Sustainable Developments

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Participants to the Vth IUCN World Parks Congress (WPC) met in seven workshop streams throughout the day to address: linkages in the landscape and seascape; building broader support for protected areas (PAs); PA governance; developing the capacity to manage PAs; evaluating management effectiveness; building a secure financial future; and building comprehensive PA systems. All workshop streams held plenary and break-out sessions throughout the day. Side meetings and special events were also held.

This report follows the thread of the cross-cutting themes on world heritage, communities and equity, and marine PAs (MPAs), focusing on plenary sessions and selected break-out groups of the workshop streams.


EVALUATING MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS: Chair Adrian Phillips, World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA), reviewed the history of the WCPA Taskforce on evaluating management effectiveness (ME). Marc Hockings, WCPA, elaborated on the WCPA ME framework, objectives and guidelines for evaluation.

Natjaran Ishwaran, UNESCO, highlighted the issue of managing the transition from single to multiple PA sites, and of using world heritage certification as a standard-setting mechanism for PA management. Kulani Mkhize, KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife, outlined the business strategy applied to conservation in the province, and reviewed the province-wide rapid assessment tool incorporated into regional decision making. Presenting the Latin American situation, José Courrau, Costa Rica, noted a need for standardized models, and emphasized that regional differences exist in: stakeholder participation; the scale and system of evaluation; and those responsible for evaluation. Kathy MacKinnon, World Bank, and Leonardo Lacerda, WWF, presented experiences with using a quick, inexpensive and site-focused tracking tool for ME evaluation, and identified factors that promote and impede ME.

Ishwaran advocated a flexible approach to evaluation. Rosa Lemos de Sá, WWF- Brazil, noted a correlation between the quality of management and that of the PA ecosystem. Moses Mapesa, Uganda Wildlife Authority, described a national management information system that enhances managers’ performance, the hiring of skilled staff, and effective resource allocation and budgeting. Caroline Stem, Foundations of Success, identified key factors for ME, including clear and practical measures and guiding principles. Stressing the need to promote feedback between managers and government, Hockings called for integrity in assessing performance, and for locally-based management. Bud Ehler, US National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, called for accountability, adaptive management and increased availability of baseline information.

Participants raised several issues, including: inadequate training of park managers; limited local applicability of global management standards; poverty alleviation; and stakeholder participation and responsibility. Regarding PA governance, participants highlighted the need for: flexibility in the institutional scale of management; cooperation with, and independence from, governments; and the inclusion of local communities.

BUILDING BROADER SUPPORT FOR PAs: Supporting PAs in times of violent conflict: Judy Oglethorpe, WWF, reviewed lessons learned by the Biodiversity Support Programme in Africa in minimizing the impacts of conflict on conservation. Participants reflected on lessons learned in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea, Venezuela and Colombia. Recommendations included: developing a protocol for management in conflict settings; establishing a team of mediators; and bringing environmental considerations into UN peacekeeping operational manuals.

Panel on international designations and global governance: Chair Albert Mumma, University of Nairobi, Kenya, introduced the panel. Michael Jeffery, IUCN, said governance involves finding ways to determine and attain environmental objectives. Sarah Titchen, UNESCO, presented the governance profile of the World Heritage Convention. Jane Robertson Vernhes, UNESCO, explained the various administrative systems for governing biosphere reserves. Roger Wilson, "W" National Park Programme, West Africa, said the challenge in governing transboundary PAs is ensuring meaningful participation at community, sub-regional, national, and international levels. Anita Breyer, German Federal Ministry for the Environment, outlined the European system of PA selection, evaluation and designation under Natura 2000. Alain Lambert, Ramsar Convention, outlined the scope, structure and objectives of the Ramsar Convention. Participants recommended: increased synergies between existing multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs); use of flexible soft law instruments; prioritization of poverty alleviation; and recognition of MEAs by the World Trade Organization (WTO).


PA GOVERNANCE: Chair Aroha Mead, indigenous representative, recalled that governance involves power, relationships, accountability and responsibility.

Achim Steiner, IUCN Director General, called for a focus on the relationship component of governance, and stressed the need to address dysfunction and past mistakes towards communities and nature.

Ashish Kothari, Kalpavriksh, presented historical perspectives on conservation and noted that current conservation strategies ignore history. He stressed oral community history as a source of knowledge on nature management and institutional traditions, and outlined the social and ecological impacts on traditional systems of a paradigm shift to state-owned resources and inappropriate development models. Noting that the PA concept has ignored community needs and knowledge, he recommended new conservation models based on a revival of community systems, including through the restitution of land rights.

