PDF Format
  Text Format

Published by the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)


Vol. 105 No. 1
Saturday, 26 March 2005


21-23 MARCH 2005

The Second International Forum on Partnerships for Sustainable Development convened at the Palais des Congrès in Marrakech, Morocco, from 21-23 March. It was organised by the Ministry of Territory Planning, Water and Environment in Morocco (MATEE) under the High Patronage of His Majesty King Mohammed VI, in cooperation with the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA).

Over 400 participants from 60 countries participated, including 13 ministers and other high-level representatives. The organizers were assisted by a ‘Friends of the Forum’ group of representatives from the UK, Canada, the Netherlands, the US, Italy, France and UNDESA. Representatives of ten international organisations and numerous major groups took part in 26 scheduled working sessions and four ‘on demand’ workshops, which consisted of panels, presentations, ‘breakout’ meetings, and a number of innovative opportunities for one-to-one consultations with experts and networking.

The purpose of the Forum was to advance sustainable development implementation through strengthening and fostering water- and energy-related partnerships and to build on the outcomes of the First International Forum on Partnerships, which took place in Rome, Italy, in March 2004. A report to be prepared by the Government of Morocco, with the support of UNDESA, on the outcomes of the Second Forum will be presented to the thirteenth session of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD-13), which is to consider water, sanitation and human settlement issues at its April 2005 meeting. The Partnership Fair at CSD-13 has been dedicated to ‘partnerships in practice’ to showcase registered partnerships on these issues. It is anticipated that the Forum outcomes will also inform the CSD’s preparations for the UN Millennium Summit to review progress on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Energy issues will be taken up again at CSD-14 and CSD-15.

The Forum provided an opportunity for those who have engaged in partnerships in pursuit of sustainable development to take a detailed look at the partnering process, including the organisational and resource demands associated with the different stages in the lifecycle of a partnership. Innovative methods, such as the organisation of facilitated workshops ‘on demand,’ provided some participants with an opportunity to take discussions on the side of the conference into structured workshops and develop proposals with the help of expert facilitators. One of these ‘on demand’ workshops examined a proposal for an institute for sustainable development for Africa.

An expanded ‘Friends of the Forum’ advisory group met after the closing plenary to consider next steps. Options for a follow-up to the Second Forum were considered, including the possibility of a two-year meeting cycle and/or convening partnership fora alongside other international events and convening partnership events at the regional level, with an important consideration for UNDESA being that the Partnership Forums sit outside the UN system and are also relevant to other international processes.


The 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development’s (WSSD) Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI) states that partnerships, as voluntary multi-stakeholder initiatives, contribute to the implementation of inter-governmental commitments in Agenda 21, the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 and the JPOI. Partnerships serve as a complement but not as a substitute for these commitments. The JPOI also designated the UN CSD to serve as the focal point for discussion on partnerships that promote sustainable development.

In May 2003, CSD-11 adopted a resolution on its Future Programme, Organisation and Methods of Work, consistent with mandates from the WSSD. The resolution sets out criteria and guidelines for partnerships, taking note of preliminary work on partnerships conducted during the WSSD preparatory process, including the Bali Guiding Principles and UN General Assembly resolution 56/76 (A/RES/56/76). The Guiding Principles address issues such as internal governance issues, sectoral and geographical balance, time frames, and the need for a predictable and sustained resource base. The resolution also committed the CSD Secretariat to prepare an online database and registry of partnerships, which have been published on the UNDESA website since February 2004. The number of registered partnerships now exceeds 300. Of these, 209 were announced at the time of the WSSD. 

The CSD’s partnership database provided the basis for the UN Secretary-General’s report on Partnerships for Sustainable Development (E/CN.17/2004/16) in January 2004. In March 2004, the First International Forum on Partnerships for Sustainable Development was convened in Rome, Italy. That Forum addressed: partnerships as a model for technology transfer and the use of innovative financial mechanisms, the added value of partnerships, transparency, accountability and a number of substantive issues related to sustainable development. The Forum confronted three key questions: the extent to which partnerships are recognized as an essential tool for sustainable development; the elements that make for a successful partnership; and how successful partnerships are to be fostered in the future.

The concept of partnerships as agents of sustainable development and poverty eradication has emerged throughout the UN system as part of the UN’s response to the new challenges of globalisation. An example is the UN Secretary-General’s Global Compact Initiative. Partnerships have been endorsed in the context of the objectives of the Millennium Declaration and are linked to the UN’s attempts to encourage the private sector to engage as partners in the development process, consistent with the principles of good corporate citizenship. Registered partnerships for sustainable development have a special character in that they are specifically linked to implementation of globally agreed commitments in the JPOI, Agenda 21 and/or the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21.


The Second International Forum on Partnerships for Sustainable Development opened on Monday, 21 March. The first morning was given over to a welcome and introduction, led by Morocco’s Minister of Territorial Planning, Water and Environment, Mohamed Elyazghi. Noting that governments alone cannot be expected to implement the ambitious actions of Agenda 21 and the JPOI at the global level, he called for rapid action on partnerships among governments, NGOs and the private sector, in collaboration with international organisations and donor agencies. This opening session was followed by high-level and expert panels. High-level representatives from Jordan, the US, the Republic of Congo, the UK, the Netherlands, Italy, Morocco and the CSD participated in the opening Plenary and panel discussions. Minister Elyazghi also opened the Forum’s Partnerships Exposition. In the afternoon, participants got down to business in the first of a series of sector-specific ‘break out’ or workshop sessions and panels on water and energy.

The three days of the Forum were dedicated to aspects of partnerships, such as ‘What’s happening on the ground,’ ‘The partnering process,’ and ‘Fostering new and strengthening existing partnerships.’ On Monday, high-level and expert panels were followed by a series of sector-specific parallel breakout sessions, focusing on water and energy partnerships. On Tuesday, a panel session on partnering was followed by breakout sessions and an evening workshop was convened by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development to discuss public-private partnerships (PPPs). On Wednesday, innovative mechanisms were introduced, including ‘Ask-an-Expert’ consultations and facilitated workshops organised ‘on demand’ to develop themes proposed by a number of Forum participants. The Forum also featured a partnerships exposition, where participants were encouraged to network. A closing Plenary also convened on Wednesday, during which Ahmed Ameur, Secretary-General, MATEE, Morocco, said that he was satisfied that the goals and objectives of the Forum had been met.

This report sets out summaries of panel presentations and workshop or ‘break out’ discussions on each day of the Forum, using headings taken from the Forum’s agenda. Summaries are included from plenary sessions, the majority of the 26 scheduled sessions and facilitated workshops provided ‘on demand’ on the final day. Online contact information is provided for presenters and their respective organisations or presentations.


The first day of the Forum focused on an overview of partnership issues and an examination of ‘What’s happening on the ground.’

WELCOME AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FORUM: At the opening Plenary, Minister Elyazghi opened the Forum with an expression of hope that it would succeed in developing existing partnerships and in creating new ones. He also invited the private sector to become more involved in partnerships.

Corrado Clini, Ministry of Environment, Italy, said that partnerships can be a new model for identifying paths to address global environmental challenges. He called for consideration of partnerships as a tool to look beyond the Kyoto Protocol when the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change convenes a Seminar of Government Experts in Bonn, Germany, from 16-17 May 2005. Clini also called for consideration of the role of partnerships during the CSD’s work on energy and climate change. He underlined the importance of partnership outcomes for other fora, notably the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Clini said the next round of trade negotiations will focus on energy commodities and energy services and observed that many partnerships also focus on related areas, such as hydrogen, methane and clean fuels. He called for efforts to incorporate the outcomes of partnership work in rules to be adopted by the WTO and called for a consideration of partnerships as a new dimension of international rules designed to pursue sustainable development.

