XII WFC HIGHLIGHTS:
In the morning, the Plenary Session focused on improving people's living conditions. Morning and afternoon Theme Sessions addressed a variety of issues related to "Forests for People" and "Forests for the Planet," including: the acquisition and sharing of knowledge; efficient use and processing of resources; underlying causes of forest degradation and deforestation; climate change; management of forest resources and ecosystems; and urban forestry. Side events also convened in the morning, afternoon and evening.
Henson Moore, International Council of Forest and Paper Associations, stressed the industry's commitment to sustainable forest management (SFM). Acknowledging the growing role of public-private partnerships, he highlighted the role of governments in creating framework conditions for sustainable forestry. Underscoring that economic concerns should not overshadow concerns about forests, Moore recommended that sustainable forest-related commercial activities become an important part of the solution to forest problems, and urged the global community to create transparent communication on progress toward SFM. He called for promoting the mutual recognition of certification schemes, improving technical measures, ensuring accountability of forestry companies, and removing trade barriers.
AREA A - FORESTS FOR PEOPLE
ACQUISITION AND SHARING OF KNOWLEDGE: Noting that many stakeholders - not just foresters - could benefit from a greater understanding of forest issues, J.K. Rawat, Indian Forest Service, stressed the importance of knowledge distribution. Emile Mokoko Wongolo, Secretary General of the African Timber Organization, indicated that research, information dissemination and financing are key to improving future forestry work. Alice Kaudia, Kenya Forestry Research Institute, outlined critical trends and needs for forest research in development, including the need for skilled, robust human resource capital and poverty reduction. Kaudia also noted the adverse effects of HIV/AIDS and acute poverty levels on human and financial resources. To improve knowledge sharing in Africa, Kaudia made a number of suggestions, including: generating statistics on the number of scientists, their fields of expertise, and relevance of the expertise to current and future needs; attracting funding for research from diverse sources; improving skills for transnational knowledge sharing and collaborative learning; determining the impact and sustainability of training programmes; and encouraging market-driven production. Henri Boukoulou, Manieu Ngonabi University, noted that previously excluded groups are now recognized as stakeholders and said participatory management in rural areas can promote accountability and improve SFM in the future. Ernst Zürcher, Swiss School of Engineering for the Wood Industry, discussed a recent project in Madagascar, which produced a bridge for a local rural community. Zürcher noted that the project had low costs and used an exchange of knowledge and know-how between a local community and a foreign organization. Jorge Antonio Téllez, Desarrollo Forestal Communitario, described how electronic training was used to improve knowledge of community forest management in rural areas in Bolivia. Marilyn Hoskins, Indiana University, indicated that institutional analyses can help to identify incentives for planning, managing and implementing community forestry programmes. She noted that withholding information and using incompatible goals to develop community forest programmes could hamper their success.
EFFICIENT USE AND PROCESSING OF RESOURCES: Emile Mokoko Wongolo, African Timber Organization, noted that sustainable forest products have become more competitive in the world market. Ian de la Roche, Forintek Canada Corporation, emphasized the need for sustainable consumption of wood products and said wood is the only renewable mainstream building material. He indicated that the public's perception is “build with wood” or “save the forest,” but noted that the two goals could be compatible. De la Roche noted that wood-based construction systems are changing to meet the demands of consumers. Paul Vantomme, FAO, emphasized the need for improved reporting on non-wood forest products (NWFP) at a global and national level in order to include NWFP in policy planning. He noted that the primary users of NWFP, developing countries such as India, China and Indonesia, have definitions, product classifications and statistics for NWFP, but the majority of countries do not. Vantomme also recommended that countries work with customs officials to incorporate NWFP into national product classification schemes and, at the international level, cooperate with the World Customs Organization on NWFP. Luc Duchesne, Natural Resources Canada, explained that non-timber forest products (NTFP) can be used to reduce poverty, and for ecosystem, species and cultural conservation because they require low start-up costs and create employment for both genders, thus reducing gender inequities. He recommended that the timber industry in developed countries take into account social concerns. He also emphasized that energy consumption is the most critical issue facing the forest industry. Asghedom Ghebremichael, Natural Resources Canada, said that enhanced productivity in the timber-harvest industry can help ensure sustainable forest supply and SFM. Reynolds Okai, Forestry Research Institute, noted that the demand for timber is increasing, and discussed the challenge of promoting the value of using logging residues to increase forest production.
