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In the Co-Chairs’ initial draft, this section was entitled "Strategies for Implementation." The chapeau in the revised draft now includes Agenda 21 language on "common but differentiated responsibilities," which the G-77/CHINA proposed. Implementation was a key theme at the Intersessional, characterizing for some delegations the new post-commitment phase in the Agenda 21 process.

NORWAY said UNGASS should look towards future implementation, identify areas of priority, initiate new processes and invigorate existing ones. COLOMBIA and INDONESIA highlighted an imbalance between implementation of sectoral and cross-sectoral issues. The US and VENEZUELA underlined the importance of regional-level implementation. A number of delegates, including PERU, the REPUBLIC OF KOREA and PAKISTAN, called for renewed political will. CUBA called for action.

The revised draft of the chapeau states that the comprehensive global approach to the achievement of sustainable development, with its recognition of the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and the importance of international cooperation, is as relevant and as urgent as ever. It calls for a major new effort to achieve the Rio goals.


An introductory section calls for integration of objectives at the policy-level and the operational level. Economic growth is reaffirmed as a pre-condition of sustainable development.

The US, NORWAY and the EU called on UNGASS to recognize the importance of good governance practices as a condition for effective implementation of sustainable development at the national level. COLOMBIA and IRAN resisted the language calling for integration of energy and transport policies. NORWAY and AUSTRALIA supported the introduction of references to women’s rights. The debate on a target year for completion of national strategies for sustainable development attracted competing proposals: SWITZERLAND and JAPAN supported 2005, which appeared in the first draft of the Co-Chairs’ text; the G-77/CHINA objected to any target date as interference with the work of national governments; and PAKISTAN and the CSD NGO STEERING COMMITTEE backed the target of 2002, which appears in the second Co-Chairs’ draft. COLOMBIA and BANGLADESH stressed the need for international support for national strategies. The CSD NGO STEERING COMMITTEE called for enhanced consultation and participatory mechanisms at the national level, notably for indigenous peoples.

The revised draft notes that industry, agriculture, energy, transport and tourism sectors must take responsibility for the human and environmental impacts of their activities, and underlines the particular urgency of integrating energy and transport considerations. Agriculture and water use are also linked, as are marine resource management, food supplies and the livelihood of fishing communities. National strategies, with good governance, are linked to enhanced prospects for economic and employment growth and environmental protection. The section recommends: the target year of 2002 for adoption of national strategies in all countries, taking account of the needs of least developed countries, and enhancement of existing strategies; regulation, economic instruments and information partnerships between governments and NGOs; transparent and participatory processes involving major groups and others, such as the elderly, the media, educators, the financial community and parliaments; and the full participation of women in political, economic, cultural and other activities.

Eradicating Poverty: Based on a proposal by several delegations, the section on poverty was moved from the Sectors and Issues section in the first draft. Numerous delegations stressed the urgency of poverty alleviation. Several recommended that poverty eradication be the overarching issue guiding other policies.

PAKISTAN said poverty in developing countries is the most serious enemy of the environment. ZIMBABWE called for a global compact on poverty alleviation. COLOMBIA proposed that large companies in developed countries that benefit from globalization devote some profits to developing countries to help eradicate poverty and create employment. CUBA noted the role of the market economy in creating poverty. The G-77/CHINA proposed adding references to support for micro-enterprises and rural employment and to promoting the involvement of NGOs, women’s groups and local communities in projects aimed at poverty eradication and social development. CANADA recommended inclusion of food security and promotion of gender equality. The EU supported adding a reference to gender and the outcome of the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women. The INDIGENOUS PEOPLES CAUCUS called for full implementation of the 1995 World Summit for Social Development (WSSD) Programme of Action. The NEW YORK CITY BAR and the INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLEMENTS suggested an intergovernmental panel on poverty involving ECOSOC commissions.

The revised text states that poverty eradication is one of the fundamental goals of the international community and the UN system. Policies to combat poverty are linked to the integration of people living in poverty into economic, social and political life and facilitate their participation in resource conservation and environmental protection. Priority actions are identified to: improve access to sustainable livelihoods, entrepreneurial opportunities and productive resources; provide universal access to basic social services; develop social protection systems; and address the disproportionate impact of poverty on women.