Janis Alcorn, The Field Museum, US, addressed global changes affecting PA governance. She focused on globalization and democratization, and noted increasing opportunities for new alliances and legal frameworks for PAs, as well as new tools for PA managers. Bruce Amos, Institute on Governance, presented PA governance principles: legitimacy and voice; direction; performance; accountability; and fairness. Grazia Borrini-Feyerabend, IUCN, presented PA governance types, noting the worldwide abundance of conservation actors and initiatives. She described government, private, community and co-managed PAs, and stressed the advantages of recognizing different conservation governance types.

Participants discussed: the difference between governance and management types; integrating cultural values in governance models; involving the private sector; and recognizing indigenous rights.

Exemplars of internationally significant cases: Chair Juan Mayr, Colombia’s former Minister of Environment, introduced the session. Topa Devaji and Hiralal Mohan, local community representatives, presented the decision-making and management principles of a community conserved area (CCA) in Medha Lekha, India. Devaji said benefits included: the end of disruptive commercial practices; village empowerment; self-documentation of traditional knowledge; and financial sustainability. Mohan highlighted the structural defects of the Medha type of governance, including a lack of participation, transparency and accountability. Neema Pathak, Kalpavriksh, presented on the benefits of CCAs in India, and stressed the need to address the lack of tenure security and insensitive state interventions. Madhu Sarin, Society for the Promotion of Wasteland Development, called for linking local and global initiatives.

Mario Jacanamijoy, indigenous representative, Ignacio Giraldo, Colombia’s Institute of Ethnobiology, and Juan Carlos Riascos, Colombia’s Ministry of Environment, presented the case of Alto Fragua - Indi Wasi, a PA co-managed by the government and indigenous communities. Riascos addressed policy aspects of the park’s establishment, focusing on interdependencies between biological and cultural diversity, and on management through intercultural governance. Giraldo described the process to establish the park, including its biological and cultural characterization according to the Colombian legislation and indigenous customary laws. Jacanamijoy said that trust between indigenous communities and the government is the most important aspect for establishing co-managed PAs.

Nancy Anilniliak, Auyuiltuq National Parks of Canada, and Elizabeth Seale, Parks Canada, presented on a co-managed national park in Canada’s Nunavut territory. They focused on ways to manage different value systems, and the positive and negative aspects of cooperative management.

Livingston Makuleke, local community representative, introduced a video on a case of land restitution and co-management in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. He described the establishment of a joint management board, commercial use of the area by local communities, and benefit-sharing arrangements. Noting the complexity of involving communities in land reform, James Murombedzi, Ford Foundation, stressed that poverty had been induced by colonial social engineering systems, and concluded that restitution projects would be successful if poverty were addressed.

Regional lessons: Co-Chair Vivienne Solis, Coope Solidar, introduced the panel which reviewed lessons from Africa, Latin America, Asia and the Mediterranean. Kule Chitepo, Resource Africa, presented the experience of the Southern African region, noting that a major challenge is to find mechanisms for people’s participation at the lowest level, and called for recognizing CCAs. Paul Ouédraogo, African Society of Studies and Advice, presented the experience of Sub-Saharan Africa, noting that few PAs exist in the region and that their governance is centralized. He recommended acknowledging communities’ role in PA management. Chimère Diaw, Center for International Forestry Research, presented on the meaning of governance, and stressed that legitimacy is the key to good governance.

Gonzalo Oviedo, IUCN, presented South American experiences, noting the increasing importance of community and co-managed PAs. Solis addressed lessons learned in Mesoamerica, stressing the need for participation, recognition of collective rights, and a legal, political and conceptual framework for PA governance. Claudio Maretti, WCPA, presented Brazil’s framework for PAs and indigenous land management, and stressed the need for incorporating different visions of conservation and nature.

Introducing the Murcia workshop held in March 2003, Francisca Baraza, Regional Ministry of Agriculture, Water and the Environment of Murcia, Spain, presented the Mediterranean experience. She focused on the region’s special features and their effects on PAs, legal framework and identified gaps.

David de Vera, Philippine Association for Intercultural Development, introduced the Southeast Asian experience. He said problems include: forced relocation; non-recognition of community rights; and a lack of communities’ prior consent in PA establishment.

