Sustainable Developments

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On Tuesday, 20 June 2000, Global Dialogue participants met throughout the day in the five thematic workshops. From 16:00 to 18:00, they convened in a plenary session for “A Talk Around the World” and to view mini-documentaries on success stories around the world.



A late afternoon plenary session was convened around the theme “A talk around the world,” reuniting Global Dialogue regional planning partners from Asia, Africa and Latin America. The discussion revolved around personal and success stories as well as examples of resource scarcity, and was illustrated by mini-documentaries produced by the regional partners to exemplify local initiatives.

The panelists were: Lawrence Surendra, SEI Senior Advisor, for India; Margarita Marino de Botero, Green College, for Columbia; Francisco Malta, Earth Council, for Costa Rica; Jerry Gotora, CAMPFIRE, for Zimbabwe; Lovemore Sola, Southern Africa Research and Documentation Centre, also for Zimbabwe; and Jürgen Bertram for Asia. Panelists were invited to present work done by their organization.

Margarita Marino de Botero stressed dialogue and communication networks and noted a lack of involvement by the international community. She welcomed a “revolution from the bottom-up.”

Jerry Gotora outlined success stories from Zimbabwe and presented a mini-documentary on CAMPFIRE. He underscored the importance of indigenous scientific knowledge.

Francisco Mata introduced a mini-documentary on the Nueva Group Macadamia Plantation, which provides free social and educational services to its workers, and addressed watershed protection, and endemic and endangered species. He said the cost of protecting national parks could be met by providing incentives to private entities. He supported common but differentiated responsibilities and called for compensating for past errors.

Lawrence Surendra deplored the use of dichotomies when invoking sustainable conservation. He introduced a mini-documentary on an indigenous community-based initiative that built and manages a micro-hydroelectric plant in Orissa, India.

Jürgen Bertram said Thailand’s ecological projects have been successful thanks to the support of the King. He deplored corruption problems faced by most Asian countries, which prevent sustainable conservation of natural resources.

Several panelists queried the prospects for sustainability in the absence of democracy.



The morning session of the workshop on Ecosystems 21 was convened by the GEF, the World Bank and GTZ and was chaired by Mohamed T. El Ashry and Günther Winckler, Coordinator of the German CCD Support Programme. It focused on the question of drylands.

Gaoussou Traoré, Director, Mali Department of Agriculture, Ecology and Social Development, presented a sub-regional action programme and highlighted the link between desertification and poverty. He said regional and worldwide partnerships should allow for mobility of humans and animals as an important survival strategy against climatic variations in the context of globalization. He stressed that limiting factors for the Sahel region are not technological, but rather institutional, economic, socio-cultural and financial. He also stated that the GEF must be decentralized at sub-regional level. Turning to the issue of conflicts, he suggested establishing a green (as opposed to red) cross to protect the environment in conflict areas. One participant stressed that education on how to prevent desertification is needed. Helmut Woehl, GTZ Senior Advisor to the Namibian Desertification Control Programme, spoke about the institutions and processes for combating desertification in Namibia. He stressed no blueprint approaches exist and that projects must be tailored to specific circumstances. He pointed out that success was limited in scope and replicability and said projects often lacked horizontal and vertical integration and adequate political, economic and legal frameworks. On the gap between research and implementation, he warned that knowledge management tends to marginalize political issues such as decentralization, land tenure and water management. A participant asked if it was worth continuing to invest in international conventions or whether it is better to concentrate on decentralization. A panelist stated that the global conventions provide the legal framework for decentralized implementation and strengthen the principle of subsidiarity.

Mary Seely, Executive Director, Namibia Desert Research Foundation, referred to experiences at community level. She pointed out that, as a consequence of urbanization, new social challenges need to be taken into account.

Christophe Crepin, Regional Coordinator, Global Environment Africa Region, World Bank, highlighted reasons for moving to an integrated approach in dryland management, including complex interactions at different levels and the fact that dryland degradation cannot be reversed through project level intervention. He cautioned against ad hoc fragmented activities and sectoral approaches. He stated that implementation requires action at all levels and that it is important to identify synergies and trade-offs.

The afternoon workshop was convened by WWF and the GEF around the theme of integrated management of international waters and achievements and challenges in the Wadden Sea and other regions.

