual, organizational, and sector/network levels, as well as an enabling environment to achieve the MDGs and ICRM objectives. Responding to a question on evaluation of capacity development in regards to development assistance, Williams highlighted the benefits of human capacity development.

Pitiwond Tantigchodok, Walailak University, said that a knowledge-based society is a key element of ICRM. He described capacity-building initiatives at Walailak Univeristy, including a Coastal Information Center, and emphasized the need for collaboration between policy makers, the community and NGOs.

Robert Bernardo, UNDP, outlined a programme framework for capacity development strategies, and highlighted the importance of partnerships, leadership, and ownership as important aspects of local-level capacity development for ICRM and achieving the MDGs.

SECURING THE OCEANS: Theme keynote: Noting that “securing the oceans” is a new concept, Tadao Kuribayashi, Keio University, explained its raison d’être and core attributes, including: the physical and social interdependence of land and sea; the need to address ocean resources and their use holistically; broad stakeholder involvement; oceans’ role in fulfilling global and regional societal aspirations; international cooperation for reaching equitable resolutions to ocean-related problems; and need for integrating oceans-related science both domestically and internationally. He added that while “security” was conventionally used as a synonym for national defense, this term has since come to be used in a more comprehensive sense, typified by terms “human and environmental security.”

Development of national ocean policies in East Asia and around the world: Chair Billiana Cicin-Sain, University of Delaware, introduced a cross-national study on integrated national and regional ocean policies.

David VanderZwaag, Dalhousie University, emphasized that ocean policy should include: sustainable development, a precautionary approach; ecosystem-based management; adequate funding; public involvement; and a science-based approach.

John Richardson, EU Maritime Policy Task Force, outlined the EU’s future maritime policy, noting its goal of developing a thriving maritime economy.

Robert Jara, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Philippines, introduced his country’s experience in managing the seas, including: dissemination of information; creating a multi-agency task force; formulating national laws and regulations; and public consultations.

Jungho Nam, Korea Maritime Institute, outlined national experiences in ICRM implementation, including: development of a national ICRM plan; establishment of a marine peace corps in the Korean Peninsula; and shifting from control through planning by government agencies to a mechanism of joint implementation by all stakeholders.

Asep D. Muhammad, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Indonesia, pointed out the problems in his country, such as sectorial dominance, and lack of integration between marine and fishery development.

Masahiro Akiyama, Japan’s Ocean Policy Research Foundation (OPRF), suggested that his government: develop a comprehensive ocean policy; introduce a basic ocean law; establish a national ocean council; and assign a minister to be responsible for the ocean work.

Co-Chair BA Hamzah, Director, Maritime Consultancy Enterprises, summarized the workshop, highlighting: concrete political commitments; relationship between the “bottom-up” and “top-down” approaches; awareness raising; improving understanding of science; and funding for implementation.

Tokyo Ocean Declaration: Upholding the Advocacy: Masahiro Akiyama, OPRF, said that the Tokyo Ocean Declaration was developed pursuing the philosophy of co-existence between man and the ocean.

Kazumine Akimoto, OPRF, presented on the content, consultation process leading to the adoption of, and follow-up activities to the Tokyo Declaration. He introduced the results of a study on the future of “securing the oceans” concept, reporting that OPRF and the Nippon Foundation had established an advocacy group on the concept.

Atsuko Kanehara, Rikkyo University, said that the Tokyo Declaration broadens the concept of security of the oceans so as to comprehensively include all aspects of the ocean management in an integrated way. She discussed how to take advantage of the rights and jurisdiction of coastal states and port states as a significant and practical tool for realizing the common interest of securing the oceans.

Zhiguo Gao, Executive Director, China Institute for Marine Affairs, stated China’s position that areas with sovereignty claims disputes be developed jointly. Fu Yu, China Institute for Marine Affairs, described a proposal for joint development of natural resources in the East China Sea in a disputed area between China and Japan. Merlin Magallona, University of the Philippines, outlined the essential features of state sovereignty and its bearing on international conflicts.

François Simard, IUCN – The World Conservation Union, highlighted principles of governance and democracy. He pointed out that the priority target of the ecosystem approach is the conservation of ecosystem structure and functioning to maintain ecosystem services, through integration of conservation and use of biological diversity.

The ensuing discussion focused on: the importance of the collective will of states; integrated oceans management; bilateral and multilateral treaties; regional and sub-regional cooperation; and ownership of international agreements.

