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The introductory paragraph to this section states that Agenda 21 and the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development established a comprehensive approach to sustainable development. Underlining national responsibility, this paragraph calls for reactivation of international cooperation and a major effort to implement UNCED goals [particularly] [including] cross-sectoral matters. The US and NORWAY objected to a G-77/CHINA- proposed reference to the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, which was altered to note that international cooperation is essential, recognizing, inter alia, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities as stated in Principle 7 of the Rio Declaration.


This paragraph recognizes a mutually reinforcing relationship between economic, social and environmental objectives. The text calls for full sharing of the benefits of growth, guided by equity, justice, social and environmental considerations. It also addresses: policy-making integration; the responsibility of industry, agriculture, energy, transport and tourism for their impact on human well-being and the environment; elaboration of national sustainable development strategies by 2002; and country-specific policy instruments.

Bracketed text includes a G-77/CHINA proposal noting that sustained economic growth is essential to the economic and social development of all countries, in particular developing countries, and an EU proposal noting the indispensable nature of democracy, respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms. SWITZERLAND proposed text on labor rights, which also remains bracketed.

[Enabling International Economic Environment]: This new section, based on a G-77/CHINA proposal, calls for a mutually supportive balance between the international environment and the national environment, under conditions of globalization. The EU objected to a G-77/CHINA amendment that globalization has tilted the balance of responsibility for development toward the international level. Delegates agreed to recognize that external factors have become critical for developing country efforts.

Eradicating Poverty: Poverty eradication is stated to be an overriding theme of sustainable development for the coming years. During the final Plenary the US withdrew an amendment referring to implementation of the “relevant portions” of the Beijing Platform for Action. The text calls for: implementation of the Programme of Action of the World Summit on Social Development, including the 20/20 initiative, and access to sustainable livelihoods and basic social services. Brackets remain around references to involving people in poverty in monitoring and assessing strategies and reflecting their priorities, and, at ARGENTINA’s request, to implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action [consistent with the report of the UN Fourth World Conference on Women].

Changing Consumption and Production Patterns: This paragraph identifies unsustainable patterns of production and consumption, particularly in the industrialized countries, as the major cause of continued environmental deterioration. Discussion addressed policies to: encourage changes in consumption patterns (US); encourage consumer awareness (CANADA); and reduce damaging subsidies (NORWAY). The G- 77/CHINA objected to a CANADIAN amendment to address consumption patterns in “rapidly industrializing countries.” The G-77/CHINA and the US deleted references to timetables and targets. The text calls for action on the polluter pays principle, encouraging producer responsibility and consumer awareness, eco-efficiency, cost internalization and product policies.

Brackets remain around references to: meeting basic needs in developing countries; higher income group consumption in some developing countries; full cost pricing of natural resources; environmental and social audits; core indicators [particularly in the industrialized countries]; [targets, goals, or actions]; proposals to increase resource productivity by factors of 10 and 4; a lead role for developed countries; and avoiding negative impacts on exports.

Making Trade and Environment Mutually Supportive: This paragraph identifies a need for the establishment of macroeconomic conditions enabling all countries to benefit from globalization. The G-77/CHINA introduced concerns about discriminatory trade practices. A European Community (EC) proposal on using the General System of Preferences to enhance market access was deleted. The text calls for: system-wide efforts involving the UN, WTO and Bretton Woods institutions and governments; removal of trade obstacles to resource efficiency; environmental management policies alongside trade liberalization; and full implementation of the Uruguay Round and the WTO Plan for LLDCs.

Bracketed text includes references to: elimination of discriminatory practices affecting developing countries; “sustainable development and trade liberalization should be mutually supportive;” and an entire subparagraph calling for WTO action to ensure that trade rules do not prevent or undermine environmental policies.

Population: This relatively short paragraph states that the impact of the relationship between economic growth, poverty, employment, environment and sustainable development has become a major concern. The paragraph calls for recognition of the critical linkages between demographic trends and factors and sustainable development.

The US, CANADA, the EU and NORWAY called for language on reproductive health care. ARGENTINA and MALTA preferred the original text on family and maternal health care. Both options remain in brackets.