John Ashe, Chair of CSD-13, noted the conclusions of CSD-12 that, although the international community is not on track to fulfil its MDG commitments in the areas of water, sanitation and human settlements, these targets are technically feasible and financially affordable. He added that CSD-13 will take decisions on practical measures and options to expedite implementation in these areas and looked forward to decisions that will produce measurable impacts. He recalled the WSSD’s agreement that partnerships should complement, and not substitute, governmental responsibilities and commitments. He concluded by identifying potential issues for discussion at the Forum, including partnerships’ continuing struggle to mobilize additional resources. He also cited a need for demand-driven rather than donor-driven partnerships and accountability. Ashe recalled that enhanced private sector participation in partnerships has been cited as one avenue for partnerships to pursue in their continuing efforts to mobilize new resources.

Anne Kerr, UNDESA, highlighted the CSD’s work on partnerships, including an online database and the introduction of Partnership Fairs at CSD sessions. She also drew attention to a background document on partnerships prepared by the UN Division for Sustainable Development for CSD-13 and which was circulated at the Forum. She also underscored the importance of partnerships adhering to the principles and criteria agreed at CSD-11.

Taha Balafrej, MATEE, Morocco, presented an overview of the Forum’s program, noting that it would focus on implementation on the ground, the partnering process, and supporting new and existing partnerships.

high-level panel – Why Partnerships?: Chair Elyazghi convened a high-level panel to address the theme, ‘Why Partnerships?’

Presentations: Jousef Shureiqi, Minister of Environment, Jordan, said the Middle East and North Africa (MINA) region had captured world attention for all the wrong reasons and noted the opportunities to enhance, structure and showcase its participation in partnership activities. He underlined the need for MINA countries to institutionalize and document its partnership initiatives and to integrate them into the WSSD partnership framework. He described the challenges facing Jordan, which is one of the most water-scarce countries, and its responses, including the roll-out of a project to reuse rainwater.

John Turner, Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, US, noted the role of partnerships in creating critical links among internationally agreed development goals, partners and governments, citing the examples of the Global Water Partnership and Global Village Energy Partnership. He invited Forum participants to make the most of opportunities to build partnerships, continue discussion beyond the Forum, and publicize their successes.

Henry Djombo, Minister of Economy, Forests and Environment, Republic of the Congo, addressed the water and energy challenges facing central Africa. He focused on the threats to the Congo Basin system, climate change and a drop off in water flows and impacts. He described an initiative by the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) to seek GEF funding to set up a sub-regional authority to address the threats. On energy, he underlined the need for domestic energy solutions.

Pieter van Geel, Secretary for Housing, Spatial Planning, and the Environment, the Netherlands, underlined the opportunity for CSD-13 to set the tone for deliberations at the 2005 Millennium Summit, notably calls for increased investment in energy, water and shelter as set out in the report, Investing in Development (2005). He expressed concern about a lack of clarity at the CSD about who will do what and when, and warned that a failure to move to action will undermine confidence in the Commission’s ability to deliver. He called on the CSD to do more to reach out to the development community and the Finance for Development process. Van Geel also described a Dutch Government initiative to leverage private sector investment to improve the lives of people living in poverty. He noted that crucial investment opportunities are being overlooked due to a failure to identify and highlight economic benefits, such as investment to address the anticipated impacts of climate change on health and agriculture. He called for a pragmatic approach to public-private partnerships (PPPs).

Elliot Morley, Minister of Environment, UK, outlined three partnerships involving his government. The UK is contributing to Partners for Water and Sanitation (PAWS), the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), and Partnerships for Principle 10 (access to information). Morley described the UK’s plans to use its upcoming EU Presidency to promote effective international leadership at the Millennium Summit.

Panel on Partnerships—Learning from the Good, the Bad and the Ugly: Jamal Saghir, World Bank, chaired this panel. He outlined the World Bank’s perspective on partnerships, noting that they are critical because they link local public goods to local perspectives, bring together complementary skills and resources, and establish platforms for action at the national and international levels. He highlighted several of the over 70 partnerships that the World Bank is involved with, in areas such as health, the environment, infrastructure, trade and finance. He stated that the World Bank has learned that global partnerships need to be aligned with regional and national development priorities, that developing countries need to be heard and included in governance, that more coordination among partners is needed, and that partnerships should complement development funding rather than replace it.

Presentations: Frances Seymour, Director, Institutions and Governance Program, World Resources Institute, highlighted three challenges faced by Partnerships for Principle 10: to ensure that NGOs and governments are jointly accountable for results in order to learn from what is, and is not, working; to avoid the perception that partnerships exist primarily at the international level, since the focus needs to be at the operational level; and to make partnerships catalysts for official action rather than substitutes for it. Seymour concluded by stating that the legitimacy of a partnership approach is dependent on its effectiveness in overcoming these challenges, and that the partnership model can succeed, but that work remains to be done if average practice is to become best practice.

Fanny Calder, Partnering Initiative and Chatham House, provided an international affairs perspective. She noted that partnerships are, inter alia, working to create change in a creative way at the system level, reducing political, policy and economic risk, coordinating work and increasing its impact, engaging the expertise and resources of a diverse range of actors, strengthening public policy at the national level, and supporting progress in international negotiations. To be more effective, however, she argued that policy clarity, a methodological approach to developing resources and skills, evaluation, and a focus on systemic change rather than isolated projects are all needed. She cited governments’ tendency to believe that simply bringing stakeholders together with officials will lead to global change. She called on governments to bring their biggest assets to the table, including resources and their policy-making role.

Guy Canavy, Chief Executive Officer, Lydec, reviewed his company’s successes as part of a PPP in providing public water services in Casablanca, Morocco. He noted that for PPPs to be successful, it is necessary to include social partners, have a strategy to improve services, be willing to adapt to changing circumstances, and ensure that shareholders are rewarded for their investments.

Chair Saghir highlighted the need for accountability and the engagement of client governments throughout the life of a partnership. He also called on private sector partners to be flexible and adaptable in their contractual arrangements, and to push hard at the highest political levels to make action happen.

WORKSHOPS ON WATER: WHAT’S HAPPENING ON THE GROUND IN WATER AND SANITATION PARTNERSHIPS?: On Monday afternoon there were two sessions each with three parallel workshops or breakout groups on water and sanitation partnerships. Two workshops addressed capacity building, two discussed governance, and one each tackled technology that meets local needs and cost recovery. This report includes summaries from four of the workshops.

Technology that Meets Local Needs: This workshop was moderated by Aaron Salzberg, US Department of State. He noted that its purpose was to identify the challenges of integrating technology to ensure the basic provision of water and sanitation services at the local level, consider how to develop partnerships that can introduce new technologies, and decide on other areas that require consideration.

Presentations: George Carpenter, Proctor & Gamble, presented on his company’s partnership with the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Care International, Population Services International, and USAID on home purification of drinking water through a reverse engineered municipal treatment process, and usage of the product in Haiti, Pakistan and Uganda, as well as in disaster relief. He noted that a different model was used to introduce the technology in each country, and that the failure of a conventional commercial approach in Pakistan was due to the product’s inability to penetrate the market fast enough to cover initial costs. He said the product is now moving to a market-based approach and that full-cost recovery is anticipated after five years of commercialization. Discussing the lessons learned from the partnership, he cited the degree to which all partners were focused on the MDGs and the application of market-based solutions to MDG targets.