Changing Consumption and Production Patterns: This section reaffirms Agenda 21’s identification of production and consumption patterns as a major cause of continued global environmental deterioration, with the addition of a reference to emerging patterns in higher income groups in some developing countries.

AUSTRALIA introduced a proposal on internalizing the costs of natural resource pricing, including water. COLOMBIA said that wealth, not poverty, as evidenced in unreasonable patterns of consumption and production, is the ultimate cause of environmental degradation. He also called for measures to compensate developing countries for the impact of actions taken to shift existing patterns. SWITZERLAND recommended certification, auditing and ecological accounting to encourage sustainable production. EGYPT proposed a ceiling on per capita energy consumption, which would be operational in ten years time. POLAND advocated consumer education. The REPUBLIC OF KOREA suggested compiling a report assessing the health effects of current consumption patterns. The EU advocated the objective of changing production and consumption patterns as an over-arching objective requiring urgent action. IRAN pressed for consideration of the developmental needs of developing countries.

The revised draft calls for policies to address patterns of production and consumption at the international and national levels, in accordance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, the polluter pays principle and producer responsibility. The key strategies identified are eco-efficiency, cost internalization and product policies. Specific recommendations include: internalization of costs and benefits in the price of goods and services and eventually pricing natural resources to reflect economic scarcity; core indicators; identification of best practices, especially in developed countries; taking account of the impact of urbanization; adoption of international and national targets or action programmes for energy and materials efficiency; improving governments’ procurement policies and management of public facilities; harnessing the media, advertising and marketing in shaping new patterns and encouraging eco-labelling; promotion of eco-efficiency with due regard to developing country export opportunities; and education.

Making Trade, Environment and Sustainable Development Mutually Supporting: This section identifies the macroeconomic conditions required to accelerate economic growth, promote poverty eradication and pursue sustainable development, by addressing questions of globalization, trade liberalization and renewed system-wide cooperation involving the UN, the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Bretton Woods institutions.

A persistent call from the G-77/CHINA was for a balanced approach to developmental needs, including economic growth and development space, and the environmental components of sustainable development. He recalled Rio’s acknowledgement of growth as the engine of environmental protection. The PHILIPPINES and AUSTRALIA supported calls for a consensus approach to sustainable development as defined at the WSSD. While BANGLADESH wanted to ensure that environmental measures do not impair market access, SWITZERLAND called for appropriate environmental policies to ensure that trade liberalization does not harm the environment. The CSD NGO STEERING COMMITTEE also stressed the impact of trade agreements on social goals, and proposed a meeting of trade, environment and possibly development ministers to precede the next WTO Ministerial Conference. She also called for: an understanding that environmental conventions cannot be bound by WTO requirements; an environmental review of the Uruguay Round; and an Intergovernmental Panel on Trade and Sustainable Development. The EU stressed the need for greater responsiveness to sustainable development objectives at the WTO. The RUSSIAN FEDERATION called for emphasis on environmental protection. CANADA cautioned against a proposal to use the General System of Preferences (GSP) to encourage sustainable production.

The revised draft recommends balanced and integrated approaches to enable all countries to benefit from globalization through cooperation and support for capacity-building, establishing environmental and resource management policies alongside trade liberalization, and further efforts to integrate environmental considerations in the multilateral trading system. Recommended actions include:

Population: The EU and CANADA called for expanding access to family planning. The G-77/CHINA said expanding basic education must reflect the needs of women and the girl-child and called for greater emphasis on universal access to primary health care. AUSTRALIA called for an integrated approach to family and maternal health. The revised draft notes that the current decline in population growth rates must be further promoted by policies for economic development, poverty reduction, further expansion of basic education and health care, and full implementation of the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, with international assistance to developing countries.

Health: The EU highlighted the need for expansion of basic health services. The US supported a reference to the World Health Organization and the need to protect children from environmental threats. CANADA suggested mentioning WSSD follow-up activities and highlighting the link between health and the environment. The revised draft stresses the need to enable all people to achieve a higher level of health and well-being and to improve their economic productivity and social potential. Priorities include: protecting children from environmental health threats; eradicating major infectious diseases; improving and expanding basic health and sanitation services, and providing safe drinking water; and developing strategies for local and indoor air pollution.

