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Prof. Zhu Zhenda, Director of the National Project of Fragile Ecosystems and Rehabilitation, stated that there are two types of land degradation in China: wind erosion and water erosion. Since the 1977 UN Conference on Desertification, China has: conducted extensive research on desertification; convened three national conferences, established an institute to study the subject, and implemented numerous programmes to combat desertification in conjunction with local populations. As a result, about 12% of the desertified land has not expanded and 10% has been reclaimed.