Robert Beckman, National University of Singapore, discussed protection of the marine environment from ship-source pollution in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore. He noted that half of the world’s supply of oil goes through the Straits as well as some 90,000 vessels annually. Beckman underscored that while user states benefit from the safe passage through the Straits, littoral states – Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore – bear the risks associated with potential accidents and pollution. He called for enhanced cooperation on safety and environmental protection between user and littoral states in the implementation of existing treaties.

John C. de Silva, President, Center for Marine Environment Survey, Research and Consultation, proposed a series of measures to promote the Tokyo Declaration and “securing the oceans” concept through political will, education and awareness, and strengthened ocean governance. He advocated for an international advisory council to guide policy and decision-making on cooperation issues, and environmental NGO “watchdogs” in each country to monitor implementation.

Alan Tan, National University of Singapore, highlighted recent developments in regional law, notably Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas designated by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the EU Directive on Criminal Sanctions for Ship-source Pollution. He noted their implications for the East Asian region and called for consensus building among nations involved and a multilateral response to pollution and other marine environmental challenges.

Stella Regina Bernad, PEMSEA, highlighted SDS-SEA as a practical approach to the implementation of the Tokyo Declaration in the East Asian seas.

Summarizing the session, Co-Chairs Kuribayashi and Zhiguo called for a continuing dialogue to translate the Tokyo Declaration into concrete measures through an action plan. They further noted the workshop’s suggestions for securing the oceans through: implementation of existing agreements and ICRM; strengthening ocean governance, education and awareness; multilateral and practical approaches; and dispute resolution and collaboration at all levels.

ECOSYSTEM-BASED MANAGEMENT: Theme keynote: John Dunnigan, Assistant Administrator, US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), gave the keynote address, describing the ecosystem approach to management as a tool to achieve two outcomes: healthy and productive coastal and marine ecosystems that benefit society; and a well-informed public that acts as a steward of coastal and marine ecosystems. Dunnigan said that while the ecosystem approach to management is not specifically defined, it should: be geographically specified and adaptive; take account of ecosystem knowledge and uncertainty; consider multiple external influences; and strive to balance diverse societal objectives.

Ecosystem-based management of interrelated river basins, estuaries and coastal seas: The workshop was co-chaired by Chul-Hwan Koh, Seoul National University, and David Nemazie, University of Maryland. The workshop focused on two issues: cross-jurisdiction management strategies for interrelated river basins, estuaries and coastal waters; and implementing a science-based water pollution reduction allocation scheme through stakeholder consultation.

Jofel Monte, Laguna Lake Development Authority, Philippines, outlined work to promote sustainable development in the Laguna de Bay region and noted problems caused by conflicting sectoral interests, rapid population growth and expanding economic activities. He listed strategies and projects to address these problems, and highlighted the need to resolve conflicts through interaction with government agencies and stakeholders.

Kim Kwang Ju, Ministry of Land and Environment, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, presented efforts to integrate the management regimes of the Taedong River basin and the neighboring Nampho coastal area. Outlining current management activities, he said that integrating the two regimes will require: development of institutional capacity for partnership and coordination; development of a master plan for the two areas; and strengthening of scientific and technological capacity.

Ario Damar, Bogor Agriculture University, presented sustainable development strategies of integrated river basin and coastal management of Jakarta Bay. Highlighting multiple conflicting human uses of the bay, he reported on progress to establish a regional coastal management body for the area, including scoping the problem, identifying coordination roles, and planning and sharing the budget.

Co-Chair Nemazie, on behalf of Peter Bergstrom, NOAA, outlined two approaches to restoring the Chesapeake Bay (US) living resources and their habitats: “top-down” restoration, which involves planting oysters and seagrass in suitable areas; and “bottom-up” restoration, which involves improving water quality to allow species to recover naturally. He provided examples of the successful application of these approaches, both separately and in an integrated manner.

Shang Chen, First Institute of Oceanography, China, described an assessment framework to guide management of Bohai Sea ecological assets. The framework includes: identification of ecological types; classification of ecosystem services; ranking ecosystem services in order of importance; and calculating the economic value of each service.

Chang Hee Lee, Myongji University, presented on the implementation of new integrated water quality initiatives in his country, including an integrated coastal and marine environment management policy, and a national water environment management master plan featuring new initiatives to address land-based water pollution and improve ecosystem integrity.

Keu Moua, Mekong River Commission, reported on the Commission’s work to promote sustainable development of water resources and environmental protection in the Mekong River basin through cooperation between Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam. He highlighted water quality monitoring across the four countries, transboundary wetland management, and transboundary environmental impact assessments for infrastructure projects.