Sustainable Human Settlements: Several delegations emphasized the importance of implementing the Habitat II Plan of Action and addressing the pressing environmental problems resulting from urbanization. The REPUBLIC OF KOREA called for a balance between attention to urban and rural settlements. The WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION called for recommendations on how to enhance implementation of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction and on appropriate mechanisms for follow-up after 2000. The revised draft: notes rapid urbanization in developing countries and consequent social and environmental stresses; urges implementation of the Habitat II and Agenda 21 commitments; and calls for acceleration of technology transfer, capacity-building and private-public partnerships to improve provision and management of urban infrastructure and social services.


Freshwater: Most speakers agreed that freshwater is a priority issue and the CSD should play a key role in its consideration. Delegates also debated the need for an intergovernmental process on freshwater.

CANADA, BRAZIL and MEXICO supported the call for international cooperation and an intergovernmental process. The US expressed hesitation regarding action at the international level, as drinking water and sanitation issues are best addressed at more localized levels. The EU also urged caution on establishing a new intergovernmental process. EGYPT suggested that local treaties may be preferable to a proposed global convention on river basins. The G-77/CHINA said bilateral and regional agreements will be more effective and feasible. AUSTRALIA said a time frame should be specified for an intergovernmental panel.

COSTA RICA, on behalf of the CENTRAL AMERICAN REGION, said freshwater resources should be addressed according to national policies and priorities. SOUTH AFRICA called for emphasis on equitable access to freshwater resources and services in arid regions. AUSTRALIA noted the need to involve all stakeholders and to use the best available science. SWITZERLAND proposed attention to regional approaches, upstream-downstream linkages and, with PERU, sustainable development of mountain areas.

The G-77/CHINA, supported by the INDIGENOUS PEOPLES CAUCUS, said discussing water as an economic good, and thus calling for implementation of pricing policies for cost recovery and efficient allocation, is premature. The G-77/CHINA called for financial and technical support for water supply and sanitation infrastructure in developing countries. BRAZIL underscored the important role of international financial institutions in this regard. The INDIGENOUS PEOPLES CAUCUS stated that allowing privatization of water will further aggravate ongoing conflicts over freshwater resources. She called for regulation of mining and other activities having negative impacts on freshwater. The FAO called for promotion of investment in upland conservation. GUYANA called for a reference to inefficient industrial practices.

The revised draft notes increasing stress on water supplies caused by unsustainable use and calls for high priority to freshwater problems. It calls for urgent action to:

Oceans: Some speakers proposed the establishment of an intergovernmental panel on oceans, and delegates expressed differing views regarding the establishment of targets to reduce excess fishing fleet capacity. The ALLIANCE OF SMALL ISLAND STATES (AOSIS) called for information systems on oceans and seas protection and stressed the link between implementation and financial and organizational capacities of countries. GREENPEACE INTERNATIONAL called on governments to redress fisheries problems and to establish an intergovernmental panel on oceans. CANADA said that specific proposals for an intergovernmental process are premature.

AUSTRALIA said the CSD should be the coordinating body on oceans and coastal areas issues. He supported including an exhaustive list of existing ocean-related legal instruments and action programmes. The REPUBLIC OF KOREA said the list of legal instruments should either be comprehensive or deleted. MALTA supported the reference to the Global Programme of Action for small island developing States (SIDS). The G-77/CHINA said implementation of these instruments should be based on common but differentiated responsibilities and requires assistance to developing countries. He emphasized that follow-up and monitoring of existing legal instruments is the responsibility of governments, not the international community. The EU recommended referring to UNEP’s Regional Seas Programme and to the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.