Chair Dr. Peter Prokosch, Director, WWF-International Arctic Programme, called for reflection on conservation achievements in the Wadden Sea and discussion of future challenges, taking into account successful management examples from other regions and sectoral activities such as sustainable fisheries and tourism, as well as coastal engineering measures.

Jens Enemark, Common Wadden Sea Secretariat, gave a presentation on the trilateral sea cooperation - achievements, challenges and perspectives. Highlighting the outstanding ecological and socioeconomic role of the Wadden Sea, he pointed out the importance of political cooperation. He underscored the need to build upon the agreed guiding principles and move toward a commonly defined protection area. He outlined challenges for the future, including developing integrated and comprehensive management systems and stakeholder involvement.

Siepie de Jong, Mayor of the Municipality of Leek, The Netherlands, spoke about success and future perspectives of protected areas in the Wadden Sea. She stressed the need for the Wadden Sea countries’ governments to lay a foundation for cohesive implementation and underlined a resolution of the Stade Ministerial Conference in 1997 to put in place a common understanding of the various protection regimes based on a common classification tool. She also cautioned against the lack of information sharing with stakeholders and civil society.

Siân Pullen, Head of the Marine Programme for WWF UK, drew attention to new approaches in coastal engineering measures in the UK. Outlining major causes of and facts on the loss of coastal wetlands, she argued for development of innovative partnerships between local and national environmental groups, government agencies and local industries to generate opportunities for demonstration projects. She illustrated this approach with the Abbots Hall Farm project in Southeast England, where interest groups, the private sector and government successfully jointly pursue the recreation of degraded coastal ecosystems.

Dr. Kenneth Sherman, Director of the Office of Marine Ecosystem Studies, Northeast Fisheries Science Centre, gave a presentation on marine ecosystem management of the Baltic and other regions. He reflected on internationally adopted principles and their application in the nine countries bordering the Baltic Sea ecosystem, with a GEF-funded project to be initiated in 2001.

Kees Lankester, Director of Scomber Consultancy, The Netherlands, underscored compatibility of fisheries and sustainable management if fisheries’ impact on the ecosystem is acceptably low. He said impact standards depend on the ecosystem and must be defined in consultation with interest groups and applied to all fisheries in the Wadden Sea.

Chua Thia Eng, GEF/UNDP/IMO Regional Programme on Building Partnerships in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia, pointed to a review of the past initiatives, indicating weaknesses such as information not meeting management requirements and approaches, being too bottom-up or top-down. He concluded that partnerships between the various stakeholders are essential and that ICM would be most effective if it is developed and implemented within the local government planning and management framework.

Dr. Mathias Feige, German Institute for Economic Research in Tourism, pointed out the need to involve the tourism industry as active partners in nature conservation and for shared responsibilities. He noted the absence of a joint concept of sustainable tourism which has an equilibrium of economic, environmental and cultural needs of both tourists and locals.

Dr. Karsten Reise, Island of Sylt Research Centre for the Wadden Sea, highlighted major strategic elements, including: addressing coastal retreat in a well planned manner; construction of an offshore port in the North Sea; prevention of species introduction; better assessment of harmful substances; and better integration of coastal tourism with nature conservation.


On Tuesday morning, the workshop was convened by the German Technical Corporation Agency (GTZ) and SEI, and chaired by Hinnerk Bartles, GTZ Senior Advisor.

Joachim Bendow, Executive Secretary, International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR), gave a presentation on water management and sustainable development in the Danube river basin. He addressed, inter alia: social and economic disparities among countries; pollution reduction; participation; root causes of inadequate management; the Danube water quality model; the future EU Water Framework directive; and perspectives for international cooperation and financial support.

Ren Yanan, Administrative Center for China’s Agenda 21, addressed sustainable utilization of water resources. On the general situation, she highlighted, inter alia, that while there is sufficient water in China, there is scarcity due to per capita occupancy and that distribution of precipitation is uneven. On water-related sustainable development, she noted a shortage of water resources and intensifying discrepancies between supply and demand, which threaten China’s agriculture, urban areas and growth perspectives in general. She concluded by indicating countermeasures for solving water resources problems, including saving, water pricing and strengthening management. One participant highlighted inadequacy of water pricing in developing countries and advocated the “right to water.”

Jerry Gotora, Chairman, Mazowe Catchment Council, detailed the management work performed by the Council in Zimbabwe rivers. He identified historical factors that have contributed to poor water management, including extensive dam building in the Mazowe Region and unmanaged access to water rights and land. He outlined principles contained in the 1998 Zimbabwe Water Act, including free primary use (domestic usage, small-scale agriculture), adoption of the “polluter pays” system and prioritized use of water supply.