Health: This paragraph notes that an overriding goal for the future is to enable all people, particularly the world’s poor, to achieve a higher level of health and well-being, and to improve their economic and social potential. The paragraph prioritizes protection of children from environmental health threats and infectious disease, eradication of major infectious diseases, improvement of basic health and sanitation and safe drinking water. The G-77/CHINA bracketed US text on the effects of lead poisoning on children and on tobacco awareness strategies.


The introductory paragraph notes that all sectors covered by Agenda 21 are equally important and thus deserve attention by the international community on an equal footing. It notes the importance of integration in all sectors, particularly energy and transport, agriculture and water use, drought and desertification, and management of marine resources. Delegates added a G-77/CHINA-proposed reference to the need for international cooperation and support of national efforts, within the context of the principles of UNCED, including, inter alia, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities.

Freshwater: This section contains a chapeau, eight subparagraphs and an additional paragraph on a freshwater initiative. The one bracketed reference in the section occurs in this final paragraph.

The chapeau highlights: widespread lack of access to safe drinking water and sanitation; the importance of water for satisfying basic needs in developing countries; concern about increasing stress on supplies caused by unsustainable use; and the need to ensure optimal use and protection of freshwater resources so the needs of all can be met. The chapeau also stresses that given the growing demands on water, it will become a limiting factor on socioeconomic development unless early action is taken, and calls for the highest priority to freshwater problems.

Subparagraphs stress the need to: formulate and implement policies for integrated watershed management; strengthen cooperation for technology transfer and financing of integrated water resource programmes and projects; ensure continued participation of local communities in management of water resource development and use; provide an enabling environment for investments to improve water supply and sanitation services; consider gradual implementation of pricing policies; strengthen information collection and management capabilities; support developing country efforts to shift to higher-value, less water-intensive modes of agricultural and industrial production; encourage development of international watercourses to attain sustainable utilization and appropriate protection thereof and benefits therefrom.

The final paragraph containing the EU proposal for a freshwater initiative states that, considering the urgent need for action in the field of freshwater and building on existing principles and instruments, arrangements, programmes of action and [sustainable] customary uses of water, governments call for a CSD dialogue to begin at CSD-6. The dialogue will aim at building consensus on the necessary actions and in particular on tangible results and the means of implementation in order to consider initiating a strategic approach for the implementation of all aspects of sustainable use of freshwater.

The G-77/CHINA said the EU proposal should: mention the means of implementation before mentioning results; include a reference to water for social and economic uses; and place safe drinking water and sanitation as the priorities for action. EGYPT said that “customary use” carried a specific legal implication and “sustainable customary use” was an unknown term. The US noted that not all customary uses are sustainable and those that are should be distinguished, and bracketed the reference. In the final Plenary, the US withdrew the brackets on the understanding that customary uses of water can be superceded by customary international law and treaties. Delegates discussed at length the incorporation of the G-77/CHINA proposal on international cooperation. They agreed in the final Plenary to add to the text that the intergovernmental process will only be fully fruitful if there is a proven commitment by the international community for the provision of new and additional financial resources for the goals of this initiative.

In a subparagraph on investments to improve supply and sanitation, delegates agreed to providing an enabling “national (US) and international (G-77/CHINA)” environment for investment and added G-77/CHINA language on commitments to support developing countries’ efforts to provide access to safe drinking water and sanitation for all, with the deletion by the EU and the US of “time-bound” commitments.

In a subparagraph on pricing policies, delegates agreed to an EU proposal recognizing water as a social and economic good. The G-77/CHINA added that economic valuation of water should be seen in the context of its social and economic implications. Delegates agreed that gradual implementation of pricing policies could be considered in developing countries when they reach an appropriate stage in their development. The US added that strategies must include programmes to minimize wasteful consumption.

Oceans and Seas: This bracket-free section contains a chapeau and seven subparagraphs. The chapeau highlights: progress in the negotiation of agreements to improve the conservation and management of fishery resources; declining fish stocks; rising marine pollution; and the need to improve decision making on the marine environment. Subparagraphs stress the need to: ratify or accede to relevant agreements; strengthen implementation of existing marine pollution agreements; identify global priorities to promote conservation and sustainable use of the marine environment; cooperate to support strengthening of regional agreements for protection and sustainable use of oceans; prevent or eliminate overfishing; consider subsidies’ impacts; and improve scientific data.