Discussion: Initial discussion focused on technical questions about the product and proceeded with an examination of Proctor & Gamble’s experience to identify some of the broader challenges of introducing water and sanitation products in developing countries. Participants raised the need to have an education component to ensure proper usage and the need for follow-up evaluation to establish that a product is being properly used after its initial introduction. Participants also engaged on the appropriate role of national governments in such partnerships, with some speakers taking the view that governments’ role might be limited to financing and establishing an appropriate regulatory framework, and possibly to areas such as setting standards and public education. Participants agreed that the role of governments differs depending on the country in question. The moderator then highlighted the degree to which the partnership under discussion has a number of successful characteristics: small-scale, affordability, safety, proper use due to education, cost-recovery, shared benefits, acceptance of common principles of operation, experience with the target community, and reputation.

Contact Information: George Carpenter: carpenter.gd@pg.com, http://www.pg.com

Cost Recovery: This workshop was moderated by Azzam Alwash, Iraq Foundation, who stated that its objectives were to understand the conditions required for partnerships to work and to discuss how to integrate lessons learned.

Presentations: Helen Mbabazi, Association of Water Operators (APWO) (Uganda), said that her organisation manages water in 56 small towns in Uganda based on agreements signed with town councils, which are consistent with conditions set out by the government. She noted that in areas where costs cannot be covered, the government provides a subsidy. Challenges include difficulties in obtaining private sector financing, a lack of participation in tariff setting, and slow government action. She concluded by noting that APWO is seeking to participate in reviews of the tariff-system, lobbying for participation on stakeholder committees, and is developing an umbrella organisation to bridge the governance gap.

Olivier Gilbert, Veolia Environment, provided an overview of his company’s work in electricity and water supply in Morocco, Gabon, and Niger, noting that costs are linked to consumption. He highlighted efforts undertaken by Veolia to work with and assist local communities, including using mobile payment agencies so that users in remote towns are not forced to travel to pay their bills.

Discussion: Discussion centred on the role of the government in such partnerships, how companies and others manage risk, and disputed uses of the term ‘partner’ in cases where there is an unequal balance of power among actors.

Contact Information: Olivier Gilbert: olivier.gilbert@seen.ma, http://www.veoliaenvironnement.com

Capacity Building: The first of two workshops on capacity building was moderated by Mohamed Aitkadi, Global Water Council. He said that capacity constraints are serious limitations in reaching the MDGs in the water sector and identified several challenges, including the integration of learning into partnership practices, and the design of enabling environments to help partnerships succeed.

Presentations: Mohamed Serifi Villar, UNICEF, presented a programme on school dropouts in Morocco. He highlighted the importance of using an integrated approach involving institutional, private and community-based partners. He said partnerships in environmental and hygiene education must involve citizen participation, capacity building and have a foundation in a human rights approach. He concluded by underscoring that partnerships must be based on public participation.

Olivier Gilbert, Veolia Environment, explained how his company has provided assistance in sanitation education in several countries.

Abdelkhalek Aandam, Water and Local Development Project (PREDEL), outlined the actors, goals, implementation strategies and results of a water supply project in Morocco. He said the project sought to improve the living standards of rural communities in a partnership framework involving local communities, government services and NGOs. He identified implementation strategies used in the project, such as raising awareness and training local associations, supporting women’s participation in the management of water sources and involving local institutional actors. He also demonstrated the gradual shift of project responsibility from PREDEL to local associations. He stressed the importance of partnership, participative approaches, gender, development and adapted learning approaches in the success of capacity building projects.

Discussion: Participants inquired about leadership and the financial participation of the various partners involved in the projects and programmes presented. Other participants stressed the importance of effective communication, risk management, independent follow-up committees, project performance indicators and creating trust for capacity-building partnership to be successful.

Contact Information: Mohamed Serifi Villar: vserifi@menara.ma, http://www.unicef.org; Oliver Gilbert: olivier.gilbert@seen.ma, http://www.veoliaenvironnement.com

Governance: Aaron Salzberg, US State Department, moderated the second of two workshops on governance. He raised questions of how to build the willingness of partners and other stakeholders to work in and develop cooperative processes.

Presentations: Chris Godlove, Alliance to Save Energy, presented a case study on water efficiency in Karnataka, India. He said that the goals of the Alliance International Watergy Program are to develop the capacity of municipal institutions to distribute water and treat wastewater efficiently, and promote public-private partnerships and local policies that ensure access for the urban poor to sustainable water and energy resources. He outlined how his programme builds partnerships in the water and energy sectors, namely by forming institutional partnerships with governmental and non-governmental institutions; implementing water and energy saving measures; and adopting national outreach approaches. He also identified challenges, including: unreliable water services; the absence of metering of municipal energy consumption; centralized financial control; lack of technical, managerial and financial capacity for improvement of services; and the absence of government policy on reducing energy consumption in water delivery and street lighting. Godlove also identified outcomes, such as energy audits in municipal water supply stations, implementation of proposed energy saving measures in pilot towns and a proposed governmental order on energy efficiency in municipalities. He also described the local and regional impacts of the partnership, including the energy and cost savings delivered to local municipalities.

Discussion: Participants identified a number of the essential elements for consideration when building effective partnerships, including the character of civil society, effective communication, independent monitoring, identification of key actors and their interests, consultation with all stakeholders, and mutual respect and common objectives among partners. Noting that the project presented by Godlove used a top-down approach, one participant stressed the importance of listening to local communities. Another participant noted that the project proposed an institutional solution and that the users were insufficiently integrated. Godlove responded that his Programme worked with institutions in the hope that they in turn would choose to work with their users. Several participants suggested that conflicts of interest among government, non-governmental and private actors must be resolved.

Reporting on an earlier workshop on governance, Ken Caplan, Building Partnerships for Development, presented the main challenges identified during the discussion on access for the poor to urban sanitation in Casablanca, and urban water supply and electricity in Gabon. These challenges included: land tenure; setting standards, pricing, tariffs and profits; quality of services; serving the poorest; community participation; and setting priorities and targets. He also drew attention to a publication on structuring partnership agreements in water and sanitation in low-income countries prepared by his organisation.

Contact Information: Christopher Godlove: cgodlove@ase.org, http://www.ase.org, http://www.watergy.org; Ken Caplan: http://www.bpdws.org, http://www.bpdws.org

PANEL SESSIONS ON ENERGY: Two panels were convened to discuss energy. The first addressed end-user development needs and the second focused on developments in sustainable energy issues since the WSSD and in the run up to CSD-14 and CSD-15.

Listening to End-User Development Needs: Chair Philippe Ossoucah, Energy and Hydraulic Resources, Gabon, convened the first panel on ‘Listening to End-Users’ Development Needs.’

Presentations: Feri Lumampao, Executive Director, Asian Alliance of Appropriate Technology Practitioners, Philippines, noted that people in poverty lack the power to make their lives better and are often confined to repeating behaviour that they know is harmful to them. She described partnerships using solar power to make educational and medical facilities available, improving cook-stoves, and using solar battery chargers for a call centre. Describing initiatives seeking partners, she cited projects on herbal medicine, providing health care to remote communities, and measuring air pollution from biomass-fuelled stoves.