Rita Sharma, Joint Secretary, Indian Ministry of Agriculture, presented watershed management experiences in India. She pointed to: unequal geographical distribution of water; challenges ahead, including food security, agricultural production and poverty alleviation; and the dwindling effects of the green revolution. She identified management schemes for both rain-fed and irrigated areas, which provide for, inter alia, people’s involvement, empowerment of communities (financial, human and social capitals) and monitoring.

Stela Goldstein, Special Assistant to the Governor of São Paulo, highlighted institutional mechanisms for water management, including the new Brazilian Federal Water Law. She said revised water management mechanisms provide: adjustment of management to social, cultural and physical conditions; integration of environmental and resource management; integration of water and sectoral planning; and empowerment of regional and local stakeholders. She explained the system of double ownership of water resources by both the federal State and the regions.

Harro Bode, Executive Director, Ruhrverband, presented work performed by Ruhrverband, a private corporation, in treating river wastewater. He illustrated wastewater treatment with a project underway in the Ruhr River. He said German legislation passed specifically to empower them to carry out river conservation had facilitated the work of Ruhrverband, and suggested other countries adopt similar legislation.

The afternoon workshop was convened by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and addressed the theme of public and private partnerships to deliver water services.

Chair Al Fry, WBCSD Consultant, opened the discussion and referred to confrontations between the business community and NGOs. He said when the notion of sustainable development started being addressed by NGOs, the business community saw a profitable opportunity for dialogue. He noted WBCSD was born out of this emerging corporate interest in sustainable development and that today the priority focus of the organization is addressing fresh water supplies.

Jim Lamb, WBCSD, spoke on water valuation, investment and sustainable development. He outlined: areas of consensus; infrastructure deficiencies (unmanaged population growth, lack of efficiency in water services, increasing requirements for sanitation services); sources of investments (governments, ODA funds and the private sector); incentives for private sector financing (need for return on investments, value for money, and competent and fair regulations); and the WBCSD perspective (full cost pricing to attract investments, provision for the poor, water as a public good, and priced storage, treatment and delivery).

Al Fry noted that poor urban people pay a higher price for water. He suggested rich people be charged above cost and poor people below cost and that a mechanism to implement and monitor this be put in place by the World Bank. He said dialogue was an important step in water pricing to allow for participation and create business opportunities, and hoped water pricing would make users more waste conscious.

One participant questioned how rural areas could ever attract private sector investments. Lamb said that the cost of technologies for water and sanitation needed in rural areas is much lower than in cities, which increases the value for money. He also addressed the issue of corporate corruption, especially when funds are brought into poor areas, and stressed the importance of corporate social responsibility in curbing corruption flowing from corporate responsibilities. He concluded that change requires dialogue and transparency, noting that people need to understand the decision-making mechanism.


The morning workshop, convened by Carl Duisberg Gesellschaft and the GEF, debated strategies to promote commercial transfers of renewable energy technologies.

Jens-Peter Molly, Executive Director, German Wind Energy Institute, gave an overview of wind energy training courses. He highlighted creating necessary knowledge about wind energy for decision makers, transferring political and technical know-how and tackling political obstacles first. He stressed transferring technical and economic know-how to enable engineers to solve wind energy application problems.

Chen Xinjun, Vice President, Central Southern China Electric Power Design Institute, highlighted the power industry reform and strategy in China and commented on a wind farm project near Lichuan. A Chinese participant underscored China’s unstable market as a local constraint.

J. Dietriech Mayer, Director-General, Dewind, Lübeck, Germany, on technology transfer, underscored the importance of equal benefits for both partners and long-term operations. He outlined the project phases of short-term training, transfer of hardware, long-term training in technology use and transfer of key know-how. He emphasized that Dewind retains ownership control over technology use and the need for secure economic and political conditions.

Frithjof C.M. Kublik, Vice President, Germany Shell Solar, highlighted forecast scenarios for increased energy demand and noted Shell projects on rural electrification. He outlined a case example in South Africa and noted the high cost of solar energy installation as an obstacle to rural electrification.