The US supported the implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action, but he questioned the need for an improved system of oceans governance. He said the FAO is already addressing the issue of excess fishing fleet capacity and did not support the establishment of global or regional-level targets. MEXICO, NORWAY and the FAO called for a reference to the 1995 International Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. NORWAY noted the importance of national and regional efforts to ensure sustainable use and supported: reference to the FAO agreement to promote compliance on the high seas; the establishment of measures and objectives, including targets for fisheries management; and improved control and enforcement mechanisms. AUSTRALIA stated that over-capacity of fishing fleets is perhaps the most critical oceans issue, and supported targets, provided they are based on indicators of ecological sustainablity. JAPAN said the CSD should not consider fisheries. He suggested that regional organizations establish any measurable targets and, with the REPUBLIC OF KOREA, advocated deletion of the sub-paragraph on elimination of subsidies and excess capacity. BRAZIL noted considerable differences among countries regarding subsidies and fleet capacity and recommended that their elimination and reduction be conducted "where appropriate." CANADA supported the elimination of excess fishing capacity and endorsed global targets but said the precautionary approach should be used.

The revised draft notes some progress in protecting oceans, emphasizes the need for periodic intergovernmental reviews, and urges:

Forests: Although the Co-Chairs had requested that delegates not address this issue due to the recent conclusion of the IPF, a number of delegates expressed their views on a continued forest policy dialogue and a possible international convention on forests. NORWAY and BRAZIL noted that it is premature to negotiate a legally-binding instrument on forests because, for such an instrument to be effective, it must be based on consensus. CANADA suggested that UNGASS reach a conclusion regarding the negotiation of a forest convention. The RUSSIAN FEDERATION said forest issues should be addressed in a framework separate from the Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD). COLOMBIA said a high-level CSD working group should continue to facilitate intergovernmental dialogue. Based on a CANADIAN proposal, the revised draft states that the report of the IPF includes a number of options that will be considered at CSD-5.

Energy and Transport: Delegates discussed these issues together, as was proposed by the initial draft, but based on suggestions by several delegates, the issues are addressed in separate sections in the revised draft. Most delegations agreed that the CSD should consider energy and transport as priority issues. The issues of energy efficiency, renewable energy and phase- out of lead in gasoline were among those emphasized.

The EU said UNGASS should promote common energy policies and address emission standards and traffic management. SWITZERLAND called on the CSD to take a lead role in coordinating a global strategy on policies and measures for energy efficiency. The US said the CSD should focus on energy efficiency, environmentally sound transportation systems and less polluting fuels. CANADA called for greater emphasis on energy efficiency and the benefits of recycling.

EGYPT called for agreed targets, including a 10% increase in investments in alternative energy sources over five years and the elimination of lead in gasoline in ten years. SWITZERLAND and the US said UNGASS should recommend that energy pricing reflect social and environmental costs and call for increased investment in renewable energy. The US said UNGASS should not set targets for such investment. AUSTRIA supported proposals that the CSD adopt a comprehensive approach to energy, including transport, urban issues and redirecting subsidies and, with SWITZERLAND, supported CSD prioritization of transport.

JAPAN said energy pricing should reflect a country’s economic and energy situation. BRAZIL questioned the usefulness of a specific uniform target for elimination of subsidies. The US indicated it was not ready to accept such a target. The G- 77/CHINA said the impacts of proposed measures, particularly those on subsidies, must be examined closely, and the time frame and targets for elimination of subsidies should account for differences between developed and developing countries. The REPUBLIC OF KOREA advocated deletion of the sub-paragraph on subsidies. The NGO ENERGY CAUCUS called for: internalization of all fuel consumption costs; energy conservation and use reduction in developed countries; a phase-out of subsidies for fossil fuel and nuclear energy; and an increase in renewable energy subsidies.

The G-77/CHINA called for a doubling of financial resources for new and renewable energy sources and for access to technologies and know-how to enable developing countries to use these energy sources. GHANA called for access to emerging solar technologies. MALTA recommended references to increased investment in solar energy and to regional-level research and development (R&D) in renewable energy. NORWAY proposed a reference to renewable energy sources available locally and to comprehensive land-use planning in the section on transport.

SWITZERLAND advocated adding local and transboundary air pollution to the agenda under this issue. BRAZIL recommended mentioning the role of international financial institutions in providing electricity to unserved populations. The EU recommended: providing energy to unserved populations; calling for a coherent strategy for a sustainable energy future; promoting guidelines for environmentally friendly transport, fuel optimization and lead phase-out in gasoline; and emphasizing regional approaches to transport. The NGO TRANSPORTATION CAUCUS called for examination of land-use planning, car- free areas and internalization of transportation costs.