Corazon Davis, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Philippines, reported on the implementation of the Manila Bay Coastal Strategy, including an operational plan to promote partnerships and address environmental threats. Actions taken to date include establishment of bird sanctuaries, mangrove protection programs, coastal and river cleanups, and watershed protection.

In summarizing, Co-Chair Nemazie noted that although presentations were geographically diverse, many identified similar environmental threats and human conflicts, and most accepted the need to work within governments to address such challenges. Participants further discussed: timeframes and targets; different policy and governance structures to control pollution; and factoring climate change into coastal management strategies.

On implementing a science-based water pollution reduction allocation scheme through stakeholder consultation, Chan Won Lee, Masan Bay Community Advisory Council, Republic of Korea, presented on the contribution of the Council to integrated marine environmental management, including ensuring stakeholder participation in political decision-making, and public promotion of marine environment management programmes.

Yasushi Hosokawa, Port and Airport Research Institute, Japan, outlined the action plan for the rehabilitation of Tokyo Bay. Ecological science and technology was used to understand tidal flat ecosystems to aid zoning and design of recovery approaches.

Co-Chair Nemazie presented on stakeholder consultation and engagement in Chesapeake Bay. Noting the value of an inclusive approach, he explained that many local people were unaware that farms and households were major polluters, and endorsed getting communities involved by raising awareness of problems in simple ways.

The ensuing panel discussion focused on: pollution reduction policies; building trust between government, industry and NGOs by providing full and fair access to data; bridging science and policy; and providing incentives for community and industry involvement.

CERTIFYING SUSTAINABILITY: Theme keynote: Arthur Hanson, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), gave an overview of the theme. Noting that certification of marine resources is still in its infancy, he said the aquarium fish trade is the most advanced industry. He highlighted problems in developing a measurement system for certification, notably that some measures are very precise but their meaning too obscure for consumers, while other measures do not give enough useful information. He also noted: unfair use of some data, especially in setting non-tariff trade barriers; challenges posed by illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing; and limitations of the current ISO 14000 environment management systems and standards.

Hanson further highlighted the potential role of governments in certified products procurement, demand-driven measures by third parties, such as consumers and banks, and the role of international law. In closing, he identified emerging issues, including: sustainable consumption, production and trade; elimination of harmful pollutants; aquaculture certification; adaptation of certification schemes to take account of climate change; and integration of monitoring tools.

Certification and sustainable fisheries: the value of market-based approaches: Arun Abraham, Marine Aquarium Council (MAC), presented an overview of trends in the marine aquarium trade, noting that it is estimated at US$200-330 million annually, and is the highest value-added product to be harvested from coral reefs. He outlined existing MAC standards to ensure sustainability “from reef to retail” in the areas of: ecosystem and fishery management; collection, fishing and holding; handling, husbandry and transport; and mariculture and aquaculture management. Abraham also noted key issues and challenges in MAC certification, including difficulties in integrating global supply chain, roving collectors, cyanide detection methodologies, fair pricing, industry perceptions of MAC certification, financing a sustainable trade, and the need for a holistic framework or context for implementation.

Stuart Green, Reef Check Foundation, presented on management approaches to ensure sustainability of aquarium fisheries, such as establishment of total allowable catch and no-take zones at each site, development of unsuitable species lists, and fish and coral reef rehabilitation. He identified a number of lessons learned, notably that certification leads to a fundamental change in management of marine resources, noted the challenge of achieving consumer awareness, and highlighted the success of local stakeholder involvement in sustainable reef management.

Peter Boserio, Sebu-Mactan Quality Marine Aquarium Fish, reflected on perceptions of the industry as secretive and controversial, due to unsustainable practices and safety and human health issues. He underscored the need for training and providing incentives for sustainable operators, noting that ensuring the sustainability of the industry brings greater benefits than closing it down, which may lead to environmental and social damage.

Duncan Leadbitter, Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), outlined challenges and opportunities for seafood eco-labeling in Asia, noting that the region supplies 60% of the world’s seafood. He said that Asia exerts enormous pressure on coastal resources, which coupled with fish and biomass depletion, threatens food security, ecosystem integrity and economic development. As opportunities, Leadbitter identified examples of good fisheries management in the region, potential markets for exporting certified fish both within and outside Asia, and continuing global growth in MSC-labeled products. He explained that the MSC standard is based on sustainability of stocks, ecosystem impact, and management systems in place, and has recently been brought in compliance with the criteria set by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization.

S. Subasinghe, INFOFISH, discussed trends in and challenges of the live fish trade in Asia, noting that China leads the way in live fish trade with exports valued at US$335 million in 2005. He noted that trade volumes in low- and medium-value fish varieties have increased in recent years, as consumers prefer smaller, “plate-size” fish. He further raised the issues of ensuring the sustainability of the chain of custody, trade restrictions and risk assessments, and the promotion of substitute species or introduction of new culturable species.