Although the section has no brackets, TURKEY stated in the final Plenary that they planned to revisit it in the future. Delegates debated fair access to marine resources, overcapacity of fishing fleets and subsidies at length.

In the chapeau, text on assisting developing countries to implement relevant agreements “with a view to securing fair access to marine resources” was changed “to participate effectively in the sustainable use, conservation and management of their fishery resources” by the US. The MARSHALL ISLANDS, ICELAND, AOSIS, PAPUA NEW GUINEA and JAMAICA supported this amendment. The G-77/CHINA preferred the fair access language, but ultimately agreed to the amendment, noting strong dissent within the G-77 on its implications.

Based on proposals by the EU and CANADA, the issues of eliminating or reducing excess fishing capacity and of subsidies were separated into distinct paragraphs.

After a lengthy debate on overfishing and excess capacity, the Chair prepared a compromise formulation calling for the elimination or prevention of overcapacity (CANADA) through the adoption of management measures and mechanisms to ensure (NORWAY) the sustainable management and utilization (G-77/CHINA) of fishery (US) resources (ICELAND) and to undertake programmes of work (JAPAN) to achieve the reduction of wasteful fishing practices wherever they occur, especially in relation to large-scale industrialized fishing (G-77/CHINA). NORWAY, JAPAN, CANADA and the US emphasized that these problems are not applicable only to developed countries. The G-77/CHINA noted the need to increase developing countries’ fleet capacity.

Delegates accepted CANADA’s subparagraph stating that governments should consider the positive and negative impact of subsidies. The G-77/CHINA said they are opposed to phasing out subsidies in developing countries.

The G-77/CHINA, supported by the MARSHALL ISLANDS, added language on institutional links between mechanisms developing and implementing integrated coastal zone management. Language was added on strengthening implementation of existing agreements on marine pollution toward better contingency planning and liability and compensation mechanisms.

In a subparagraph on government action, NORWAY, supported by CANADA, added language on, inter alia, improving the quality and quantity of scientific data and greater international cooperation to assist developing countries. The G-77/CHINA added a call for assistance to developing countries, particularly SIDS, to operationalize data networks for information-sharing on oceans.

Forests: Delegates negotiated the forests text informally in a contact group. The final draft, which contains bracketed text, has three preambular paragraphs, stating the importance of forests for sustainable development, noting progress in sustainable forest management since Rio, particularly through the IPF, and calling for political commitment to encourage and facilitate the intergovernmental policy dialogue. The text also contains six subparagraphs stressing the need for: implementation of the action proposals; national forest programmes; enhanced international cooperation; further clarification of issues arising from the IPF; continued collaboration through the Interagency Task Force on Forests; and guidance for international institutions to incorporate the IPF’s action proposals into their work programmes.

Delegates debated at length whether the subparagraph on further clarification of issues should identify issues “arising from the IPF” or solely issues that remain unresolved from the IPF, and which issues should be highlighted. It was ultimately agreed to use “international cooperation in financial assistance and technology transfer and trade and environment in relation to forest products,” the IPF report’s chapter headings under which unresolved issues appear. Several developing countries preferred adding traditional forest-related knowledge to this list, but some developed countries objected to specifying issues other than those unresolved from IPF, so this reference remains bracketed.

While the paragraph on institutional follow-up was not negotiated, a G-77/CHINA position was presented in the contact group. Some G-77 countries expressed their reservations. The final draft contains two of the three options from the IPF report plus the G-77/CHINA proposal: establish an Intergovernmental Forum on Forests to promote and monitor implementation of the IPF action proposals and either consider and advise on the need for other mechanisms, including legal arrangements, or build consensus for and elaborate possible elements of a legally-binding instrument and report to the CSD in 1999; establish an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a forest convention as soon as possible; or establish an Intergovernmental Forum to, inter alia, consider matters pending by the IPF and to identify possible elements of arrangements and mechanisms or a legally-binding instrument, reporting to the CSD in 1999 (G- 77/CHINA). These three options, along with a footnote on developing terms of reference for an intergovernmental process, remain bracketed, as does the earlier reference to traditional forest-related knowledge.

