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IMPLEMENTATION IN AREAS REQUIRING URGENT ACTION. Integration of Economic, Social and Environmental Objectives: In paragraph 17 (introduction), the EU noted the importance of democracy, respect for human rights, transparent government and participation of civil society. The G-77/CHINA noted that sustained economic growth is an essential precondition of sustainable development and must be guided by equity, justice, social and environmental considerations. The US said sound economic growth is an important goal in the context of sustainable development. The G-77/CHINA added text regarding an enabling international economic environment.

On 18 (eradicating poverty), CANADA said the empowerment of women is critical. NORWAY added a reference to the 20/20 concept. The US called for the reduction of overall poverty in the shortest possible time and the eradication of absolute poverty. The G-77/CHINA proposed intensifying international cooperation to support poverty eradication efforts in developing countries. NORWAY recommended cooperation among donors and recipients to allocate increased shares of ODA to poverty eradication. The US amended the text with: national strategies with targets to reduce absolute poverty; cooperation with and involvement of people living in poverty to develop and implement poverty reduction programmes; and analysis of policies’ impacts on poverty.

On 19 (Changing Consumption and Production Patterns), the US recommended developing national policies to encourage changes in consumption patterns. CANADA proposed policies to encourage greater consumer awareness. On 19(a) (environmental cost internalization), the G-77/CHINA added avoidance of negative effects on market access for developing countries and promotion of business' role in shaping more sustainable consumption patterns and deleted natural resource pricing. NORWAY added green tax reforms and reducing environmentally-damaging subsidies. On 19(e) (energy and material efficiency), the EU recommended consideration of a ten-fold improvement in resource productivity in the long-term and an increase by a factor of four in the next 2-3 decades. The G-77/CHINA deleted targets and timetables and added measures to assist developing countries to improve efficiency. The US deleted references to timetables and international targets.

In 20 (Making Trade, Environment and Sustainable Development Mutually Supporting), the G-77/CHINA noted the need to eliminate discriminatory trade practices and added that environmental standards may have unwanted costs in developing countries. In 20(b) (multilateral trading system), NORWAY called for WTO attention to environmental impacts of subsidies and taxation. The US called on national governments to encourage coordination between trade and environment officials. The G- 77/CHINA called for measures to mitigate adverse impacts on developing countries.

Sectors and Issues: On 25, (freshwater) the EU called for freshwater for all within ten years and for a global programme of action. The G- 77/CHINA highlighted the lack of access to safe drinking water and sanitation in developing countries and the importance of water for satisfying basic human needs. In 25(e) (pricing policies), the G-77/CHINA deleted recognizing water as an economic good. NEW ZEALAND suggested its recognition as a “public” good. AUSTRALIA inserted protection of ecosystems and promotion of water conservation. The US added programmes to reduce water consumption and increase recycling. The G- 77/CHINA: added text on international support for developing country efforts to shift to more high-value, less water-intensive modes of agricultural and industrial production; replaced a reference to the Global Water Partnership with bilateral and regional initiatives; and deleted the call for an intergovernmental dialogue. The US proposed text on demand-side solutions and waste-water reuse, recycling and recovery programmes.

In 26(b) (existing oceans agreements), the G-77/CHINA called for universal participation in existing agreements. JAPAN objected to the reference to the Moratorium on Commercial Whaling. In 26(c) (excess fishing fleet), the G-77/CHINA called for reduction and elimination of wasteful fishing practices, especially in developed countries. JAPAN objected to the reference to subsidies. The EU called for consideration of positive and negative impacts of subsidies on fisheries. A US redraft referenced work by FAO’s COFI22. ICELAND suggested that subsidies be reduced by 50% by 2002. NORWAY added text on control and enforcement. In 26(d) (UN activities), the G-77/CHINA called for public awareness of oceans as a finite resource. The EU called for comprehensive CSD follow-up in 1999. EGYPT called for preparedness for oil spill accidents in regional agreements.

On 28 (energy), the G-77/CHINA's reformulation emphasized increased energy services in developing countries; international cooperation to reduce environmental impacts of fossil fuel development; and consideration of countries dependent on fossil fuel exports and those vulnerable to effects of climate change. The EU called for an intergovernmental forum to elaborate a common strategy for a sustainable energy future. Additions to 28(c) (modern renewable energy) included: use of energy-intensive materials (EU); reducing life-cycle costs (US); and cost-effective and environmentally- sound renewable energy sources (CANADA). The G-77/CHINA's amendment called for time-bound commitments to technology transfer. In 28(e) (pricing policies), the EU, the US, JAPAN and AUSTRALIA deleted a reference to eliminating subsidies for fossil and nuclear energy within ten years. CANADA deleted nuclear energy and added movement towards energy pricing that reflects full economic and environmental costs. JAPAN inserted “reduction” of subsidies. Proposals for new subparagraphs included: international cooperation to address negative consequences of energy consumption (JAPAN); increased use and transfer of safe and environmentally-sound energy technologies (EU); and promoting safety measures regarding radioactive waste (NORWAY).

In 29 (transport), the G-77/CHINA deleted references to oil and fossil energy, as well as text on policies to improve energy efficiency. The UKRAINE and SWITZERLAND said the call in 29(d) (guidelines and targets) for a phase-out of lead additives in ten years is unrealistic. The EU called for an international tax on aviation fuel.

In 30 (atmosphere), the EU specified legally-binding commitments that COP-3 should adopt. The US called for a satisfactory result at COP-3. CANADA and JAPAN called on COP-3 to include legally-binding and quantified measures, respectively. SAUDI ARABIA said the outcome should not be preempted.

On 32 (chemicals and wastes), the G-77/CHINA added text on facilitating access to environmentally-safe substitutes to POPs and on enhancing awareness of the importance of safety and management and ensuring prevention of accidents.

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