BUILDING BROADER SUPPORT FOR PAs: PAs and local communities: Lea Scherl, Care-Ecuador, introduced the session, stressing that PAs can exacerbate poverty, and that conservation is an issue of social and environmental justice. Bob Fisher, Australia, presented on the implementation of pro-poor conservation for PAs, noting that conservation is a human rights and ethical issue, and requires addressing poverty through PAs. He stressed the inadequacy of classical approaches, including resettlement, alternative livelihoods, and the substitution of PA resources. He advocated an approach that optimizes conservation and livelihood benefits, with an emphasis on poverty reduction. Dylis Roe, International Institute for Environment and Development, and Joanna Elliot, UK Department for International Development, presented a study on pro-poor conservation, which explores the linkages between wildlife and poverty, and advocates a conservation model that does not harm the poor. Sam Gichere, Kenyan Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, presented on PAs and poverty. He outlined the importance of tourism and the threat posed by encroachment from population increase.


PA GOVERNANCE: Governance of the high seas: Graeme Kelleher, WCPA, chaired the session. Carl Lundin, IUCN, presented an IUCN report on International Ocean Governance. Alex Rogers, British Antarctic Survey (BAS), described deep sea ecosystems, and identified potential threats, including deep sea trawling. Tomme Young, IUCN, outlined relevant options for policy and legal instruments, specifying hard and soft law instruments. Charlotte Breide, WWF, introduced the Grand Banks Pilot Project off the Canadian Exclusive Economic Zone, which aims at testing applicable legal regimes. She noted the need for constituency, partnerships and treaty interpretation. Donna Petrachenko, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, presented the conclusions of the High Seas Governance Workshop, Cairns, Australia, June 2003, including recommendations on: adopting a UN General Assembly resolution on destructive fishing practices; establishing pilot high seas marine PAs (HSMPAs); and negotiating an implementation agreement for the high seas.

Participants raised questions regarding the geopolitics of high seas regulation, enforcement techniques and costs, and the extension of continental shelves� limits.

Describing management challenges, Notarbartolo di Sciara, WCPA, presented the Pelagos Sanctuary for Mediterranean Marine Mammals, the first MPA beyond national boundaries. Henning von Nordheim, German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, outlined the development of MPA networks in the Northeast Atlantic and the Baltic Sea, and elaborated on interactions with regional conventions. Introducing the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, John Croxall, BAS, highlighted biological and management implications of over- and illegal fishing, and bycatch.

Simon Cripps, WWF-International, stressed defects in the current high seas governance and the need for political will and recognition by the international community. Noting that HSMPAs� costs have been exaggerated, Lundin recognized that monitoring and enforcement present financial and technical challenges. Kristina Gjerde, IUCN, introduced the Draft 10 Year Strategy to Promote the Development of a Global Representative System of HSMPA networks, calling for the establishment of at least five HSMPAs by 2008.

Participants discussed: addressing flags of convenience; involving developing countries in HSMPA discussion; adopting a moratorium on deep sea trawling; and promoting the ratification of relevant global instruments.


WORKSHOP STREAMS: Workshop streams will meet in break-out groups to continue considering their respective issues.

CROSS-CUTTING THEMES: The cross-cutting themes on MPAs, world heritage, and communities and equity will be addressed throughout the day during workshop stream sessions.

DURBAN ACCORD AND ACTION PLAN: Delegates can participate in improving the draft Durban Accord and Action Plan in a drop-in session held from 9:00 am to 1:00 pm in room 11CD.

EMERGING ISSUES: Issues of significance identified during workshop discussions should be approved by the workshops plenaries for inclusion in the Congress Proceedings.    

Sustainable Developments is a publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) <>, publishers of the Earth Negotiations Bulletin �. This issue is written and edited by Paula Barrios, Nienke Beintema, Catherine Ganzleben, Charlotte Salpin, and Elsa Tsioumani. The digital editor is Leila Mead. The Team Leader is Elsa Tsioumani <>. The Editor is Lynn Wagner, Ph.D. <>. The Director of IISD Reporting Services (including Sustainable Developments) is Langston James "Kimo" Goree VI <>. Funding for coverage of this meeting has been provided by the IUCN. The authors can be contacted at their electronic mail addresses and at tel: +1-212-644-0204. IISD can be contacted at 161 Portage Avenue East, 6th Floor, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 0Y4, Canada; tel: +1-204-958-7700; fax: +1-204-958-7710. The opinions expressed in Sustainable Developments are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD or IUCN. Excerpts from Sustainable Developments may be used in other publications with appropriate academic citation. Electronic versions of Sustainable Developments are sent to e-mail distribution lists (ASCII and PDF format) and can be found on the Linkages WWW-server at <>. For further information on Sustainable Developments, including requests to provide reporting services, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at <>.