AREA B - FORESTS FOR THE PLANET
CLIMATE CHANGE: Christian Barthod, Ministry for Ecology and Sustainable Development in France, opened the session on the role of forests with respect to climate change. Michael Apps, Natural Resources Canada, explained that forest management could be part of the problem or part of the solution, noting that forest management can increase the forests’ capacity to balance human perturbations in the global carbon cycle. He described some possible actions, such as reducing pressures for deforestation, increasing the use of wood products and wood as biofuel, and promoting agroforestry. Anne Prieur, University of Bordeaux, presented a lifecycle approach to account for the energetic aspects and the carbon stock function of wood products, emphasizing that the effect on climate change will depend on the maximum storage and the optimal transformation, transportation and use of wood products.
Haripriya Gundimeda, London School of Economics and Political Science, addressed the implications land-use change and forestry projects (LUCF) under the clean development mechanism (CDM) of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) could have on sustainable livelihood strategies in India. She encouraged further research on on the long term effects of LUCF projects on sustainable livelihood strategies on climate change. Werner Kurz, Natural Resources Canada, outlined Canada’s national forest sector carbon accounting system, a tool that supports scientific analysis, monitoring and policymaking in forest management for climate change. Bruno Locatelli, Center for Agricultural Research in Developing Countries, addressed controversies over forest plantations in tropical countries under the CDM. He said social impacts need to be included in the evaluation of CDM projects and called for a new approach that balances negative and positive impacts.
Participants discussed the need to develop better tools to account for carbon storage in wood products. They also discussed the use of wood instead of fossil fuels, stressing the need to address this issue at future negotiations under the Kyoto Protocol. Kurz explained that this is unlikely to occur during the first commitment period as there is considerable controversy, and a differentiated perspective on energy and forestry issues must be developed first. Barthod stated that forestry can be one of the solutions to the climate change problem, but much remains to be done on accounting and assessment. He encouraged all participants to prepare for the next round of negotiations under the Kyoto Protocol in order to include storage and energy aspects of wood production.
URBAN FORESTRY, TREES OUTSIDE FORESTS: Robert Lindeckert, Pro Silva Méditerranée, presented the history of Park Fontainbleau, a forest reserve near Paris, outlining its historical importance as a hunting area, artistic reserve, landscape conservation site and UNESCO biosphere reserve. He said a worldwide network of such parks would “re-enchant” the world and serve as an opportunity for people to experience and share knowledge about forests and nature. Cecil Konijnendijk, Danish Forest and Landscape Research Institute, offered perspectives on the role of foresters in urban areas, arguing that fast population growth in developing country cities makes it necessary to develop knowledge, strategies and recommendations for good urban forestry practices. He called upon foresters to cooperate in the development and implementation of the FAO strategy on urban and peri-urban forestry.
Omar Mhirit, National School of Forestry Morocco, described the management of trees outside forests in North Africa, underlining problems in developing a management strategy, including: inventory assessment problems; multiple stakeholders; complexity of legal statutes and institutions; and the sensitivity of ecosystems to exploitation and population pressures. Bruno Locatelli, Center for Agricultural Research in Developing Countries, presented a case for broadening the FAO concept of trees outside of forests (TOF) to increase the attention given to urban and peri-urban areas in development planning. He underscored the multiple benefits that local communities derive from non-forest wood and suggested a new concept of ligneous urban agrosilvopastrurals, which encompasses all types of non-forest woodlands.