Heinz-Wolfgang Böhnke, International Relations, SunTechnics, underscored that commercial technology transfer applies to the entire marketing chain and stressed the need support management elements of technology transfer in the local environment. He also highlighted SunTechnic’s franchising approach and market access strategy and noted they require a long-term, reliable mutually binding relationship.

Jörg-Dieter Anhalt, Head, IDER and Technical Director, BRASELCO, called for entry of German companies into the Brazilian market with BRASELCO support. He highlighted the aim of jointly offering and selling solar modules and equipment through a distributor network in Brazil, product and service attributes needed, the different customers and how to enter the market and guarantee sustainability. 

Wolfgung Jung, Manager, Solar Energy Project, Germany, highlighted results of the Gelsenkirchen conference with regard to technology needs and framework conditions, availability of appropriate/proven technologies, financing and capacity building. He noted overall findings of lack of communication between potential partners in the North and South and lack of mutual trust as an important category in risk perception. He stressed harnessing international private investment and facilitating personal interaction between potential partners.

Frank Rittner, Programme Manager, GEF-Washington, outlined impediments influencing technology transfer. He noted availability of assistance tools to address technology transfer constraints and GEF efforts to complement these. In this regard, he highlighted provision of contingent grants and contingent or concessional loans and noted that partial risk or credit guarantees and investment insurance programmes are being explored.

The afternoon session addressed cooperation, co-generation – co-benefit strategic partnerships to unleash commercial potentials of renewable energy technologies.

Gunter Schramm, Consultant, International Finance Corporation, Washington DC, highlighted the combined PV-Hydro approach as a means to reduce prices to make photo-voltaic (PV) power a commercially viable option as a supplementary power source. He noted collaboration of the organizations involved and indicated the need for markets to get utilities interested in making PV part of their system.

Mark Radka, Energy Programme Coordinator, UNEP-Paris, noted the role of GEF and UNEP implementing agencies in establishing renewable energy strategies. He indicated the core concept of the PV-Hydro study was framed by the IFC/World Bank based on the CEPALCO project and noted the larger interest lies in project replicability. 

Rolf Seifried, PV-Hydro Project Manager, Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau, addressed prospects of PV within the scope of German Financial Cooperation. He noted, inter alia, the general sectoral goal to provide reliable cost effective and sustainable energy services to increase economic productivity and improve living conditions. On costs and financing, he noted PV applications have been confined to niche solutions and wider use is limited by lack of purchasing power and of sustained financing possibilities for subsidy schemes.

Andreas Wiese, Associate Team Leader, PV-Hydro Study, Lahmeyer International GmbH, outlined PV-Hydro conjunctive use study objectives and stages, system power scenarios, modular set-up of the planning model and indicated key PV issues are investment costs and operational reliability. He highlighted benefits, screening criteria, first screening results, simulation models and project selection procedures.

Ramon Abaya, Chairman, Philippines Cagayan Electric Power & Light Company, discussed CEPALCO’s PV-Hydro Project under a deregulated environment. He noted the positive impacts of deregulation and the avoidable costs. He highlighted the rational for PV-Hydro conjunctive use and non-economic benefits including independence from imported fuel and reduction of gas emission. Stressing reducing the cost of renewable sources, he supported a deregulated power business environment and advocated private sector participation in addition to financial assistance while the PV market is developing.

Gernot Oswald, President and CEO, Siemens Solar GmbH-Germany, noted lack of access to electricity and PV growth potential and highlighted rural electrification barriers within governments, banks, manufacturers, dealers/installers and customers. He said the PV-Hydro initiative was a brilliant solution to overcome most of the barriers and complement and enhance the performance of many small hydro power plants, but economic conditions are extremely challenging.

Participants discussed, inter alia, precedents, practicality, incentives, costs implications and timing for PV use. Panelists stressed, inter alia, making the market a reality, early collaboration, technological improvement, accessibility of different PV uses and the difficulty of reducing costs without demand. 


The morning workshop addressed solutions to the forest crisis. Chair Angela Cropper, International Board of Trustees, Iwokrama International Centre for Rainforest Conservation and Development, spoke of the WCFSD forest trust, composed of four key components:  Forest Watch, a mechanism for information access and pooling; an ombudsman function covering issues of equity and transparency; a Forest Management Council, coordinating between overlapping criteria and indicator initiatives; a forest award, including global, national and local rewards for good forestry practice.