Energy: The chapeau on energy notes that: fossil fuels will continue to dominate the energy supply situation and international cooperation is required to reduce environmental pollution and local health hazards; sharp increases in energy services are required in developing countries; the situations of countries highly dependent on fossil fuel exports or those vulnerable to adverse effects of climate change should be considered; and advances toward sustainable energy use are taking place. The final draft contains several brackets and subparagraphs on: intergovernmental work and a sustainable energy future; provision of adequate energy services in developing countries; policies and plans; increasing the use of renewables; promoting renewable energy technologies; technology in the context of fossil fuel; and energy pricing and subsidies.

In the chapeau, the US, CANADA and AUSTRALIA proposed deleting the G- 77/CHINA’s call for enhanced international cooperation in the provision of concessional finance for capacity development and technology transfer. The reference is bracketed.

An EU proposal for a high-level CSD forum on environment and energy to prepare an upcoming CSD session dedicated to establishing a common strategy for a sustainable energy future was not supported by the US, CANADA, AUSTRALIA and the G- 77/CHINA. An alternative formulation, calling for expert meetings to prepare for discussion in an upcoming CSD session, which, in line with Agenda 21, should contribute to a sustainable energy future, was supported by JAPAN, SWITZERLAND, the G-77/CHINA, VENEZUELA, IRAN and SAUDI ARABIA. Both options are bracketed.

In a subparagraph on energy policies, delegates accepted revised G-77/CHINA text on promoting policies and plans that take into account economic, social and environmental aspects of production, distribution and use, bearing in mind the specific needs and priorities of developing countries.

In a subparagraph on renewables, the G-77/CHINA’s call for “[time-bound commitments]” to transfer relevant technology to developing countries to enable increased use of renewables is bracketed. The agreed text calls on countries to systematically increase the use of renewables according to their specific social, economic, natural, geographical and climatic conditions and to improve efficiency in energy- intensive industrial production processes.

A G-77/CHINA-proposed subparagraph was added on further research, development, application and transfer of technology in the context of fossil fuels. The G-77/CHINA opposed the US’ insertion of “cleaner and more efficient” technology, and the final draft contains brackets, qualifying “technology, [preferably] of a cleaner and more efficient nature.”

In a subparagraph on pricing policies, the EU, the US, JAPAN and AUSTRALIA deleted a reference to eliminating subsidies for fossil and nuclear energy within ten years. CANADA deleted nuclear energy and added movement towards energy pricing that reflects full economic and environmental costs. JAPAN preferred “reduction” rather than elimination of subsidies. The G-77/CHINA preferred deleting the entire subparagraph. A reformulation, which encourages movement towards energy pricing that better reflects economic, social and environmental costs and benefits, including reduction and gradual elimination of energy subsidies inhibiting sustainable development, taking into account specific conditions of developing countries and respecting their special and differential treatment agreed in the WTO regarding subsidies, remains bracketed, along with a bracketed call for its deletion.

A subparagraph calling for the development of a reference framework for better coordination of energy-related activities within the UN system is also bracketed, along with a bracketed call for its deletion.

Transport: The final draft notes that the transport sector and mobility in general have an essential and positive role to play in economic and social development. It notes the need for: promotion of integrated transport policies that consider alternative approaches; integration of land use and rural and urban transport planning; measures to mitigate the negative impact of transportation on the environment; and the use of a broad spectrum of policy measures to improve energy efficiency and efficiency standards in the sector.

The final text contains a bracketed EU proposal for an international tax on aviation fuel, following opposition from the G-77/CHINA, the US, AUSTRALIA, CANADA, RUSSIA and JAPAN. A proposal calling for an accelerated phase-out of leaded gasoline remains bracketed in light of the G-77/CHINA’s statement that it must be accompanied by technical and economic assistance to developing countries. The text also contains bracketed language on promotion of guidelines for environmentally friendly transport and actions for reducing vehicle emissions, preferably within the next ten years.

Atmosphere: Discussions centered on the message that should emanate from UNGASS regarding the desired outcome of COP-3 of the FCCC. Delegates debated every line of the paragraph on this issue. The final text contains a bracketed reference noting that insufficient progress has been made by the developed countries in meeting the aim to return GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2000, stemming from a disagreement between the US and the PHILIPPINES on whether the lowered emissions represent an aim or a commitment. A sentence on the Berlin Mandate contains a bracketed reference noting that the FCCC commitments are inadequate (US) and a reference specifying that commitments in Articles 4.2 (a) and (b), which apply to developed countries, are inadequate (CHINA).

