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Before the Blue COP Bulletin

Volume 186 Number 17 | Saturday, 13 April 2019


Before the Blue COP

10-11 April 2019 | Madrid, Spain


Languages: EN (HTML/PDF)
Visit our IISD/ENB+ Meeting Coverage from Madrid, Spain at: http://enb.iisd.org/oceans/before-the-blue-cop/

Organized by the Because the Ocean Initiative, the Technical Workshop ‘Before the Blue COP’ was held from 10-11 April 2019, at the Headquarters of the Spanish Ministry for the Ecological Transition’s Fundación Biodiversidad, in Madrid, Spain. The conference brought together 50 participants from government and the scientific community. They discussed examples of ocean action that can contribute to mitigating and adapting to climate change, improving the resilience of coastal communities, and increasing the conservation of marine ecosystems. The workshop featured sessions and roundtables that addressed, among other issues: the state of knowledge concerning climate and ocean change; synergies and gaps in climate and ocean actions; and national perspectives on the ocean-climate nexus. The main takeaways from the workshop will be compiled with those emerging from other regional workshops, such as one held in 2018 in Santiago, Chile, and another to be held in May 2019 in Suva, Fiji. Overall recommendations from the Because the Ocean workshops series will be brought to the attention of the 51st session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the 2019 UN Climate Summit, and the 25th session of the UN Climate Change Conference (UNFCCC COP 25).

A Brief History of the Because the Ocean Initiative

The Because the Ocean Initiative was launched by 23 countries in Paris, in November 2015.

UNFCCC: The international political response to climate change began with the 1992 adoption of the UNFCCC, which sets out the basic legal framework and principles for international climate change cooperation with the aim of stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to avoid “dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.” The Convention, which entered into force on 21 March 1994, has 197 parties. It notes the role of the ocean as a carbon sink but does not include a specific stream of work on the ocean.

First Because the Ocean Declaration: In 2015, on the eve of the COP 21, 11 countries signed the ‘Because the Ocean’ declaration, drawing attention to the role of the ocean in climate action and calling for: a special report of the IPCC on the ocean, a United Nations conference on ocean and seas to establish a regular review and benchmarking of the Sustainable Development Goal 14; and an Ocean action plan under the UNFCCC.

Paris Agreement: The 2015 UN Climate Change Conference convened in Paris, France, and culminated in the adoption of the Paris Agreement on 12 December 2015. The Agreement includes the goal of limiting global average temperature increase to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels, and pursuing efforts to limit it to 1.5°C. It also aims to increase parties’ ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and make financial flows consistent with a pathway towards low-GHG emissions and climate resilient development. Under the Paris Agreement, each party shall communicate, at five-year intervals, successively more ambitious Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). By 2020, parties whose NDCs contain a time frame up to 2025 are requested to communicate a new NDC. Parties with an NDC time frame up to 2030 are requested to communicate or update these contributions. A key feature of the Paris Agreement includes a process known as the global stocktake, to review collective progress on mitigation, adaptation, and means of implementation. Beginning in 2023, parties will convene this process at five-year intervals. In Paris, parties also agreed on the need to mobilize stronger and more ambitious climate action by all parties.

IPCC 43: The 43rd Session of the IPCC met in Nairobi, Kenya, from 11-13 April 2016. The IPCC Panel decided to prepare a Special Report on the Ocean and the Cryosphere in a Changing Climate (SROCCC). The report is due to be considered at the 51st Session of the IPCC to be held in Monaco from 20-23 September 2019.

Second Because the Ocean Declaration: During the 2016 UN Climate Change Conference in Marrakech, Morocco, 33 countries signed the second ‘Because the Ocean’ declaration. The declaration encourages UNFCCC parties to consider submitting NDCs that promote ambitious climate action in order to minimize the adverse effects of climate change in the ocean and to contribute to its protection and conservation. Since then, a total of 39 countries have signed this declaration.

High-Level UN Ocean Conference ‘Our Ocean-Our Future’: This meeting was held in support of Sustainable Development Goal 14 (SDG 14 – Conserve and sustainably use the ocean, seas and marine resources for sustainable development) from 5-9 June 2017 in New York. The conference adopted a Call for Action of UN Member States to the implementation of SDG 14. It also registered 1526 voluntary commitments from governments, intergovernmental organizations, academia, business and NGOs. The voluntary commitments cover a wide range of topics, from creation of marine protected areas and action on plastic and other marine debris, to funding for scientific research and capacity-building activities.