David Pearce, Director, UK Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment, spoke of market’s failure to capture service values of forest resources and suggested innovative solutions to tackling deforestation, such as watershed management and carbon sequestration. He emphasized that all ecological functions are economic functions and suggested alternative economic approaches can provide practical and immediate solutions. On property rights, he said paying for environmental services are not a solution as population and corruption are larger issues.

Al Fry, WBCSD, highlighted positive developments in the forest industry, including well developed systems of plantations on previously degraded land and forging of new partnership with different actors.

Joan Pollock, Eco2000, spoke of grassroots experiences of establishing successful forest farms in New Zealand.

Mark Poffenberger, Director, Asia Forest Network, outlined success stories of community forestry initiatives in India, Nepal, the Philippines and Vietnam. He stressed the importance of community adaptation to environmental crisis and described community transition from state ownership of forests to new governance structures. He suggested changes stemmed from severe land degradation, poor economies and political pressures by rural people, and stressed the re-emergence of stewardship over natural resources.

Colleen McCrory, Valhalla Wilderness Society, spoke about British Colombia’s forest crisis, stating that almost a million hectares of forest per year are harvested. She stressed that true forest stewardship will bring about sustainability and the potential for implementation of a community ecosystem-based plan.

Discussion touched on: the importance of grassroots initiatives; emerging environmental services of forests, such as carbon and certification; and the need for investment in forestry research and the importance of global and international approaches towards forest management.

The afternoon workshop concentrated on overcoming obstacles in forestry and the themes of sustainability and governance, technical solutions and structural reforms, the politics of forests, and the challenges for political and economic systems for change.

Chair Norman Myers, Professor, stressed that we are facing a forest disaster and reminded that tropical deforestation is increasing due to shifting cultivation.

Liz Dowdeswell, former Executive Director, UNEP Canada, identified the need to effectively understand the nature of sustainability and to pursue creative environmental governance clarifying the role of the intergovernmental community to achieve sustainable development. She suggested an eco-systemic approach to environmental problems, highlighting interdependence and diversity.  She emphasized the importance of linkages, between, inter alia, science and policy, and people and governments. On governance, she suggested institutional and behavioral challenges are the key to creative environmental governance.

On technical solutions and structural reforms, Maria J. Cruz, GEF Senior Social Scientist, called for community based natural resource management; accountability; broaden constituency; responsive business practices; and sharing technological advances. On implications for Rio +10, she highlighted: deforestation as a global problem; inclusion of forestry issues in national environmental strategies; and linking forestry programmes to poverty alleviation.

Hemo Munting, Co-founder of GLOBE International underscored the importance of approaching politicians with substantive information. He supported WCFSD suggestions for a Forest Capital Index.

Uwe Möller, Secretary General of the Club of Rome, highlighted developed countries’ responsibility toward sustainable forestry and the role of business initiatives in the future of green markets.

Discussion ensued on global governance, the need for institutional change for forestry and the prospect of a forest convention. Certain participants defended that forestry would be more effectively dealt with at the national level. Ola Ullsten, World Commission on Sustainable Development, outlined the priorities of the WCFSD report, including: developing the Forest Capital Index; pursuing the forest trust supported by IISD; and encouraging governments to take a lead in forest issues.


The morning workshop, convened by WBCSD and chaired by Dawn Rittenhouse, DuPont Corporation, addressed markets, knowledge and sustainable development.

Bas de Leeuw, Programme Director, Sustainable Consumption, UNEP Division of Technology, Industry, and Economics, stressed the importance of proper information dissemination, youth participation, training and networking, and accessible pricing in markets in order to facilitate sustainable consumption.

Georg Kell, Special Advisor to the UN Secretary General, stressed the importance of shared responsibility and self-enlightened interest. He supported the integration of developing countries in the market and noted that poverty is frequently a result of insufficient training and government failure. In creating sustainable markets, he called for attention to human rights and environment as well as trade interests.

Ezio Manzini, Director of the Italian Department of Industrial Design and Architectural Technology, outlined a society in which sustainable businesses would enable people to both live better and consume less. He called for a shift from market models based on material products to one based on service and knowledge and, beyond this, a shift in consumer ideology to value social common goods.

Edward Frieman, Chairman of the Board on Sustainable Development, USA National Research Council, called for collaborative efforts to create a new science of sustainability. He noted the Internet economy and e-commerce were creating a fundamental shift in the relationship between energy and growth and described a trend of decreased energy consumption with increased information technology.