The revised draft on energy notes that current patterns of production, distribution and use are unsustainable. It stresses the need for:

The revised draft on transport notes the damaging impacts of current levels and patterns of fossil energy use and calls for:

Atmosphere: Most delegates expressed the view that UNGASS should emphasize the importance of further progress by the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in securing commitments to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Many developing countries called on industrialized countries to fulfill existing FCCC commitments. The EU, CANADA, SWITZERLAND and SWEDEN said the gathering of world leaders at UNGASS could propel climate change discussions forward. IRAN said UNGASS should avoid making recommendations for further commitments. AOSIS recommended prioritization of the Berlin Mandate’s completion of a legally-binding instrument at the third Conference of the Parties (COP-3) to the FCCC. SWITZERLAND called for quantified objectives. GREENPEACE INTERNATIONAL and the NGO ENERGY CAUCUS called on governments to endorse a legally-binding CO2 reduction target of 20% of 1990 levels by 2005. The US said UNGASS should not identify a range of targets for reducing CO2 emissions and proposed adding a reference to regional agreements.

AOSIS called on Annex I countries under the FCCC to reduce GHG emissions and to strengthen their commitments. BRAZIL proposed noting that the FCCC commitments have not been met and that there is a need for renewed effort by industrialized countries. The NGO ENERGY CAUCUS emphasized equity and the primary responsibility of industrialized countries in reducing GHGs. The G-77/CHINA stressed the need for technology transfer and financial assistance to developing countries to enable them to meet FCCC commitments. He said the development and management of terrestrial and marine carbon sinks does not give developed countries license to maintain unsustainable practices.

CANADA proposed welcoming the recent conclusion of meetings on replenishment of the Montreal Protocol Fund rather than calling for additional resources for phasing out ozone depleting substances in developing countries. The INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY ASSOCIATION stressed the need for countries to make well-informed decisions on the optimal mix of energy sources and called for sound technological assessments of the risks involved in all energy sources to facilitate such decisions.

The revised draft notes little progress in reducing GHG emissions and highlights the need for a legally-binding protocol to be adopted at FCCC COP-3. A separate paragraph: welcomes the recent conclusion of replenishment negotiations for the Montreal Protocol Fund; emphasizes the need for adequate future replenishments; calls for effective measures against illegal trade in ozone depleting substances; and recommends further development of regional agreements to counter transboundary air pollution.

Chemicals and Wastes: Several developing countries emphasized the need to control transboundary movements of hazardous wastes. Many delegates commented on the emerging agreements on Prior Informed Consent (PIC) and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). AOSIS called for renewed commitment on transport and storage of nuclear waste. The RUSSIAN FEDERATION called for international agreements on transboundary pollutants and chemicals. COLOMBIA called for more effective interventions in illegal transboundary movements. The REPUBLIC OF KOREA noted the lack of public awareness about the increasing number of accidents and stressed the need to address the handling, transport and disposal of radioactive wastes, including on a regional basis.

The G-77/CHINA stressed the need to ensure the availability of substitutes to POPs that are environmentally sound and accessible to developing countries. He called for further action to: enhance awareness of chemical safety and management; develop accident preparedness plans; complete a protocol on liability and compensation for damages under the Basel Convention; clean up sites contaminated by nuclear weapons testing; establish regional cooperation agreements; and ban legal movement of hazardous and toxic wastes. CANADA said the recommendations of the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety should be endorsed. NORWAY noted the need to intensify cooperation with developing countries to support administrative capacity and aid them in dealing with stocks of obsolete chemicals.

The revised draft notes substantial progress with implementation of several agreements on chemicals and wastes and recent international action towards conclusion of agreements on PIC and POPs. It stresses the need to: develop criteria to identify additional chemicals to be included in a POPs convention; conclude the Protocol on Liability and Compensation under the Basel Convention; increase regional cooperation to improve radioactive waste management; and prevent storage of radioactive wastes in areas lacking safe storage facilities.