Syaka Sadio, FAO, outlined how TOF can contribute to sustainable development, noting that trees are planted for multiple reasons such as: food and fodder production; firewood; soil protection and improvement; shelter; and rehabilitation. He encouraged foresters and other researchers to contribute to a change of attitudes toward TOF by addressing the problems of incentives, policy making and regulation in order to realize the potential of TOF for sustainable development.
Participants discussed how TOF programmes and urban forests can be established. Panelists said that integration into urban planning, the involvement of local communities, and the adaptation to local conditions are important factors for TOF management. They also suggested that aligning TOF with local livelihood strategies can help to solve funding problems.
One participant outlined examples for the strategic integration of trees in European cities for shading buildings and improving air quality.
UNDERLYING CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION: Jose Carlos Carvalho, Ministry of Environment of Brazil, introduced the session with a brief history of deforestation, noting that deforestation is often the result of policies put in place at a time when governments actively encouraged settlement. He said new demands being placed on forests sometimes have led to social conflict.
Jean-Paul Lanly, French Academy of Agriculture, argued that to comprehend the underlying causes of deforestation, the factors contributing to it must first be understood. He then differentiated factors and causes, saying that factors were observable phenomena, such as ranching or urbanization, whereas underlying causes were more systemic. He differentiated between deforestation and forest degradation, defining deforestation as the disappearance of forests, and degradation as a negative change in a forest’s condition. He concluded that attempts to address the underlying causes of deforestation require international cooperation.
Simon Lovera, Friends of the Earth, argued that tree plantations were one of the underlying causes of deforestation, noting that plantations displace workers who, in turn, convert forests in order to obtain livelihoods from subsistence agriculture. She argued that heavily subsidized export agriculture also contributes to deforestation. Matti Palo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, presented a paper on the relationship between population and economic growth and deforestation. He concluded, inter alia, that more reliable monitoring systems and statistics are needed in order to increase awareness of deforestation at the political level.
Jonas Veiga, Brazilian International Research Centre, presented his findings on the relationship between cattle ranching and deforestation in the Amazon, arguing that Amazonian ranching rose considerably in the 1960s and continues to be driven largely by road construction and public financing. He concluded that the Amazon region is important for cattle ranching, the ecological impacts of ranching are evident, and systems to mitigate these effects are needed.
Leyla Montenegro, Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caladas, summarized the results of her research on forest fragmentation in Chile. She concluded that it is necessary to protect forest fragments with a view to reconnecting them in the future.
Jean-Marc Roda, French Agriculture Research Centre for International Development, spoke about the underlying causes of illegal harvesting in tropical forests, noting, inter alia, that an increase in protected areas can often result in illegal logging. Part of the problem, he argued, was the existence of large consumer markets that do not discriminate between legally and illegally-sourced forest products. He said that independent verification was one method for addressing illegality.
MANAGEMENT OF FOREST
RESOURCES AND ECOSYSTEMS: Dennis Garrity, World Agroforestry Centre,
raised the question of whether ecosystem management can help to meet social
needs. Hamish Kimmins, University of British Columbia, distinguished between
ecosystem-based management and ecosystem management and said that
single-value forest management overlooks the complexity of ecosystems.
Larry Innes, consultant to the Innu Nation of Labrador, Canada, described a forestry development agreement involving the Innu Nation and the Government of Québec, which incorporates not only ecological and economic considerations, but also Innu land ethics.
Mette Wilkie, FAO, summarized the results of an FAO study that evaluated the extent to which countries are using forest management plans, noting the absence of reliable statistical data. She concluded that over the last 20 years there had been an improvement in the amount of forest area under formal and informal management plans, but said that more accurate results could be obtained with better information.
Rodney Keenan, Department of Agriculture, Fishery and Forestry of Australia, described the Australian Government's effort to incorporate SFM and the ecosystem approach into its forestry programme.
Johnny Méndez Gamboa, San Carlos Forestry Development Association, Costa Rica, stated that with support from the international community, Costa Rica was able to implement a forest management regime for the first time. He concluded that the regime is generating good results that helped shift Costa Rican forestry from an industrial focus toward a conservation-based approach.