Christina Aristanti, Coordinator, Asia-Regional and National Non-Governmental Initiatives, Indonesia, described the Asia Regional Cook stove Programme operating with partners in 14 countries. She described how partners, including NGOs, community-based organisations, governments and entrepreneurs use national networks to identify energy needs and provide capacity building, research, training and exchange of information to local actors.

Peter Pluschke, German Technical Co-operation (GTZ), described a public-private partnership with the cement company HOLCIM that is designed to reduce the company’s demand for fossil fuels and natural resources by combining cement production with the recycling of certain wastes in a way that will contribute to GTZ’s attempts to address waste issues in developing countries.

Alfred Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Executive Director, Energy Foundation, Ghana, presented an energy profile of Ghana and described the work of the Foundation, a partnership-based consumer organisation promoting sustainable development and sustainable energy supply and consumption. The Foundation’s roles include: education, advocacy and capacity building, and implementation agency for the government’s energy conservation and efficiency programme.

Discussion: Chair Ossoucah noted that the presentations underlined the limited application of models from developed countries in developing countries.

Contact Information: Feri Lumampao: fglumampao@approtech.org, http://approtech.org; Christina Aristanti: secretariat@arecop.org, http://www.arecop.org; Peter Pluschke: peter.pluschke@gtz.de, http://www.gtz-pgpe.ma; Alfred Ofosu-Ahenkorah: oahenkorah@ghanaef.org, http://www.ghanaef.org.

Developments from WSSD to CSD-14 and CSD-15: Chair Markku Nurmi, Vice Minister of Environment, Finland, convened the second panel discussion on: key energy events and outcomes since the WSSD, how these relate to sustainable development partnerships, and how they feed into preparations for CSD-14 and CSD-15.

Presentations: Kathleen Abdalla, Senior Program Officer, Energy and Transport Branch, UNDESA, described the emergence of energy on the CSD’s agenda and how many partnerships reflect the energy themes first discussed at CSD-9. She outlined plans for consideration of energy during preparations for and at CSD-14 and CSD-15, including numerous opportunities for partnerships to feed into these sessions.

Elfriede More, Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, Austria, described the Global Forum on Sustainable Energy (GFSE), a platform for multi-stakeholder dialogue on issues pertinent to energy for sustainable development. She described how the GFSE has worked with UNDESA to analyze the energy partnerships formed since the WSSD and announced that GFSE is prepared to facilitate the development of an online portal with space for energy partnerships.

Mohammed Berdai, Director of the Center for Development of Renewable Energies in Morocco, described the development of the Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (REN21), based on a commitment in the Political Declaration of the International Conference for Renewable Energies in Bonn in 2004. He explained that the initiative is being pursued by the German Government with the support of the WorldWatch Institute and GTZ. Berdai described how the network encourages countries to meet their WSSD commitments. He said the network would also help to frame renewable energy priorities at meetings such as CSD-14 and CSD-15 and at the UN Millennium Summit.

Dominique Lallement, World Bank, reported on deliberations by 600 energy professionals during the Bank’s annual Energy Week in March 2005. She outlined a number of conclusions and observations on: tension in the energy world alongside a consensus that reliable, sustainable and affordable energy services are indispensable for development and poverty eradication; the need to consider environmental externalities when considering energy investments; inefficient use of biomass as a major cause of indoor pollution; the renaissance of the nuclear energy; the need for domestic and international capital investment; and the need to make PPPs more effective.

Yvo de Boer, Director of International Affairs, Ministry of Environment, the Netherlands, contrasted the approach taken by the partners involved in the World Conference on Energy for Development 2004 with that of climate negotiators who focus on targets. The Energy for Development partners approached the problem from a new angle, by posing the question: if developing countries are claiming legitimate rights to economic growth, which requires energy, how can that energy be provided in a way that is beneficial to the economy and the environment? De Boer urged that CSD-14 adopt a clear approach to assessing energy needs and challenges, and that CSD-15 adopt a very specific approach to indicating what needs to be done and by whom. Chair Nurmi provided a short summary of key themes, including the need to develop mechanisms for PPPs, and the value of partnerships that have deep involvement by local people.

Contact information: Kathleen Abdalla: abdallak@un.org, http://www.un.org/esa/desa; Elfriede More: elfriede-anna.more@bmu.gv.at, http://www.gfse.at; Mohammed Berdai: dg.cder@cder.org.ma, http://www.REN21.net; Dominique Lalement: diallement@worldbank.org, http://www.worldbank.org/energy/energyweek2005/; Yvo de Boer:


The second day of the Forum opened with a panel discussion on the partnering process. This was followed by a series of ‘break out’ sessions and presentations addressing sector-specific water and energy issues and inter-sectoral sessions on resource issues. The World Business Council on Sustainable Development convened an evening workshop on the role of business in public-private partnerships.

PANEL SESSION ON THE PARTNERING PROCESS: The panel on the partnering process was chaired by Ahmed Amaziane, Director of Multilateral Cooperation at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Morocco.

Ros Tennyson, International Business Leaders Forum and the Partnering Initiative, outlined five non-negotiable truths: partnership is about clarifying boundaries and responsibilities; it does not matter which sector triggers a partnership; individuals matter; systems are ultimately more important than projects; and partnerships are about taking, not mitigating, risk. She proposed that partnerships are about innovation and working outside normal approaches and described partnering as an “art and a science”. While noting that every partnership is absolutely unique and context specific, Tennyson posited some universal principles, such as equity, transparency, and mutual benefit.

Arab Hoballah, UNEP-Mediterranean Action Plan (UNEP-MAP), noted the importance of the implementation phase, as it is an opportunity to test the passage from intention to action, and observed the short-lived nature of a number of WSSD partnerships. He also discussed: the cultural dimension of partnerships; negotiation and consensus building; addressing divergent interests and establishing ownership; the role of equity and transparency; sustaining dynamism; the ability to manage and work with people from different backgrounds such as bureaucrats and policy advocates; and the comparative advantage of participation.

Ken Caplan, Building Partnerships for Development, presented on building partnerships with local ownership and cross-sectoral linkages. He noted that PPPs are distinctive in that they usually take the form of a contract between the private and public sector, with a vertical accountability structure. Other partnerships are generally less contractual and operate with horizontal accountability. He added that: PPPs are constructed within a regulatory framework and usually have limited stakeholder engagement; PPPs seek finance while other partnerships are usually involved in fund-raising; and while multi-stakeholder partnerships can be found in PPP arrangements, multi-stakeholder partnerships retain different identities. On engaging with communities he discussed: obstacles, such as fragmented community leadership; balance of power issues; and the weak status experienced by some partners.

Contact Details: Ros Tennyson: ros.tennyson@iblf.org, http://www.ThePartneringInitiative.org; Arab Hoballah: Hoballah@unepmap.gr, http://www.unepmap.org; Ken Caplan: kenc@bpdws.org, http://www.bpdws.org

BREAKOUT SESSIONS ON ENERGY – FOCUS ON THE PARTNERING PROCESS: Forum participants were invited to discuss their experiences with the partnership process in parallel sessions on energy and water, with a focus on positive and negative lessons.

Managing Energy Partnerships - Internal Governance Structures: This breakout session was moderated by Jacob Moss, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Arab Hoballah, UNEP-MAP. Moss opened with some remarks on the Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles and the Partnership for Clean Indoor Air. He observed that both focus on the nexus of energy and health, specifically diseases arising from indoor pollution from cook-stoves and urban air pollution. He contrasted the governance structures of these partnerships, noting the implications of certain constraints on fund raising if certain partners, such as governments, take a lead.