Anne Weir, Community and NGO Affairs Manager, Corporate Relations Department. Unilever PLC, discussed ways in which responsible business could provide pathways to sustainable markets. She outlined a market programme wherein growth would not be dependent on natural resource consumption. Noting that products on the market need to be sustainable, she stressed mutual responsibility between businesses, government and consumers. She highlighted the importance of informed consumers and a community/government mandated framework of sustainability goals for businesses. 

The afternoon workshop was chaired by Michael Hanssler, Executive Director of the Bellagio Forum for Sustainable Development. 

Dawn Rittenhouse, Business Sustainable and Product Stewardship Leader, DuPont Corp., discussed DuPont’s new sustainable development-oriented corporate image. Methods of bringing about corporate and public awareness of this shift included the creation of environmental “to-do” lists for both the company as a whole and for individual employees.

Michael Henriques, Director, Job Creation and Enterprise Development, ILO, discussed unemployment and poverty in the sustainable development context. He discussed: ILO’s action toward self-employment in developing countries; impediments to small business growth, specifically an inadequate legal framework; ineffective government subsidies; property rights; and lack of understanding of markets. ILO programmes take on board entrepreneurial training, radio and TV publicity, management training packages, and sponsorship programmes that link small businesses with larger corporations.

Frank Rittner, Programme Manager, GEF-Washington, discussed the GEF’s efforts to promote customized sustainable investments for business needs. He discussed the importance of private-public sector partnerships and the need to merge divergent interests in win-win situations that would have environmental and economic benefits. He noted that such partnerships were hindered by a lack of appropriate investment assessment and venture capital and the lack of incentives for market transparency. He called for innovative advisory and financial services that could resolve these problems by allowing cost circulation and benefit sharing.  He also suggested strategic partnerships to aggregate supply and demand in developing countries.

Bart Jan Krouwel, Head of Sustainable Development Department, Rabobank, The Netherlands, discussed the role of the financial sector in sustainable development. He suggested the financial sector has the social responsibility to promote ethical investment and sustainable development. He discussed green management composed of strategic sustainable development, handling in-company environmental issues and the allocation of special/innovation funds for environmental projects.

Stig Carlson, Director General, EAAA-Brussels, discussed advertisement and sustainable development. He proposed that, by mirroring trends, advertising could create trust and relationships. As a method of social communication, he stressed that advertising must be specific to a recent UNEP communication project. He discussed the need for consumers, marketers and advertisement agencies to work together for ideal communication and sustainability.

Peter Hardi, Senior Fellow and Programme Director, IISD, discussed the importance of indicators in monitoring the progress of sustainable development in projects and communities. He noted that indicators act as a link between present activities and future goals and described indicators used by IISD. The importance of making indicators both complex enough to tackle the complex issue of sustainable development and accessible to shareholders and businesses was also addressed. More information can be found at

The ensuing discussion focused on the importance of market technology and information dissemination in developing countries, the problems with communicating between cultures, and the need to find appropriate indicators for sustainability.


PLENARY: Participants will gather in a youth vision Plenary entitled �Preparing future decision-makers� from 9:30 to 12:00 in Room 2. A synthesis Plenary will be held at 13:00 in Room 2, followed by a closing Plenary at 16:00 for participants and panelists to discuss the platform for the future.

Sustainable Developments is a publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) <>, publishers of the Earth Negotiations Bulletin �. This issue is written and edited by Emily Boyd <>, Richard Campbell <>, Violette Lacloche <>, and Jessica Suplie <>. The Digital Editor is David Fernau <>. The Editor for this issue is Deborah Davenport <>. Logistics coordination by Molly Rosenman <>.The Managing Director of Sustainable Developments is Langston James "Kimo" Goree VI <>. Funding for coverage of this meeting has been provided by the Stockholm Environment Institute <>. The authors can be contacted at their electronic mail addresses and at tel: +1-212-644-0204 and by fax: +1-212-644-0206. IISD can be contacted at 161 Portage Avenue East, 6th Floor, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 0Y4, Canada; tel: +1-204-958-7700. The opinions expressed in the Sustainable Developments are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and other funders. Excerpts from Sustainable Developments may be used in other publications with appropriate academic citation. Electronic versions of Sustainable Developments are sent to e-mail distribution lists (ASCII and PDF format) and can be found on the Linkages WWW-server at <>. For further information on Sustainable Developments, including requests to provide reporting services, contact the Managing Editor at <>.