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Masse Lo spoke about alternative energy sources for arid areas. Diversities of economies and cultures have an impact on the level of ability to meet energy needs. Without understanding these linkages it is impossible to understand the energy crisis in developing countries. Since populations in arid areas depend on biomass, primarily fuelwood, consequences include environmental degradation, deforestation, and desertification. He explained the need to promote new solutions on energy policy that call for solar and/or wind energy and the rational use of fuelwood. Any alternative energy techniques must be adapted to meet local needs and demands. Photovoltaic sources are not only less costly but they correspond to the needs of people in rural areas and arid zones. He also spoke about the sound management and combustion of fuelwood in arid zones. He discussed some of the problems with new fuel efficient stoves, including the reluctance of some local populations to use the new stoves, and poor distribution networks. He concluded that to combat desertification there is a need to rethink all energy policies.