Discussion: One participant observed that presentations at the Forum had dwelt too much on analytical and theoretical criteria. He said a major question was the involvement of the private sector. Most of the discussion focused on contrasting experiences of the private sector’s involvement, including that of one speaker who is involved in the cook-stove indoor pollution issue and who noted that the private sector interest in her case consists of poor producers who demonstrate less readiness to become involved. She described how the partnership helped to underwrite some of the risk for the producers to become involved. Another speaker, describing her experience with the Global Village Energy Partnership and the Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) Challenge to address cook-stove pollution, discussed: the inverse relation between the scale of partnerships and the speed with which they can demonstrate results; the need for a sophisticated understanding of the ‘private sector’ given the range of ownership structures; methodologies that assist the private sector in identifying market opportunities such as the preparedness of poor people to purchase LPG as an alternative fuel for cooking, and the need to clarify the respective interests of civil society and private sector partners.

Building Energy Partnerships: Local Ownership and Cross-Sectoral Linkages: Dr (Ms) Houda Ben Jannet Allal, Observatoire Méditerranéen de l’Énergie, and Ros Tennyson, Partnering Initiative, invited four ‘buzz groups’ each to participate in an exercise in which each explored challenges from the perspective of: government, business, NGOs or communities. In a feedback session, the ‘buzz groups’ reported their discussions and conclusions. The challenges identified for NGOs were: financial resource issues; inability to focus; geographical coverage; action or advocacy orientation; administrative capacity and accountability; reporting and documentation; staff turnover; donor-driven priorities; competition between NGOs; aligning NGO-specific agendas with others’ priorities; and an imbalance in power relations with other partners. The challenges identified for government included: bureaucracy; slow funding procedures; effectively communicating success stories; and negotiation capacity. Challenges identified for communities included: their heterogeneity; working within existing power structures; awareness raising; reaching the poorest and minority groups; aligning project objectives with community needs; communication; maintaining the distinction between community and government responsibility; and community involvement in project design and ownership. Challenges identified for business included: mobilizing finance; convincing financial institutions of the benefits; raising awareness of benefits among end users; lack of NGO capacity to use business models; availability of private sector partners; and competing interests across government, NGOs and business.

Tennyson concluded the session with comments on the need for partners to adopt a language that can facilitate constructive engagement with business and entrepreneurs.

Reviewing And Measuring Energy Partnerships: This breakout session was moderated by Melanie Rein, the Partnering Initiative, and Patricia Flanagan, USAID, who opened the session by differentiating between evaluation and monitoring, and asking participants about their experience with monitoring and evaluating their own partnerships. Rein asked at what stage such evaluations were conducted and why.

Discussion: Several participants took the opportunity to outline their own disparate experiences and plans for evaluating their partnerships. Participants also focused on difficulties, including ensuring that monitoring and evaluation does not become too onerous for participants, choosing appropriate metrics and milestones to measure, and the large number of variables that can impact evaluation. Discussion also focused on treating evaluation and monitoring as part of a learning and development process for the partnership.

Contact Information: Patricia Flanagan: pflanagan@usaid.gov, http://www.sdp.gov; Melanie Rein: melanie.rein@btinternet.com  

Marketing and Outreach for Partnerships: This breakout session was moderated by Arab Hoballah, UNEP-MAP, and Rob de Jong, UNEP, who began the session by raising several key issues: how to report/measure progress, how to move forward to sustain the partnership, synergies with other partnerships, and communication.

Discussion: Much of the discussion focused on communication, both between and within partnerships. Noting that short-term funding associated with many partnerships is an ongoing reality, participants generally agreed that external communications can be an important marketing approach to help leverage new funding. This can in turn help maintain the existing partnership and even help to expand it. Internal communication was seen to be important to keep the partners involved and to improve joint ownership.

Contact Information: Rob de Jong: rob.jong@unep.org, http://www.unep.org; Arab Hoballah: hoballah@unepmap.gr, http://www.unepmap.org

BREAKOUT SESSIONS ON WATER PARTNERSHIPS – BUILDING, MANAGING AND REVIEWING PARTNERSHIPS: Ken Caplan moderated three breakout sessions that addressed building partnerships for development, with a focus on building, managing, review and measurement.

Building Water Partnerships: The first breakout session focused on building partnerships, local ownership and cross-sectoral linkages.

Presentations: Elsa Mejia, Inpart Engineering, showed a film about a water supply project in Manila’s urban slums. She presented a partnership between a small-scale water provider and community operators, and stressed the importance of involving the community in water distribution management.

Aurore Maillet, European Commission, presented on the EU Water Initiative, outlining its objectives, overarching principles and administrative structure. She also identified lessons learned about increased coordination of donors, appropriate methodology and monitoring, multi-stakeholder involvement and ensuring a level playing field for all partners.

Discussion: Participants inquired about partnership success stories in finance coordination, and ownership of water at the international and local level. They discussed a number of issues, including occasions when the ‘multi-stakeholder partnership’ description may not be appropriate due to a lack of equality and influence across members, instances where good will may be absent in a partnership, and problems of exclusion and divergent agendas. Participants also identified instances when partners should invest in building strong relationships, such as in financially ambitious projects, unsustainable exploitation of a public resource, and in the presence of a legal framework allowing appropriate regulation.

Managing Water Partnerships: The second breakout session focused on managing water partnerships and internal governance structures.

Presentations: Johnson Klu, the Mvula Trust, presented on a private-public-NGO partnership and programme on water sanitation and integrated development in South Africa. He highlighted the programme’s strengths, such as promoting local economic development, ensuring a central role for institutional and social development and promoting community ownership and mobilization. He also identified challenges the programme had faced, including the possibility that his NGO could lose credibility due to its association with government and the private sector, and emphasis by the programme on speed and profit in the construction of water sanitation over institutional and social development.

Jacques Labre, Suez-Environnement, presented a private sector perspective on water and sanitation PPPs in Latin America. He described how to assess failures and successes in water partnerships. He presented on PPPs in Buenos Aires and La Paz and identified the lessons from these case studies, namely that contractual compliance does not guarantee success and that in times of economic and political crisis, it can be difficult to satisfy individual users. He emphasized that high profit levels on water services are both politically unacceptable and socially detrimental, and stressed the importance of legal and regulatory risk mitigation in PPPs. He identified features for a successful PPP, such as shared willingness to adapt to unforeseen circumstances, and building trust. He concluded by noting that good governance systems for public services are preconditions for private sector participation in public services.

Reviewing and Measuring Water Partnerships: The final breakout session on water partnerships was on review processes and measurement.

Presentations: Adela Backiel, US Department of Agriculture, presented on how to communicate the successes of PPPs. She said the Whitewater to Bluewater PPP sought to publish a guide on how to develop metrics to communicate partnership successes. She said well crafted metrics can help to communicate with a broad range of audiences, secure stakeholder support and demonstrate accountability. Noting that each PPP is unique, she underscored that no standard measurement tool is applicable to all partnerships. She also presented examples of metrics used in a partnership project to tackle the illegal harvest of green turtles in Costa Rica, namely the number of legislative changes, additional enforcement investments and changes in the number of turtle nests.