Land and Sustainable Agriculture: Several delegates emphasized the need for efforts to work toward food security, particularly through the implementation of the World Food Summit agreements. The EU called for prioritization of food security and for references to: access to land; the role of indigenous people; and defining ways to combat soil degradation. NORWAY proposed a reference to sustainable conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. CANADA noted that provision of adequate food and nutrition will require environmentally sound intensification of food production. The NGO CAUCUS ON SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE called on governments to: facilitate and implement a global facility for urban agriculture; prioritize integrated pest management; and support programmes to achieve local, regional and global food security. CHINA noted the importance of the World Food Summit outcomes.

The revised draft emphasizes the need to: define ways to combat soil degradation and to integrate land and watershed management; use integrated approaches to land-use management that involve all stakeholders; eradicate poverty to improve food security and provide adequate nutrition; implement comprehensive rural policies to improve access to land, combat poverty, create employment and reduce rural emigration; and implement the World Food Summit outcomes.

Desertification and Drought: In the initial Co-Chairs’ draft, desertification and drought were addressed in the paragraph on land and sustainable agriculture, but based on recommendations from a number of delegations, the revised draft contains a separate paragraph on these issues. The EU called for a reference to the upcoming COP-1 of the CCD. EGYPT said the GEF should increase finances to deal with desertification and deforestation on an equal footing with other global environmental issues. IRAN advocated expanding the GEF’s mandate to include land degradation and desertification. The US emphasized that the CCD Global Mechanism is not a financial mechanism. AUSTRALIA and SWITZERLAND said the COP’s determination on that issue should not be preempted.

The revised draft urges governments to sign, ratify and implement the CCD and to support the Global Mechanism to ensure adequate financial resources to advance its implementation.

Biodiversity: Delegates emphasized the need to implement the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and supported the timely conclusion of a protocol on biosafety. INDONESIA noted the need to strengthen capacity-building to fulfill CBD commitments. COLOMBIA and the INDIGENOUS PEOPLES CAUCUS called for progress on a biosafety protocol. The US noted the difficulty in identifying the value of biodiversity. JAPAN said examination of the equitable sharing of benefits should take place elsewhere, such as in the FAO. AUSTRALIA proposed references to traditional and indigenous knowledge and the equitable sharing of benefits from the utilization of such knowledge.

The G-77/CHINA recommended: operationalizing the clearinghouse mechanism; emphasizing the role of women in sustainable use of biodiversity; implementing incentive measures at all levels; and implementing environmental impact assessments. The INDIGENOUS PEOPLES CAUCUS called for the development of a bioethics protocol. CANADA said Parties to the CBD must move the Convention’s objectives forward in meaningful and measurable ways. The FAO called for a reference to the 1996 Leipzig Declaration and Plan of Action on Plant Genetic Resources.

The revised draft calls for: full implementation of CBD commitments; attention to the Leipzig Declaration and Plan of Action; equitable sharing of benefits from the utilization of genetic resources and of traditional knowledge; respect, preservation and maintenance of traditional knowledge; and rapid conclusion of a biosafety protocol.

Sustainable Tourism: Delegates emphasized the need to involve local communities and to consider environmental impacts of tourism. The EU said continued discussion should be undertaken under the CBD and, with SWITZERLAND, emphasized the need for local community involvement in tourism development. AOSIS highlighted the relationship between environmental quality and tourism. MALTA recommended including references to eco-tourism and to the need for environmental policies in tourism development. CANADA noted the impacts of tourism on biodiversity. The INDIGENOUS PEOPLES CAUCUS proposed adding the UN Working Group on Indigenous Peoples to those organizations that could elaborate an international programme of work on sustainable tourism.

The revised draft: notes the degradation of biodiversity and fragile ecosystems from tourism; calls on the CSD to develop an international programme of work on sustainable tourism; and stresses the need for international cooperation to facilitate sustainable tourism development in SIDS.