Workshops: The Because the Ocean Initiative has encouraged progress on the incorporation of the ocean in the climate change policy debate, with a special focus on the inclusion of ocean action into NDCs. Workshops addressing the linkages between the ocean and climate change were held in 2016 in Washington DC, US, in 2017 in Bonn, Germany, and in 2018 in Santiago, Chile. Among key messages, participants underscored: ocean action is critical for climate action; ocean-related mitigation and adaptation measures can help countries increase their climate ambition; and it is necessary to strengthen the science-policy relationship for better informed decision-making for ocean-action. Participants noted that comprehensive guidelines on the integration of ocean-related measures in climate change objectives would be beneficial in assisting the systematic and effective inclusion of ocean-actions within countries’ NDCs.

Report of the Meeting

Opening Remarks

Isabel San Martín, Royal Botanical Garden, Madrid, welcomed participants to the workshop’s opening ceremony at the Royal Botanical Garden. Rémi Parmentier, Because the Ocean Initiative, said protecting the ocean is key to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Teresa Ribera, Minister for the Ecological Transition, Spain, noted consensus in the general public on the need to protect the ocean and tackle climate change. Noting that public pressure on addressing plastic pollution has been instrumental in fostering policy action, she called for increasing public awareness of ocean and climate interlinkages. Ribera suggested that the release of the IPCC’s Special Report on the Ocean and the Cryosphere in a Changing Climate may be key to identify specific measures for countries to integrate ocean action in the communication or update of their NDCs. She supported further integrating new ideas on ocean protection into the current climate change agenda.

In a video message, HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco recalled that since the Because the Ocean Declaration was signed at COP 21 in Paris, the relevance of ocean and climate linkages has been acknowledged at many international meetings. He called for encouraging states to include ocean action in the updating of their NDCs and reiterated his commitment to champion interlinkages between the ocean and climate agendas.

Round Table

Rémi Parmentier and Loreley Picourt, Ocean & Climate Platform, moderated this roundtable.

Peter Thomson, Special Envoy of the UN Secretary General for the Ocean, welcomed increasing attention for marine pollution and harmful fishery practices, expressing hope that these ‘management issues’ could be fixed by 2030. He said main climate change-induced ocean problems, include: acidification, deoxygenation, and ocean warming. Recalling corals are under threat, he underscored they are ‘bunkers of biodiversity in the ocean’ and pointed to knowledge gaps on the global effects of their loss. He said the second UN Ocean Conference ‘Our Ocean-Our Future’ to be held in Lisbon in 2020 will serve as a launching ground for the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030), and called for furthering coherence between ocean, climate, and biodiversity policy.

Noting that 22 of the 30 top fish consuming countries are low-income and food deficient countries, Manuel Barange, UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), said fish as a food resource is key to fighting malnutrition and micro-nutrient deficiencies. He suggested, inter alia, increasing aquaculture production in Africa and reducing fish loss and waste. On fisheries adaptation to climate change he highlighted coordinated action at the regional level and pointed to three priority areas for action: institutional and management adaptation, adaptation of livelihoods, and resilience and risk management.

Anders Jessen, EU Commission, said the ocean can and must play an important role in the implementation of the Paris Agreement, drawing attention to the need to work across sectors and institutions. He supported bringing the convergence of ocean and climate agendas into other international debates, such as on shipping emissions at the International Maritime Organization and the post-2020 global biodiversity framework.

Sébastien Treyer, Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations (IDDRI), called for shifting from merely acknowledging that the ocean matters and is in danger to using ocean action as a catalyzer of climate action. He suggested clarifying the conditions under which ocean solutions can contribute to ambitious climate change actions, as not all those available may be suitable.

On responding to stakeholders who feel that placing the ocean in the climate negotiations is a distraction, Barange acknowledged we need clarity on “what is going to be negotiated under the UNFCCC,” suggesting that some ocean actions may be better addressed in other international mechanisms. Thomson said holding a ‘Blue COP’ is a “one and only opportunity,” stressing the need to effectively grasp the chance to make concrete progress.

In a video message, the President of the upcoming COP 25, Carolina Schmidt, Chile, said we cannot have an effective global response to climate change without a global response to ocean challenges. Inviting all participants to the ‘Blue COP,’ she emphasized her government is keen on making COP 25 an opportunity to more strongly put ocean issues on the climate agenda.

