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Maina Karaba, of the Inter-governmental Authority on Drought and Development, spoke on the region that covers Djibouti, Kenya, Ethiopia, Sudan, Uganda, Eritrea and Somalia. He said that what happens in the north also impacts on the region. He pointed out that the interventions so far had focused on the producers and failed to account for the activities of the consumers. He said that the resilience of the arid lands in the region evident after the rains suggests that the area can be productive with the proper input. The constraints to combatting desertification in the region include the lack of long-term recording periods to assist in drought predictions, a poor distribution of simple hydrological and climatic information, and the shortage of satellite receiving stations. He concluded that institutions such as the OSS and UNSO should be strengthened.