The final text also contains a “menu” of five bracketed proposals for consideration at UNGASS. The US proposed language noting that UNGASS should recommend that the FCCC accelerate negotiations, produce a satisfactory result and recognize the global nature of the problem. The EU, supported by SWITZERLAND, proposed specific emissions reduction targets (15% reduction below 1990 levels by 2010). AOSIS underscored its protocol (20% reduction below 1990 levels by 2005) as consistent with the Berlin Mandate. JAPAN called for agreement on quantified objectives for emission reductions and agreement to elaborate on policies and measures. The US, AUSTRALIA, JAPAN, CANADA, COLOMBIA, IRAN, RUSSIA, VENEZUELA, NIGERIA and SAUDI ARABIA objected to including specific negotiating positions in the text and cautioned against prejudging the COP-3 outcome. In the final Plenary, the US added a proposal to the “menu” that urges: member States to adopt the strongest possible agreement, including legally-binding budgets or targets for developed nations; maximum flexibility in reaching budgets or targets; and participation of all countries in taking meaningful actions to address the problem.

This section also contains a paragraph on ozone, which states that the ozone layer continues to be severely depleted and the Montreal Protocol needs to be strengthened. The EU proposed a specific reference to methyl bromide and earlier phase-out in developing countries. The G-77/CHINA said the prioritization of issues should be left to the COP and noted the failure to include language on providing resources. Delegates accepted an EU reformulation mentioning that the Multilateral Fund was recently replenished to provide funds for, inter alia, the earlier phase-out of methyl bromide in developing countries. The text also notes that future replenishment should be adequate to ensure timely implementation and calls for a focus on capacity-building programmes in developing countries.

Toxic Chemicals: Delegates made a range of proposals on toxic chemicals in the Drafting Group as well in informal consultations. The final text, which contains no brackets, states that all those responsible for chemicals, throughout their life cycle, bear responsibility for achieving sound chemical management. It notes substantial progress since UNCED, particularly the establishment of the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) and the Inter-organizational Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC). The text also notes that much remains to be done and that particular attention should be placed on cooperation in the development and transfer of technology of safe substitutes and in the development of capacity for their production. A reference to the decision of the 19th session of the UNEP Governing Council on the sound management of chemicals should be implemented in accordance with the agreed timetables for the negotiations on PIC and POPs conventions. The text notes that inorganic chemicals possess roles and behaviors that are distinct from organic chemicals.

Hazardous Wastes: Delegates discussed this issue in the Drafting Group and in informal consultations. The final text, which contains no brackets, highlights Basel initiatives on illegal traffic, regional training centers and the “proximity” principle, under which hazardous wastes are treated and disposed of as close as possible to their source of origin. It also calls on States to complete work on defining hazardous chemicals and negotiate a protocol on liability and compensation from damage resulting from transboundary movements and disposal of hazardous wastes. The text also states that land contaminated by disposal of hazardous wastes needs to be identified and remedial actions put in hand.

Radioactive Wastes: Delegates discussed this issue in the Drafting Group and in informal consultations. In final Plenary, RUSSIA stated its reservation to all paragraphs on the issue. The final text, which contains no brackets, states that each country has a responsibility for radioactive wastes that fall within its jurisdiction and that export to or storage of radioactive waste in countries where no storage facilities exist is undesirable. Governments are called upon to finalize negotiations under the IAEA on the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. The text also states that transportation of irradiated nuclear fuel, high level waste and plutonium by sea should be guided by the INF-Code. The text calls for further consideration of potential transboundary environmental effects of activities related to the management of radioactive wastes and the question of prior notification with States that could be effected. Technical assistance to developing countries to develop or improve procedures for disposal of radioactive wastes should be provided.

Land and Sustainable Agriculture: The final draft highlights the need to, inter alia: combat or reverse soil degradation; continue poverty eradication efforts by improving food security and providing adequate nutrition; formulate policies that promote sustainable agriculture; and implement the World Food Summit commitments.

Delegates agreed on the need for an integrated approach to the protection and sustainable management of land and soil resources, as stated in decision III/11 of the CBD COP, including identification of land degradation that involves all interested parties. A reference to indigenous people[s], as one of the interested parties, remains bracketed. The EU added action to ensure secure land tenure and access to land.