Contact Information: Elsa Mejia: inpart_02@yahoo.com; Aurore Maillet: Aurore.maillet@cec.eu.int, http://www.euwi.net; Johnson Llu: Johnson@el-mvula.co.za, http://www.mvula.co.za; Adela Backiel: adela.backi@usda.gov, http://www.pwc.com/sustainability; Jacques Labre: Jacques.labre@suez-env.com, http://www.suez-env.com

INTERSECTORAL BREAKOUT SESSIONS – WATER AND ENERGY: On Tuesday afternoon, participants from the water and energy sectors came together for a roundtable on innovative approaches to partnership financing and a workshop on resource mapping.

Roundtable on Lessons Learned and Innovative Approaches to Partnerships Financing: This session was moderated by Gary Pringle, Foreign Affairs, Canada.

Presentations: Hans Wessels, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Netherlands, presented his government’s understanding of PPPs. He said PPPs have the added value of being innovative and additional to bilateral cooperation and ODA. He identified criteria for acceptable PPPs, such as concerted action by all stakeholders and private sector contributions of at least 50% of the total budget. He said PPPs must also contribute to capacity building and technology transfer, and be consistent with national poverty reduction strategies. He said his government would participate in, monitor and learn from ongoing PPPs, and initiate new ones through a “call for ideas” in partner countries. He also presented examples of PPPs in solar micro enterprise development in Sri Lanka, water supply in Mozambique, and in a water fund in Indonesia.

Jamal Saghir, World Bank, presented on the World Bank Development Marketplace Programme and other innovative financial partnerships. He explained that the Programme is a way of providing seed capital directly to local communities to support their innovative development ideas. He presented a case study on providing wind-power systems to rural off-grid users in Ghana, the World Bank-Netherlands Water Partnership, and the BBC World Challenge Competition, which rewards entrepreneurial projects benefiting local communities. He concluded by stressing the importance of ensuring initial funds in partnerships.

Aaron Salzberg, USAID, presented on how to develop credit authority to aid developing countries in financing sustainable water and energy projects. He explained how the unavailability of loans and credits in developing countries can be an impediment to their sustainable development. He said there is money within developing countries’ banking systems, but that barriers exist to accessing loans such as poor legal environments, high interest rates, and their banks’ inexperience in lending to the private sector. He concluded by specifying that loan guarantees are not a substitute for returns that accrue from sound legal and regulatory systems, but are an additional tool for mobilizing capital and strengthening local markets, and play an important role in infrastructure investment.

Pierre Victoria, Cercle Français de l’Eau, identified emerging trends since WSSD, including that view that water is not a commodity but that it should have a cost, the importance of public participation and good governance, and socially acceptable water pricing. Noting that annual global ODA for all sectors is not significantly greater than the annual basic cost for achieving the MDG related to water and sanitation, he called for intensified international funding in this sector. He said that PPPs have enabled several countries to be on track to fulfil the MDG. He concluded by reiterating the importance of sustainable cost recovery while protecting access to water for people living in poverty.

Discussion: Participants requested clarification on financing options for partnerships and on the composition of private versus public funding in PPPs, and the relationship among Cercle Français de l’Eau, Veolia and Suez. One participant also inquired if the World Bank consulted with civil society and if its credit programs directly benefit the local populations.

Contact Information: Jamal Saghir: jamal.saghir@worldbank.org, http://www.worldbank.org; Aaron Salzberg: salzbergaa@state.gov; Pierre Victoria: pierrevictoria.cfe@free.fr, http://www.waternunc.com/fr/CFE_presentation_2002.htm

Workshop on Resource Mapping: A Practical Tool for Mobilizing a Partnership’s Financial and Non-Financial Resources: Ros Tennyson, the Partnering Initiative, and Ken Caplan, Building Partnerships for Development, facilitated this workshop on drawing resources from partners. After consideration of the many forms that resources can take, the participants undertook a resource mapping exercise, matching resource needs to different stages in the partnering cycle. Tennyson recommended that a resource mapping exercise be used to clarify what partners can bring to a partnership, particularly non-cash resources.

The final part of this session was composed of a question period, in which participants raised: the value of ‘resource commitment’ by partners; how realistic it is to anticipate that partnerships can become less dependent on external donors over time; and the key ingredients of resource sustainability. On the latter point, participants discussed reliance on external donors and the importance of community ownership of projects once they are delivered. The facilitators concluded with proposals for possible resource mobilisation guidelines including: consideration of resource sustainability from the outset; investment in scoping; partnership building and partner reviews; involvement of all partners in resource mobilisation; pinning partners down to tangible commitments; placing a value on all non-cash resources; viewing cash as the last and not the first resort; drawing resources from multiple sources; using non-cash resource commitments to leverage cash; and acknowledging or celebrating all resource contributions.

WORKSHOP ON PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS: On Tuesday evening, the World Business Council on Sustainable Development sponsored a workshop on public-private partnerships.

The Role of Business in Public-Private Partnerships: Facilitator Fanny Calder, Chatham House, opened the session by inviting panel members to comment on what business can bring to the table in the context of partnerships and what businesses need if they are to participate.

Sarah Adams, Electricité de France (EDF), noted that businesses bring investment, local capacity building experience, job creation and expertise. Citing EDF’s work in Morocco, she stated that the Government provided an initial start-up grant.

Jacques Labre, Suez-Environnement, noted that companies can help to create a positive investment climate, and can help with customer orientation and the adaptation of technology to fit national circumstances. Pierre Victoria, Cercle Français de l’Eau, added that businesses bring a number of efficiencies and require a confident investment climate.

Michael Glover, US Department of State, said that companies pay taxes, bring foreign direct investment, and can demand policy and legal changes that can benefit domestic companies. He observed that where companies are to invest in developing countries, they seek transparency and the rule of law.

Mohamed Berdia, Centre for Development of Renewable Energies, Morocco, stated that private companies also offer technological solutions and financial tools, and require transparency.

George Carpenter, Proctor & Gamble, noted that businesses bring core competencies, including research and development, technology and market research. He said companies need governments to provide a level playing field to reduce investment risk.

Discussion: Issues from the discussion session included how to maximize the benefits and minimize the costs associated with scale and how small and medium size enterprises can also get involved in partnerships.

Contact Information: Sarah Adams: sarah.adams@edf.fr; Mohamed Berdai: dg.cder@cder.org.ma, http://www.cder.org.ma; George Carpenter: carpenter.gd@pg.com, http://www.pg.com; Michael Glover: glovermp@state.gov; Jacques Labre: jacques.labre@suez-env.com; Pierre Victoria: pierre.victoria-cfc@free.fr   


The theme of the final day at the Forum was ‘Let’s do it.’ The day featured a number of innovative mechanisms, including ‘Ask an Expert’ consultations, facilitated workshops organised on-demand to explore topics proposed by Forum participants, and opportunities for informal networking at the Partnerships Exposition. The day concluded with a closing plenary and three reports on Forum outcomes.


Information Systems for Partnership Communication and Knowledge Management: Facilitator and workshop co-developer Darian Stibbe, Partnerships Central, opened the workshop by asking participants to discuss their own experiences in designing and using knowledge management systems, associated challenges, and what makes a good information system. Workshop proposer and co-developer Kristina Vilimaite overviewed her regional environmental center for Central and Eastern Europe’s knowledge management system.

Participants identified several challenges, including quality control, how to communicate with rural areas that often lack Internet access in developing countries, and how to provide users with understandable and relevant information without overloading them with too much information. Regarding the design of good information systems, participants cited issues such as the need to keep information up-to-date, relevant and easy to understand. The workshop closed with an offer from the facilitator to develop a working group on knowledge management systems for partnerships.

