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This chapter arrived in Rio relatively free of brackets, especially in comparison to the Forest Principles document. The only outstanding issue (aside from the financial resources paragraphs) was paragraph 11.14(e) that addresses the Forest Principles document and the possibility of a future international agreements on forests. This paragraph was negotiated by Klaus T”pfer, German Federal Minister for the Environment, as part of his "eleventh-hour" discussions on the forest principles (see Part II). The paragraph was amended to read as follows: governments would "consider the need for and the feasibility of all kinds of appropriate internationally agreed arrangements to promote international cooperation on forest management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests including afforestation, reforestation, and rehabilitation." This compromise wording therefore addresses concerns on all sides. Malaysia and other G-77 members can report to their capitals that they had fully resisted the Northern countries and their demands for a commitment to negotiate a future legally-binding instrument. By contrast, the industrialized countries can report that they have taken another step, albeit a small one, toward negotiation of a forests convention.

The programme areas in this chapter are: Sustaining the multiple roles and functions of all types of forests, forest land and woodlands; Enhancing the protection, sustainable management and conservation of all forests, and the greening of degraded areas, through forest rehabilitation, afforestation, reforestation and other rehabilitative means; Promoting efficient utilization and assessment to recover the full valuation of the goods and services provided by forests, forest lands and woodlands; Establishing and/or strengthening capacities for the planning, assessment and systematic observations of forests and related programmes, projects and activities, including commercial trade and processes.

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