The G-77/CHINA opposed NORWAY’s call for measures to improve food security for the urban poor. Brackets remain around references to both “sustainable food security among both urban and rural poor should be a policy priority” (NORWAY) and “developed countries and the international community should provide adequate resources and technical assistance to developing countries to this end” (G-77/CHINA).

The EU, JAPAN and the REPUBLIC OF KOREA objected to an AUSTRALIAN proposal for continued WTO work to liberalize international trade and remove distortions to sustainable development in agriculture. In the final draft, three options are bracketed on the need to: continue WTO work to liberalize international trade in agriculture, to pursue food and overall trade policies that encourage producers and consumers to use available resources in an economically sound and sustainable manner taking account of the special and differential treatment for developing countries, especially LDCs and net food importers (AUSTRALIA); further analyze the benefits of removing trade restrictions (JAPAN); or effectively implement the WTO agriculture agreement (REPUBLIC OF KOREA).

Desertification and Drought: This section urges governments to ratify, accept, approve and/or accede to and implement the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD), and to actively participate in the first COP in September 1997. The second, almost entirely bracketed paragraph contains optional references to the global mechanism. The G-77/CHINA called for the global mechanism to “have the capacity to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of and ensure new and additional financial resources.” The EU, supported by CANADA, AUSTRALIA and the US, called for the international community to support the global mechanism in its work to facilitate the mobilization of adequate financial resources. The G-77/CHINA’s text calling for the transfer of “environmentally sound, economically viable and socially acceptable technologies” also remains bracketed.

Biodiversity: The final draft, which contains no brackets, emphasizes the need for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and fair and equitable sharing of benefits from genetic resource utilization. It calls for action to, inter alia: ratify and implement the CBD; facilitate technology transfer; rapidly complete the biosafety protocol; recognize women’s role in biodiversity conservation; and strengthen national capacity-building.

In a subparagraph on technology transfer, the G-77/CHINA proposed language from CBD COP-3 calling for “special attention to the need to provide new and additional financial resources for the implementation of the CBD.” The US agreed provided it was stated in a separate subparagraph. In a subparagraph on equitable sharing of benefits arising from traditional knowledge, the EU deleted the G-77/CHINA’s addition of “including, where appropriate, payment” and the US added “consistent with the CBD provision, in accordance with the COPs’ decisions.” Delegates did not support SWITZERLAND’s call for the elaboration of national biodiversity action plans by 2002.

Sustainable Tourism: This section, which contains no brackets: highlights the growth of the tourism industry and the increasing reliance of developing countries on it; calls for international assistance to broaden tourism to include cultural and eco-tourism; recommends strengthening national policy development and capacity in physical planning, impact assessments and the use of economic and regulatory instruments; calls on the CSD to develop an action-oriented international work programme; and stresses the need for international cooperation to facilitate tourism development in developing countries.

Small Island Developing States (SIDS): The final draft, which contains no brackets: reaffirms commitment to implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of SIDS; outlines CSD’s review of the Programme; and calls for effective financial support for implementation and for the operationalization of the SIDS information network and technical assistance programme.

Natural Disasters: The final draft, which contains no brackets: notes disproportionate consequences for developing countries; calls for higher priority for the implementation of the 1994 World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction commitments; and stresses the need to promote and facilitate transfer of early-warning technologies to countries prone to disasters.

Delegates highlighted the disproportionate consequences for SIDS and countries with extremely fragile ecosystems, and emphasized the need for capacity-building for disaster planning and management in particular to developing countries and economies in transition. Delegates accepted revised G-77/CHINA text acknowledging the need for further work, particularly further assistance to developing countries to: strengthen mechanisms to reduce the effects of natural disasters and integrate natural disaster consideration into development planning; improve access to relevant technology and training with hazard and risk assessment; and provide support for disaster preparedness and response.

[Technological and Man-made Disasters]: Delegates agreed to add a separate paragraph using UKRAINE’s text, which notes that such disasters impede the achievement of sustainable development in many countries. The text also calls for intensifying cooperation on disaster reduction, relief and rehabilitation. The PHILIPPINES bracketed “technological and man-made disasters,” stating that the reference should conform with agreed language from the UNGA decision on natural and similar disasters with adverse impacts on vulnerable communities, including their environments.