In the ensuing discussions, a participant said we need to raise ambition in NDCs not only regarding ocean action, but also in all other sectors. Some called for building on existing initiatives and knowledge, such as on ecosystem-based approaches and nature-based solutions. Others cautioned that some knowledge gained in the context of initiatives for marine and coastal protection is very context specific. Another participant drew attention to a tool developed by the Stockholm Environment Institute to identify how the SDGs are currently addressed in NDCs. He noted that only 3% of NDCs include activities on the ocean and that acidification issues are entirely missing.

Participants highlighted that there are diverse understandings of blue carbon and other concepts related to climate change and the ocean, notably whether to focus blue carbon efforts on vegetated coastal ecosystems or whether and how it could be applied in other contexts. Another participant called for an international commitment to protect marine vegetation, highlighting that the Barcelona Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean (Barcelona Convention) is a good example for this. A participant said blue carbon should have been included in the Katowice Ministerial Declaration on Forests for the Climate that was signed in 2018. Participants also exchanged on the role of aquaculture and overfishing, and their potential interlinkages with climate change.

The Because The Ocean Initiative Workshops – Desired Outcome

The afternoon session, which took place at the Fundación Biodiversidad, started with participants outlining their expectations for the workshop. Many mentioned: the need to identify milestones for fostering interlinkages between the two agendas, and exchanging with representatives from other countries and ocean and climate experts. Rémi Parmentier emphasized the workshop series’ objective to provide room for honest conversations, breaking down silos, and exploring the design of ‘ocean-enhanced’ NDCs.

It was suggested that a key outcome of the workshops could be recommendations on how to foster ocean and climate interlinkages, building on ideas exchanged and participants’ input gathered by a drafting team. It was also suggested that the release of such recommendations should be timed around the release of the IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and the Cryosphere. In the ensuing discussion, participants inter alia exchanged on how to ensure the continuous involvement of all 39 Because the Ocean Declaration’s signatories.

State of Knowledge, from Climate Change to Ocean Change

Íñigo Losada, University of Cantabria, provided an overview of how ocean issues have been addressed in IPCC reports over the years, noting that the fourth assessment report published in 2007 was the first to feature a dedicated chapter on coastal areas. He highlighted significant progress made in science since the Fifth Assessment Report, inter alia pointing to better modeling of ice sheets. He said that the upcoming IPCC Special Report will be key for advancing interlinkages at the policy level. He outlined key trends in climate and ocean change, noting the ocean’s role as the major heat reservoir on Earth as well as its role in the global water cycle. As key threats facing the ocean, he mentioned, inter alia: ocean acidification, which is at levels never experienced in the last two million years; ocean deoxygenation, which increases the number and size of dead zones; and global mean sea level rise. He also emphasized high regional variability in terms of climate-induced ocean changes.

In the ensuing discussion, participants addressed: opportunities to implement blue carbon projects in coastal areas; the role of land-based inputs to ocean carbon budgets; increasing ocean observation capacity; strengthening economic and social science research, including on valuating coastal ecosystem services; and reservations with regard to geoengineering approaches such as iron fertilization, taking into account the precautionary approach.

Global Perspective and Needs

Joanna Post, UNFCCC Secretariat, provided an overview of technical aspects regarding UNFCCC negotiations. She indicated that there are agenda items and UNFCCC mechanisms under which the ocean is already directly or indirectly considered, including in the Nairobi Work Programme, the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage, and the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technical Advice (SBSTA) agenda item on research and systematic observation. She also discussed how ocean action can fit in the process of increasing ambition under the Paris Agreement, as parties are expected to communicate or update their NDCs by 2020.

Paul Watkinson, Chair of the UNFCCC SBSTA, called for enhancing information on ocean and climate, and noted many parties’ wish to increase the resonance of ocean issues in the broad climate community. He discussed aspects that can be prioritized for political consideration and others that may be relevant for enhancing collaboration with initiatives and partners already working on the ocean and climate change. He cautioned that formally bringing the ocean issue on the UNFCCC agenda would need clarity on what parties’ desired negotiation outcome is and what technical guidance is needed from UNFCCC bodies.

Participants discussed pros and cons of ways to consider ocean action in the climate negotiations, inter alia: trying to introduce an agenda item on the UNFCCC agenda; holding a special event on the topic at COP 25, possibly in relation to the presentation of the IPCC Special Report; and adopting a political declaration on ocean and climate that could be promoted by the COP 25 Presidency, with some participants highlighting this does not require the same level of negotiation as an agenda item.