Contact Information: Darian Stibbe: stibbe@partnershipscentral.org, http://partnershipscentral.org; Kristina Vilimaite: kvilimaite@rec.org, http://www.rec.org.

A Sustainable Development Institute for Africa: Fanny Calder, Chatham House, facilitated an ‘on-demand’ workshop on a proposal from Moussa Ibrahim Moussa from the Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs, Egypt, that an institute for sustainable development be established for African countries. He explained that the new institution would contribute to the integration of sustainable development policies and strategies, encourage institutional transformation, and promote a culture of sustainable development. Yogesh Vyas from the Environment Department at the African Development Bank noted that the Bank has been invited by NEPAD to act as a focal point for an environmental facility, and said that over 200 environmental projects are in preparation. He agreed that environmental governance is a weakness in African countries. One speaker suggested that the institute should address the legacy of conflict and war. Participants proposed a range of activities, including training, analysis, environmental economics, change management, policy design, research, initiation of partnerships and mobilising political will behind sustainable development. Hassania Chalbi Drissi, Gender and Trade Net Work in Africa, proposed that the new institute address areas neglected by NEPAD, including the role of women and civil society participation. Moussa expressed doubt that NEPAD could take on such roles. To conclude, a number of next steps were identified and Moussa undertook to prepare and circulate a concept paper and consult with NEPAD.

Contact Information: Moussa Ibrahim Moussa: moussai@link.net

ICID’s Initiative on Water for People and Food: M. Gopalakrishnan, International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID), presented on an initiative on water for people, food and nature. He introduced ICID’s Country Policies Support Programme (CPSP), and explained that the Programme is based on the involvement of stakeholders, the creation of a knowledge base, and information sharing through consultation, dissemination and analysis. He added that the roles of the CPSP partners are fluid and that some partners have flexible memoranda of understanding. He also identified areas where future partnerships could help, namely in environmental flow assessment, the social aspects of the future growth of water basins, the impacts of international trade, data sharing and transparency. He concluded by stressing the importance of knowledge-generating partnerships and consultation with all stakeholders in implementing sustainable water and energy strategies. Participants inquired about the mechanisms CPSP uses to share information with governmental decision makers. They also inquired about CPSP’s activities in international transfers of basin water, water quality, and the impacts of international trade on future food security.

Contact Information: M. Gopalakrishnan: icid@icid.org, http://www.ciid.org.in 

Francophone Sustainable Development Information System: Abdeslam Dahman Saïdi, Francophone Environmental and Energy Institute (IEPF), presented on Médiaterre, a web-based Francophone global information system for sustainable development. Noting that French speakers are often marginalized at international environmental negotiations, he said Médiaterre seeks to promote cooperation on sustainable development in francophone countries. He identified founding partners of the Médiaterre, namely the IEPF, the Francophone Institute for New Information Technology and Training (INTIF), the Francophone University Agency (AUF), and their respective focus on specific thematic and geographical areas. Recalling that Médiaterre was a partnership project announced at WSSD, he said the UN could potentially disseminate its own information to French speakers in collaboration with Médiaterre. He also emphasized that the system is freely accessible to any Internet user. Participants considered how to expand Médiaterre to members other than the UN such as to the International Water Office (OIEau), and how francophone countries can further support Médiaterre. Participants also expressed their concern that some information, particularly scientific documentation, remains inaccessible or too expensive for developing countries. Other participants inquired about databases of sustainable development case studies, information impact evaluation, online fora, and manuals for Clean Development Mechanism projects within Médiaterre.

Contact Information: Abdeslam Dahman Saïdi: a.dahman@targa-aide.com, a.dahman@menara.ma, http://www.mediaterre.org 

closing plenary

The closing plenary was convened at midday on Wednesday, 23 March, and was chaired by Taha Balafrej, Director, Department of Partnerships Cooperation and Coordination, Ministry of Territorial Planning, Water and Environment, Morocco. He invited rapporteurs to present the outcomes of the Forum on water, energy and partnering.

Azzam Alwash, the Iraq Foundation, presented the outcomes from sessions on water and sanitation partnerships. He reported that partnerships can: contribute to understanding the costs associated with service delivery and provide support for social pricing and facilities such as micro credit and discounts; facilitate user involvement in decisions on the adoption of appropriate technologies; contribute complementary skills; and inform policy and regulation to support technological innovation to reduce costs. On governance, he reported that partnerships can: inform policy and promote transparency; promote recognition of the need for and catalyse change; mediate competing interests; and foster trust and participatory decision-making around issues such as land tenure and price setting. On capacity building, he reported that partnerships can ensure long term support for projects, but that they need to establish ways to measure and maximise the value of their investment. Alwash concluded with observations that partnerships can reduce financial risks for donors and the private sector, help leverage funding, and facilitate innovative approaches to financing.

Susan McDade, UNDP, presented the outcomes from sessions on energy partnerships. She noted the role of partnerships in accessing and promoting renewable energy, and stimulating energy efficiency at the industrial and domestic levels. On the negative side, she reported on the pressures and sense of urgency around issues of access caused by rising energy prices, climate change and environmental change. She noted that the time is ripe for energy issues, given the inclusion of the issue in the agendas for CSD-14 and CSD-15 and the opportunity to link energy to health, education, gender, poverty and environmental sustainability in discussions at the forthcoming UN Millennium Summit. McDade noted that discussions at the Forum countered myths about the extent to which those living in poverty can and do pay for energy. Other outcomes included recognition that partnerships can complement the private sector’s need to reach remote communities and that comparative advantage is key to maintaining the involvement of partners. Among the unresolved challenges identified for energy partnerships are the challenges of scaling up, funding, accountability and monitoring for voluntary partnerships, and uneven power relations between NGOs, business and government partners.

Malini Mehra, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK, reported on lessons and outcomes from Forum sessions on the partnering process. On cross-sector linkages, she highlighted the challenges of working with different stakeholders, and noted that cross-sector linkages and community engagement require continuous work and creative communication. She added that effective partnerships require up-front investment and regular reviews. On governance, she cited the need for clear and specific goals within partnerships, and for respect for diversity, noting that different governance models are appropriate in different circumstances.

Regarding marketing and outreach, she underlined the need for partnerships to communicate internally and externally in a comprehensive and proactive manner, and to demonstrate both quality and results. On finance and resource mapping, she cited the need to have new and innovative funding arrangements to establish new partnerships, and to maintain existing partnerships. On reviewing and measuring, she noted that partnerships have a wide variety of tools and experiences to draw from, but must determine when to undertake time-consuming monitoring and evaluation.

She underlined that partnerships are delivering on the ground, creating added value, and catalyzing governmental action. She added that each partnership is different, and that different stakeholders require different engagement strategies.

During a short discussion, speakers from the floor raised a number of issues including: the need to promote scaling up; seed money and capacity building in Southern countries; and caution about applying the description of partnership where there is an unequal power relationship between actors.

In his concluding remarks, Chair Balafrej stated that the Forum had paved the way for CSD-13 and invited all partners to continue to exchange information. He expressed a hope that a third forum would be convened next year to help institutionalize the partnership process. He invited participants to review materials from Forum sessions at the event’s official website: http://www.moroccoforum.org.

Anne Kerr, UNDESA, noted preparations for the Partnership Fair at CSD-13 and observed that the nature of deliberations and innovative formats at the Forum could not have taken place in a formal UN setting. She also thanked the Government of Morocco and all who had contributed to the Forum’s success.