Garrity concluded the session highlighting that, while ecosystem management techniques are improving, the question remains whether or not ecosystem management can effectively reduce poverty.
IV International Conference on
Peter de Marsh, Canadian
Federation of Woodlot Owners, outlined the history of the International
Conference on Private Forests.
Forest landscape restoration:
Building livelihoods and assets for people and nature
David Bills, UK Forestry
Commission, explained that the Global Partnership on Forest Landscape
Restoration (FLR) will, inter alia, provide a framework for sharing
experiences, complement the UK's actions on illegal logging, and contribute
to the work of the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF) and the Convention
on Biological Diversity.
Anne-Claire Goarant, New
Caledonian Directorate for Natural Resources, presented a case study on the
conservation and SFM of dry forests in New Caledonia, which offers an
example of successful on-the-ground FLR implementation. Carole
Saint-Laurent, Global Partnership on FLR, stressed that relevant
international commitments exist, and that FLR can help create synergies
among different forest-related processes. She explained that the partnership
is an open and informal network that aims to increase the profile of, and
support for, FLR and reinforce the positive effects of existing activities
of its partners. She welcomed prospective partners, noting that their
support can include, inter alia, hosting workshops, providing technical and
policy advise, preparing case studies, and undertaking field projects.
Various organizations involved in the partnership then outlined their support for FLR. Eva Müller, International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO), presented ITTO’s work on the Guidelines for Restoration, Management, and Rehabilitation of Degraded and Secondary Forests, which incorporate a landscape approach. Jim Carie, FAO, commended the partnership’s interdisciplinary approach to FLR and noted an upcoming publication of relevant case studies. Pekka Pattosaari, UNFF, expressed his support for FLR as a critical component of SFM. He said that UNFF-5 will consider the report of the global workshop on FLR, and that the Collaborative Partnership on Forests will regard the partnership highly. Participants also heard the announcements of the new partners joining the partnership.
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Forests and fires in harmony
Joel Holtrop, USDA,
opened the session on community-based ecological approaches to forest
management and fire prevention and introduced the speakers. Iñigo Ascasíbar
Zubizarreta, Ministry of the Environment of Spain, discussed the engagement
of local people in fire prevention. He described the geographical
distribution of fires in Spain, noted their causes, and called for a
preventive approach to forest fire management. He explained that to achieve
this aim, his Ministry uses a combination of policy instruments, including
education and legislation. He outlined his Ministry’s rural campaign, which
conveys to farmers that fires are a threat to their own interests. Peter
Moore, Metis Associates, described a community-based fire management project
in Indonesia, explaining that the community needs ash to reduce soil
acidity, but still balances the ecological impact of fires with their needs.
Moore said that fire is disastrous for ecosystems that are not adaptable,
and that fire affects local airports and community health. He described the
project's activities, including recording the communityï¿½s use of fire,
educating the community about fire, issuing regulations, and resorting to
alternative crops adapted to acidic soils.
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Growing a community forest
Jessica Dempsey, Global
Caucus for Community-Based Forest Management, and Lisa Ambus, International
Network of Forest and Communities (IFNC), introduced an informal discussion
on building a community forest movement. Participants engaged in small group
discussions on regional approaches to community-based forest management.
Some participants from developed countries described their work on
landscape-scale biodiversity conservation by providing SFM plans to small
woodlot owners and ensuring economic incentives. Some developing country
participants talked about their countriesï¿½ dependencies on biomass energy
and resulting pressures on forests for both firewood and agricultural use.
They discussed ways to sensitize communities to the value of conservation,
and advocated community titles for open access forests. Participants then
addressed the challenges in building a global community forestry movement.
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THINGS TO LOOK FOR TODAY
SPECIAL SESSION: A
Special Session will take place at 8:00 am in room 200 to hear the results
of the Youth and Indigenous Peoples Forums.
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