Some participants cautioned that introducing an agenda item on ocean in the UNFCCC agenda could raise controversial and unresolved issues, such as the possibility of obtaining carbon credits from ocean fertilization. Other participants noted that the UNFCCC is not the most suitable forum for addressing all aspects of ocean action, preferring, where relevant, other existing fora at the international level, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity.

Participants discussed how to bring the findings of the IPCC Special Report to the attention of the UNFCCC and the public opinion. One person noted that the IPCC was not requested by the COP to prepare this report and that UNFCCC parties can decide whether and how they want to acknowledge its findings. Participants called for further coordination between policy communities and breaking the silos across international conventions addressing the ocean. One participant suggested taking advantage of the fact that the CBD is in the process of elaborating the post-2020 biodiversity framework and that discussions are underway for updating the global target on Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), which can be beneficial for climate adaptation.

Participants discussed the extent to which NDCs can include ocean actions both in the context of mitigation and adaptation, with some saying that it is up to countries to decide on their NDC content. Others highlighted: the introduction of ocean activities in NDCs should not replace mitigation and adaptation efforts in other sectors and must lead to additional ambition. Participants discussed the requirement of tracking and monitoring NDC actions, as well as the feasibility of monitoring progress on ocean action. Some participants agreed that mitigation actions on shipping emissions under national jurisdictions could be included in the scope of NDCs.

Regional Perspectives and Needs

Susana Salvador, Executive Secretary, Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR) Commission, delineated how the interlinkages between ocean and climate issues are considered in the North-East Atlantic. She highlighted that OSPAR’s 2017 Intermediate Assessment report includes a dedicated chapter on climate and ocean acidification. She mentioned the recent creation of an expert group on ocean acidification which is working on developing an indicator that OSPAR aims to use in its 2023 Quality Status Report.

Gaetano Leone, Coordinator, Barcelona Convention, provided an overview of the Convention’s work on climate change, highlighting that, in 2016, its contracting parties endorsed a regional climate adaptation framework. He said regional seas conventions can help policy makers to strengthen the consideration of marine issues in climate policy because it is oftentimes more manageable to agree on political processes and mobilize higher levels of commitment at regional levels since measures can be better tailored to countries’ needs.

In a final round of discussions, one participant raised the issue of accountability methods and environmental integrity of ocean-based mitigation action. Another one said adaptation can be part of NDCs but the political message to raise ambition should focus on mitigation actions.

The Ocean in NDCs: Challenges And Opportunities

Manuel Barange, UN FAO, presented a technical report by the FAO on the impacts of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture. He highlighted the report is meant to serve as a sector-specific toolbox for countries to work on adaptation planning, including in the context of National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) and NDCs. He noted that the report contains up-to-date country-level data, inter alia, on catch potential estimates and vulnerability measures, and covers a wide range of issues, such as dispute settlement arrangements, seasonal fishing, and risk insurance. He emphasized the need to consider adaptation planning in a cross-sectoral and transboundary manner.

Responding to many participants’ enquiries about the blue carbon potential of inter alia kelp and phytoplankton, Dorothée Herr, IUCN, explained why discussions on blue carbon largely focus on greenhouse gas sequestration in vegetated coastal ecosystems such as mangrove forests, seagrass meadows and salt marshes. As key reasons for such focus she referred to the long-term carbon storage potential of these ecosystems and the comparative ease of using existing mechanisms, including those under the UNFCCC, to incentivize their conservation and restoration. Herr cautioned against ‘overloading’ the blue carbon concept, noting that while marine species and ecosystems provide numerous ecosystem services, not all have a relevant carbon sequestration potential and their sustainable governance might thus better be addressed in other fora.

Sarah Cooley, Ocean Conservancy, discussed ocean acidification, highlighting interactions with ocean warming and impacts on marine ecosystems. Differently to other greenhouse gases with warming potential targeted by the UNFCCC, she indicated that carbon dioxide has a direct impact on acidification, motivating support for specific targets for carbon dioxide emission reductions. On how to incorporate acidification into NDCs and the global stocktake, she highlighted: increasing ambition; specific measures for enhanced resilience; improving research and monitoring of ocean acidification and associated impacts. Participants discussed, inter alia, linkages between eutrophication and ocean acidification, and how to integrate actions to tackle acidification in the context of the UNFCCC’s mandate.