Closing the Forum, Ahmed Ameur, Secretary-General, MATEE, said that he was satisfied that the goals and objectives of the Forum had been met. He noted that the massive response to the Forum, which attracted over 400 participants from over 60 countries, including 13 ministers, had demonstrated the international community’s commitment to sustainable development in the water and energy sectors. He said the Forum represented another phase in the implementation of the WSSD JPOI. Ameur described deliberations at the Forum as rich and diverse and looked forward to their contribution to CSD-13. Chair Taha Balafrej brought the Forum to a close at 1:15 pm.


THIRTEENTH SESSION OF THE COMMISSION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (CSD-13): CSD-13 will take place from 11-22 April 2005, at UN Headquarters in New York. This “Policy Session” will decide on measures to speed up implementation and mobilize action on water, sanitation and human settlements. For more information, contact: UN Division for Sustainable Development; tel: +1-212-963-2803; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: dsd@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/csd/csd13/csd13.htm.

4TH INTERNATIONAL EURO SUSTAINABILITY CONFERENCE ON BUSINESS AND SUSTAINABLE PERFORMANCE: This event will take place from 14-15 April 2005, in Aalborg, Denmark. The conference will provide CSD-13 with input on business involvement in partnerships. For more information contact: Euro Sustainability secretariat; tel: +45-9935-5555; e-mail: else_herfort@akkc.dk; Internet: http://www.euro-environment.dk

OECD FORUM 2005: FUELLING THE FUTURE: SECURITY, STABILITY, DEVELOPMENT AND OECD MINISTERIAL SUMMIT: This forum will convene in Paris, France, from 2-3 May 2005 to consider policy issues in the areas of international trade and investment, economic development, the Millennium Declaration, and energy. This multi-stakeholder summit will feed into the OECD Ministerial Summit, which will take place after the Forum from 3-4 May. For more information contact: John West, Forum Director; tel: +33-1-45-248-025; fax: +33-1-44-306-346; e-mail: john.west@oecd.org; Internet: http://www.oecd.org/site/0,2865,en_21571361_34225293_1_1_1_1_1,00.html

UN SYMPOSIUM ON INTEGRATED IMPLEMENTATION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS: This symposium will take place from 10-12 May 2005 in Nanchang, China. For more information contact: Zhu Juwang, Senior Economic Affairs Officer, DESA; tel: +1-212-963-0380; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: zhu@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/calendar/symposium_announcement.pdf

5TH GLOBAL FORUM ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY (GFSE) - ENHANCING INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION ON BIOMASS: This meeting will take place from 11-13 May 2005 in Vienna, Austria. For more information contact: Irene Freudenschuss-Reichl, Austrian Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Development Cooperation; tel: +43-50-1150-4486; e-mail: irene.freudenschuss-reichl@bmaa.gv.at.

TWENTY-SECOND SESSIONS OF THE SUBSIDIARY BODIES OF UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE: This meeting will take place from 16-27 May 2005, in Bonn, Germany. For more information contact: UNFCCC Secretariat; tel: +49-228-815-1000; fax: +49228-815-1999; e-mail: secretariat@unfccc.int; Internet: http://unfccc.int/2860.php

WORLD ENVIRONMENT DAY: Scheduled from 1-5 June 2005 in San Francisco, California, World Environment Day festivities will include special events focusing on urban environmental issues. For more information contact: World Environment Day 2005; tel: +1-415-355-9905; fax: +1-415-355-9933; e-mail: info@wed2005.org; Internet: http://www.wed2005.org/

RENEWABLE ENERGY FINANCE ASIA FORUM: This forum will take place from 15-16 June 2005 in Hong Kong, China, and aims to provide networking opportunities for the financial community to learn about renewable energy issues. For more information contact: Matthew Probyn, Green Power Conferences; e-mail: matthewprobyn@greenpowerconferences.com; Internet: http://www.greenpowerconferences.com/events/RenewableFinanceAsia.htm

UNU/UNESCO CONFERENCE ON GLOBALIZATION AND EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:  This meeting, which will take place in Japan from 27-28 June 2005, is being organized by the United Nations University (UNU) Centre/UNU-IAS. The city is to be confirmed. For more information contact: Katsunori Suzuki, UNU; e-mail: k_suzuki@ias.unu.edu; Internet: http://www.unu.edu/hq/rector_office/events2005/events2005.html

G8 2005 SUMMIT: The 2005 G8 Summit will convene from 6-8 July 2005, at the Gleneagles Hotel in Perthshire, Scotland. Under the UK Presidency, the G8’s deliberations will focus on Africa and climate change among other topics. For more information contact: British Prime Minister’s Office; fax: +44-20-7925-0918; e-mail: http://www.number-10.gov.uk/output/Page821.asp; Internet: http://www.g8.gov.uk/servlet/Front?pagename=OpenMarket/Xcelerate/ShowPage&c=Page&cid=1078995902703

SOLAR WORLD CONGRESS 2005: This meeting is scheduled from 6-12 August 2005 in Orlando, Florida. For more information contact: e-mail: bchowe@ases.org; Internet:

HIGH-LEVEL PLENARY MEETING OF THE 60TH SESSION OF THE UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY ON THE FOLLOW-UP TO THE OUTCOME OF THE MILLENNIUM SUMMIT: This meeting will take place from 14-16 September 2005, at UN Headquarters in New York. The meeting is expected to undertake a comprehensive review of the progress made towards the commitments set out in the UN Millennium Declaration. The event will also review progress made in the integrated and coordinated implementation of the outcomes and commitments of the major UN Conferences and Summits in the economic, social and related fields. For more information contact: Office of the President of the General Assembly; tel: +1-212-963-7555; fax: +1-212-963-3301; Internet: http://www.un.org/ga/

FOURTH WORLD WIND ENERGY CONFERENCE AND EXHIBITION: This conference will take place from 2-5 November 2005 in Melbourne, Australia. For more information contact: Conference Organizers; tel: +61-3-9417-0888; fax: +61-3-9417-0899; e-mail: wwec2005@meetingplanners.com.au; Internet: http://www.wwec2005.com/index.shtml  

4TH WORLD WATER FORUM: This meeting will take place from 16-22 March 2006, in Mexico City, Mexico. For more information contact: Internet:

The Second Forum on Partnerships Bulletin is a publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) <info@iisd.ca>, publishers of the Earth Negotiations Bulletin © <enb@iisd.org>. This issue was written and edited by Alexis Conrad, Peter Doran, Ph.D., and Bo-Alex Fredvik. The Digital Editor is Leila Mead. The Team Leader was Peter Doran <peter@iisd.org>. The editor is Lynn Wagner, Ph.D. <lynn@iisd.org>. The Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James “Kimo” Goree VI <kimo@iisd.org>. IISD can be contacted at 161 Portage Avenue East, 6th Floor, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 0Y4, Canada; tel: +1-204-958-7700; fax: +1-204-958-7710. The opinions expressed in the Bulletin are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD. Excerpts from the Bulletin may be used in other publications with appropriate academic citation. Electronic versions of the Bulletin are sent to e-mail distribution lists (ASCII and PDF format) and can be found on the Linkages WWW-server at <http://enb.iisd.org/>. For information on the Bulletin, including requests to provide reporting services, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at <kimo@iisd.org>, +1-646-536-7556 or 212 East 47th St. #21F, New York, NY 10017, USA.