During the ensuing discussion, participants noted the need for: PEMSEA countries to be more proactive on aquaculture certification; better analysis and communication of the costs and benefits of certification to governments; acceptance of certification by market players; improved fisheries management on the high seas; and further development of public-private partnerships based on trust. One participant opined that fisheries have been a “gap” in PEMSEA arrangements, and that the 2006 EAS Congress presents an opportunity to underscore the importance of sustainable fisheries management, including through certification.

APPLYING MANAGEMENT-RELATED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Theme keynote: Rudolf Wu, Centre for Marine Environmental Research and Innovative Technology, emphasized that scientific discoveries and technological advancements in the last decades have substantially changed approaches to environmental monitoring and management, by providing better detection of contaminants in the environment and improving the understanding of marine pollution. Highlighting a global trend of shifting from monitoring physical and chemical parameters to biological monitoring, he said that novel approaches using telemetry and remote sensing enable environmental changes to be discerned in real time and over large areas in a cost-effective way. Wu also said that modern simulation-modeling techniques allow the prediction of concentrations and transfer of pollutants in the marine environment with reasonable precision, thus making it possible to estimate the carrying capacity of receiving ecosystems.

The use of GIS and database tools for natural resources management: J.D. Kim, Korea Maritime Institute, noted that marine environment data alone is not sufficient for a comprehensive analysis of heavily contaminated coastal areas. Outlining a GIS-based approach to the coastal environment management, Kim highlighted that GIS helps promote more transparent management policy by providing scientific and analytic information, as well as to raise pubic awareness on protection of marine and coastal ecosystems.

Ravadee Prasertcharoensuk, Sustainable Development Foundation, Thailand, described a participatory approach to the development of a GIS for integrated coastal management in southern Thailand. She emphasized that participatory gathering and analysis of information on the management and use of marine and coastal resources is an efficient way for getting different stakeholders, including key groups such as government agencies, research institutions and NGOs, to work together.

Anond Snidvongs, Chulalongkorn University, spoke on a web-based information system which aims to facilitate stakeholder communication and better management of Thailand’s Similan Island National Park. Noting that the information system provides databases containing GIS maps, survey data and information on islands and dive sites, he emphasized its contribution to better management of the National Park, by: allowing management authorities to manage diver pressure; providing transparency for decision-making; serving as an open channel of communication between dive operators and management operators; and being used as an educational tool for tourists.

Pinsak Suraswadi, Department of Marine and Coastal Resources, Thailand, outlined a project on capacity strengthening for management of Thailand’s Andaman Sea Coastal Zone, which produced a community-based GIS containing information on marine and coastal resources, fishing zoning and gear. He highlighted the importance of information systems in collaborative and integrated management of coastal zones, especially in identifying problems, facilitating better decision-making and involving local communities.

In the ensuing discussion, participants highlighted that GIS is a powerful tool that promotes the sustainable use of marine and coastal resources, facilitates transparent decision-making, and helps to identify problems at early stages and involve all stakeholders in the use and management of natural resources. Some also noted the importance of using the same format of data and maps.

The EAS Congress 2006 Bulletin is a publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) <info@iisd.ca>, publishers of the Earth Negotiations Bulletin © <enb@iisd.org>. This issue was written and edited by Robynne Boyd, Andrew Brooke, Xenya Cherny Scanlon, Kunbao Xia and Sarantuyaa Zandaryaa, Ph.D. The Digital Editor is Dan Birchall. The Editor is Soledad Aguilar <soledad@iisd.org>. The Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James "Kimo" Goree VI <kimo@iisd.org>. Funding for coverage of this meeting has been provided by the GEF/UNDP/IMO Partnerships in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia. IISD can be contacted at 161 Portage Avenue East, 6th Floor, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 0Y4, Canada; tel: +1-204-958-7700; fax: +1-204-958-7710. The opinions expressed in the Bulletin are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD. Excerpts from the Bulletin may be used in other publications with appropriate academic citation. Electronic versions of the Bulletin are sent to e-mail distribution lists (HTML and PDF format) and can be found on the IISD RS Linkages WWW-server at <http://enb.iisd.org/>. For information on the Bulletin, including requests to provide reporting services, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at <kimo@iisd.org>, +1-646-536-7556 or 212 East 47th St. #21F, New York, NY 10017, USA. The IISD team at the EAS Congress 2006 can be contacted by e-mail at <Xenya@iisd.org>.