Diego Kersting, Freie Univerität Berlin, presented an integrated assessment of climate change impacts in the Spanish marine environment released in 2016. He said consequences of climate change and ocean warming include: mass mortality of organisms such as corals and sponges, important decrease of Atlantic algal forests, and the resulting increased vulnerability of numerous species. He called for supporting natural adaptation through conservation and protection measures, including red lists and MPA creation. In the ensuing discussion, participants mentioned, inter alia, the key role of such assessments to inform decision-making at the national level and across-sectors.

Beñat Sanz Antoñanzas, APPA Marina, discussed the increasing role of marine renewable energy, noting the existence of consolidated technologies, such as floating wind energy, and emerging technologies, such as tidal energy. He said ocean renewable energy does not yet represent a relevant share of the market, but is rapidly growing and its advantages include: predictability and good integration with other renewable sources. In ensuing discussions participants addressed: the European target to become carbon neutral by 2050 and the potential contribution of ocean renewable energy to achieve this; and how critical political will is to foster ocean renewable energy at the national level.

MPAs and Climate Action: Synergies and Gaps

Itziar Martín, Spain, provided a general overview of legal frameworks relevant for MPAs and described Spain’s experience with MPA designation and management. She highlighted that 12% of the Spanish economic exclusive zone are currently protected, compared with 1% in 2013, and noted that there are few but large offshore areas and many smaller coastal MPAs. She underscored the need to: base decision making on best available science; devise management plans in a stakeholder-inclusive manner; and address land-sea interactions. She noted surveillance and enforcement are key to ensure MPA effectiveness and pointed to the use of innovative tools, such as hydrophones. On climate change implications for MPA management, she emphasized that impacts are already perceptible, pointing to changes in the nesting behavior of turtles, changes in marine mammal corridors, and non-indigenous species moving in from warmer waters. 

Gemma Harper, UK, indicated that 24% of the UK’s domestic waters are protected and that her country champions adopting an international goal of protecting 30% of the global ocean by 2030. She called the UK a ‘cold coral country’ and highlighted that, with its overseas territories, the UK accounts for nearly 20% of the world’s coral reefs. She emphasized valuable learning opportunities from collaborating with large ocean states. Harper underscored that MPAs can boost the resilience of ocean biodiversity by reducing human stressors and noted that they can have positive effects outside their strict perimeter. She highlighted that the UK is, in collaboration with the IUCN, exploring ways to ensure MPAs are ‘climate-smart,’ including by strengthening coastal defenses for climate adaptation. She further said the UK aims to develop more ‘whole site’ management approaches, as opposed to ‘feature specific’ MPA management. She underscored that thinking about the ocean-biodiversity-climate nexus should lead to preventing possible trade-offs.

The ensuing discussions, inter alia, addressed: potential conflicts between MPAs and offshore wind energy; and bringing up the topic of MPAs in the ongoing negotiations on biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction.

National Perspectives on Incorporating the Ocean into NDCs

On Thursday afternoon, government representatives provided their views on the options for further incorporating the ocean into the climate debate. Most participants supported making the UNFCCC COP 25 a ‘Blue COP’ and raising the profile of the ocean in the climate discussions. Many of the country participants did not support creating a new item on the ocean on the UNFCCC agenda, with some questioning the added value of this. They noted ocean actions could be discussed under existing UNFCCC’s agenda items, with some highlighting adaptation topics and the global stocktake.

Some participants highlighted that countries’ NDCs could integrate ocean action, with one adding that this could facilitate the financial support for ocean action in developing countries. Others pointed to various avenues to incorporate the ocean into climate actions beyond NDCs, with one participant suggesting integrating the ocean in countries’ national communications. Many highlighted that NAPs provide a clear link between ocean conservation and climate change. A participant highlighted that international finance can have a key role in supporting the linkage between ocean and climate, including by providing financing to actions consistent with the Paris Agreement and promoting green bonds. He added that numerous big cities in the world are located in the coastal zone and their mayors could be valuable partners for action on ocean protection.

Most participants underscored that the IPCC Special Report will be a relevant milestone for raising attention to interlinkages between climate change and ocean actions. Many pointed to the need for further research and information on key aspects, such as blue carbon.

A number of participants noted that multiple international events, such as the UN Climate Action Summit, will take place in the coming year and that these could provide momentum for raising the profile of the ocean across diverse environmental agendas. Some said biodiversity has to be added to the nexus of ocean-climate change, with one pointing to the multiple co-benefits that protecting coastal ecosystems can provide.