Small Island Developing States: Many delegations supported a reaffirmation of commitment to implement the Barbados Programme of Action for SIDS. AOSIS advocated provisions for an adequate review of the Programme in 1999. BARBADOS expressed hope that the review process would renew impetus for implementation of the Programme. MALTA stressed the need for financial resources. CANADA supported inclusion of a statement urging implementation of the Barbados Programme. He called for references to coastal development and to integrating SIDS into regional and global trading structures. AUSTRALIA noted that the draft refers only to action by international actors and should include national-level action by SIDS.

The revised draft reaffirms the international community’s commitment to implement the Barbados Programme of Action. It also notes national and regional efforts to implement the Programme and calls for external assistance for building infrastructure and national capacity and for facilitating access to information on sustainable development practices and transfer of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs).

Natural Disasters: Based on proposals from a number of countries, a paragraph on natural disasters appears in the revised draft. It notes that natural disasters have disproportionate consequences for developing countries, particularly SIDS, and stresses the need to promote and facilitate transfer of early-warning technologies to countries prone to natural disasters.


Financial Resources and Mechanisms: Discussion on this issue focused on ODA, private sector investment, FDI, innovative financing mechanisms, subsidies and the GEF. Developing countries noted the decrease in ODA levels. EGYPT supported a proposal calling on NGOs to lobby governments for increased ODA. Many developed countries emphasized a role for the private sector in development and identified ways that ODA could be used to attract private sector investment. Several delegates noted that FDI is unevenly distributed, driven by market forces and does not respect development needs or social factors. EGYPT, supported by NORWAY, highlighted the need to better understand how to use development assistance to leverage FDI. The EU said ODA can help the least developed countries build capacity, set environmental policies in place and finance infrastructure that is not attractive to the private sector. They stressed that sound macroeconomic and property rights frameworks are important if a country is to benefit from FDI. The US also noted the importance of regulatory regimes and good governance. JAPAN said self-help efforts are the foundation for effective partnerships.

Among the actions proposed were: studies on the impact of FDI on social and economic development (EGYPT); and policies to strengthen and enforce social and environmental regulations in host countries (UNED-UK); an intergovernmental forum on financing for Agenda 21 (INDIA and NGOs); a global fund for sustainable development financed by subsidies and international taxes (EGYPT); increased emphasis on innovative financial measures (POLAND and GUYANA); credits and guarantees and technical assistance to establish green banks (MEXICO); a convention to regulate the environmental impact of multinational corporations (G-77/CHINA); setting 2002 as a target for achieving 0.7% of GNP for ODA (UNED-UK); and international and regional revolving investment funds (NEW ZEALAND). The US objected to international taxation, saying it would be a violation of sovereignty.

The revised draft notes the urgent need to fulfill all financial commitments of Agenda 21, for developed countries to reaffirm the commitment of 0.7% of GNP for ODA and, at a minimum, to return to 1992 shares of GNP within five years. The role of ODA for capacity-building, supporting policy reforms and leveraging private investment is noted. The text also calls for work on the design of appropriate policies for attracting private foreign capital, reducing its volatility and enhancing its contribution to sustainable development. Domestic actions, such as macroeconomic and structural reforms and environmental taxes and user charges, are proposed to mobilize domestic financial resources. Creditor, debtor and international financial institutions are called on to continue efforts towards finding solutions to the debt problems of the highly indebted poorest countries. Appropriate organizations are invited to conduct forward-looking studies regarding concerted action on innovative financial mechanisms.

A number of delegates, including the EU, discussed the need for adequate replenishment of the GEF. Many developing countries, including THAILAND, GUYANA and the PHILIPPINES, called for increased contributions. The G-77/CHINA said the GEF should address desertification and forestry issues and revise its conditionalities. UNED-UK, CANADA and NORWAY all cautioned against expanding its mandate without additional resources. COLOMBIA called for greater transparency and participation in the project approval process. The revised draft calls for further expansion and development of the GEF.

The need to address and remove subsidies was a concern for many. The EU preferred a reference to "trade-distorting and environmentally-damaging subsidies." JAPAN and the REPUBLIC OF KOREA said environmentally-damaging subsidies should be specified and country-specific conditions taken into account. The revised draft calls for research to assist governments in identifying and reducing subsidies that have trade-distorting and environmentally-damaging impacts.

Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies: Discussion on ESTs focused on related Agenda 21 commitments and methods through which transfer could occur. Many developing countries noted that the transfer of ESTs is not taking place and called for transfers on preferential and concessional terms. CANADA and the US stressed the role of the private sector and mutually agreed terms for EST transfer.

A number of approaches to technology transfer were offered. The REPUBLIC OF KOREA offered to fund a feasibility study of publicly-owned ESTs and to host an intergovernmental expert meeting. A role for ODA in technology transfer was identified by several developed country delegates. The UK, for example, suggested that ODA should support pilot projects to demonstrate innovative technologies and subsidize appropriate projects and activities when existing capital markets work against investments in ESTs. BRAZIL called for centers of EST dissemination and green credit lines. The PHILIPPINES, supported by GHANA, proposed a meeting with the private sector and COLOMBIA called for a UN forum to discuss technology transfer.

The revised draft calls for renewed commitment from developed countries to promote, facilitate and finance, as appropriate, access to and transfer of ESTs and corresponding know-how. The creation of an enabling environment, on the part of both developed and developing countries, can help stimulate private sector investment in and transfer of ESTs. Further examination of "green credit lines" and the links between ODA, FDI and technology transfer is proposed. Proposals to study publicly- owned technology are welcomed. A government role in establishing public-private partnerships and in bringing together companies from developed and developing countries and economies in transition is noted. Governments of developing countries are called on to strengthen South-South cooperation for technology transfer and capacity-building, and donor countries and international organizations should assist in these efforts.

Capacity-Building: Many concerns regarding capacity-building were raised in relation to specific sectors in which speakers thought it should occur, but a few recommendations were offered for the specific section on capacity-building as well. Capacity-building and the need to absorb ESTs was a concern for EGYPT, among others. JAPAN and AUSTRALIA highlighted the useful role of South-South cooperation in capacity-building. The revised draft notes the need for renewed commitment from the international community to support capacity-building efforts in developing countries and economies in transition. UNDP’s Capacity 21 Programme should be further strengthened, and capacity-building efforts should recognize the needs of women and indigenous peoples. South-South cooperation should be supported through "triangular" arrangements.

Science: A few comments were offered on this issue, including CANADA’s statement that strengthening of scientific capacity is a priority for all countries. The revised draft calls for increased public and private investment in science, education and training at the national level. Scientific cooperation is called for to verify and strengthen scientific evidence of environmental change. Efforts to build and strengthen scientific and technological capacity in developing countries is an objective of the highest priority.

Education and Awareness: NORWAY emphasized investment in education for young girls as a crucial component of sustainable development. The US indicated an interest in the "education for life" idea. EGYPT supported references to training and public awareness. CANADA advocated inclusion of education for sustainable development. MALTA recommended emphasizing educational systems that include environmental programmes. The revised draft notes the fundamental importance of education for sustainable societies and sustainable development and calls for assigning priority to education for women and girls. It also stresses the need to re-orient education in all nations to increase public understanding and support for sustainable development.

International Legal Instruments and the Rio Declaration: During discussion on the initial draft, COLOMBIA proposed adding a section on international legal instruments. The G-77/CHINA called for a review of international cooperation and commitments in the post-UNGASS period. The revised draft calls for regular assessment and reporting on the implementation and application of the Rio principles. Wider access to relevant court systems to pursue environmental justice is called for, as is implementation of and compliance with international treaties in the field of sustainable development.

Information and Tools to Measure Progress: The need for indicators and their use in national reporting was one of the issues emphasized in the few statements on this issue. The EU and CANADA, for example, emphasized this link. AUSTRALIA supported a core set of indicators. NEW ZEALAND noted the overlap among various bodies dealing with sustainable development and the need for coordination among them, particularly in the use of national reports. GUYANA noted that many developing countries have not been able to complete their national reports. The revised draft notes the need for strengthened data collection, compilation and analysis. The CSD work programme on indicators for sustainable development should result in an adequate set of indicators to be used at the national level by the year 2000. Finally, national reporting should continue. The draft also notes that action regarding the streamlining of national reporting will be added during CSD-5.

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