Closing Session

In the closing session, Rémi Parmentier presented a preliminary list of takeaways from the workshop, including that:

  • There are significant interlinkages between the ocean and climate, and silos between the two policy communities are starting to break down;
  • Knowledge on ocean and climate interlinkages is improving, but more research is needed to substantiate emerging findings;
  • The publication of the IPCC Special Report is a great opportunity to increase general awareness on the ocean-climate nexus ahead of COP 25 and in anticipation of the UN Decade on Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030);
  • It is key to ensure environmental integrity and accountability in the context of ocean and climate action;
  • NDCs offer opportunities to address ocean and climate interlinkages, but other vehicles such as NAPs should also be considered as they can be more conducive to certain types of ocean-enhanced climate action;
  • Concentrating on advocating for the inclusion of a dedicated UNFCCC agenda item on the ocean might risk delaying meaningful action;
  • There is ‘great appetite’ for political initiatives to increase the momentum on the ocean-climate-biodiversity nexus, provided that they have an added-value compared to existing declarations; and
  • Cooperation between the marine and climate communities should be fostered at international, regional, and national levels.

Providing final remarks, Valvanera Ulargui, Director General, Office of Climate Change, Spain, stressed the importance of supporting the Chilean COP 25 Presidency in making the ‘Blue COP’ a success. She emphasized that we need to move ‘from setting objectives to action’ and said the increased consideration of ocean issues can serve as an accelerator for raising climate change mitigation and adaptation ambition. The meeting closed at 4:56 pm.

Upcoming meetings

Technical Workshop ‘Before the Blue COP’: A regional workshop for the South-Pacific will take place in May 2019.  dates: 6-7 May 2019  location: Suva, Fiji   contact: Because the Ocean Initiative  phone: +34-637-557-357. email: info@becausetheocean.org   www: www.BecauseTheOcean.org

Preparation for a Blue COP 25 - Climate and Ocean: Negotiators’ Symposium: A meeting organized by the Ocean Pathway Partnership in May 2019.  dates: 8-9 May 2019  location: Suva, Fiji   contact: Ocean Pathway Partnership  phone: +679-322-1215 / 322-1217  email: taholo@gmail.com www: https://cop23.com.fj/the-ocean-pathway/

50th Sessions of the UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies: The 50th sessions of the UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies will meet in June 2019.  dates: 17-28 June 2019  location: Bonn, Germany   contact: UNFCCC Secretariat  phone: +49-228-815-1000  fax: +49-228-815-1999  email: Secretariat@unfccc.int   www :  https://unfccc.int/event/first-sessional-period-sb-50

IPCC-51: The 51st session of the IPCC is expected to approve the summary for policymakers of the special report on the ocean and cryosphere in a changing climate. dates: 20-23 September 2019   location: Principality of Monaco  phone: +41-22-730-8208/54/84  fax: +41-22-730-8025/13  email: IPCC-Sec@wmo.int  www: http://www.ipcc.ch/

UN Climate Action Summit 2019: UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres will convene a summit to mobilize political and economic energy at the highest levels to advance climate action that will enable implementation of many of the goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The UN Climate Action Summit 2019 will convene on the theme “A Race We Can Win. A Race We Must Win,” and seek to challenge states, regions, cities, companies, investors, and citizens to step up action in six areas: energy transition, climate finance and carbon pricing, industry transition, nature-based solutions, cities and local action, and resilience. date: 23 September 2019  location: UN Headquarters, New York  www: http://www.un.org/climatechange/

Sixth Our Ocean Conference: The sixth Our Ocean conference will highlight the importance of knowledge as the basis of our actions and policies to ensure sustainable future economic growth. The conference will bring together leaders from governments, businesses, civil society and research institutions to share their experience, identify solutions and commit to action for clean, healthy and productive ocean. dates: 23-24 October 2019  location: Oslo, Norway email: ourocean2019@mfa.no www: https://ourocean2019.no/

2019 UN Climate Change Conference (UNFCCC COP 25): The 25th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 25), the 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP), and the second meeting of the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA) will convene. dates: 2-13 December 2019  location: Chile  contact: UNFCCC Secretariat  phone: +49-228-815-1000  fax: +49-228-815-1999  email: Secretariat@unfccc.int  www: https://unfccc.int

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