Financial Resources and Mechanisms: This section notes the key role of financial resources and mechanisms in implementation of Agenda 21 and elaborates on: ODA, the GEF, private sector investment and FDI, domestic resources and innovative financial mechanisms. The initial proposals offered by delegates from developed and developing countries were divergent and lengthy. The G-77/CHINA stressed the need to fulfill all financial commitments in Agenda 21. The EU and US stressed the importance of national legal and financial systems. The EU also called for “satisfactory” replenishment of GEF resources, with a view to equitable burden sharing. The US noted that, in general, financing for Agenda 21 will come from a country’s own public and private sectors.

Bracketed text includes references to: a catalytic role for ODA in encouraging country- driven policy reform efforts; the need for the effective use of an increased level of resources; World Bank and IMF collaboration with UNCTAD and the UN Secretariat to consider the relationship between indebtedness and sustainable development; and subsidy reductions “bearing in mind the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities.” The US, supported by AUSTRALIA, added a reference to an intergovernmental process on finance in the paragraph on innovative financial mechanisms after the initial compilation of amendments was prepared. The G-77/CHINA expressed concern about the late addition of the new proposal. MALAYSIA offered a similar proposal during the closing Plenary. Chair Tolba said the proposals will appear in the CSD report, but not as bracketed amendments to the text. Also during the closing Plenary, NORWAY and MALAYSIA reserved their right to revisit the innovative financial mechanisms paragraph at UNGASS. A paragraph on domestic resource mobilization was agreed to ad referendum during the Drafting Group, but individual members and the G- 77/CHINA’s spokesperson indicated during the closing Plenary that it did not adequately reference the need for international cooperation. The EU and US supported the paragraph, which was bracketed.

The agreed text calls for the urgent fulfillment of all financial commitments [and objectives] (EU) of Agenda 21. It notes that the underlying factors that have led to the decrease in ODA should be addressed by all countries. Donor countries are “urged to engage in providing new and additional resources, with a view to an equitable burden sharing, through the satisfactory replenishment of the GEF.” Consideration should be given to exploring the flexibility of the GEF’s mandate and efforts should be made to streamline the decision-making process. To stimulate higher levels of private investment, governments should aim to ensure macroeconomic stability, open trade and investment policies and well-functioning legal and financial systems. Debt relief is suggested in the form of debt rescheduling, debt reduction, debt swaps and, as appropriate, debt cancellation. Consideration of innovative funding mechanisms is encouraged, but they are not spelled out.

Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs): The section regarding technology transfer addresses: relevant UNCED agreements; the role of governments; an enabling environment for transfer; the role of public-private partnerships; South-South cooperation; and global electronic information.

The G-77/CHINA called for fulfillment of all commitments in Chapter 34 of Agenda 21, but the EU said the chapter contained “objectives” not “commitments.” Both options were bracketed. The G-77/CHINA said the market approach cannot be relied on to assure that such technologies will become widely available, to which the US added a reference to intellectual property rights. The entire sentence is bracketed. Delegates added a G- 77/CHINA proposal noting the contribution that the creation of centers for transfer of technology at various levels, including at the regional level, could make. A NORWEGIAN proposal calling for support to cleaner production programmes in public and private companies was added, as was a US proposal calling for technology needs assessment as a tool in identifying technology transfer projects.

Capacity-building: This three paragraph, bracket-free section calls for renewed commitment and support to national efforts for capacity-building in developing countries and economies in transition. UNDP, inter alia, though its Capacity 21 Programme, should give priority attention to building capacity. Delegates added a US proposal calling on both developed and developing countries to strengthen efforts for sharing environmental expertise and data.

Science: This four paragraph, bracket-free section calls for significant increases in public and private investment in science, education and training, and research and development. A CANADIAN call for full and equal participation of girls and women in this regard was added, as were JAPANESE calls for the promotion of existing regional and global networks and of innovations in information and communication technologies.

Education and Awareness: This two paragraph, bracket-free section notes that a fundamental prerequisite for sustainable development is an adequately financed and effective education system at all levels, accessible to all. Delegates added calls for: attention to the training of teachers, youth leaders and other educators (US); inter- generational partnerships and peer education (CANADA); and support for universities and promotion of cooperation among them (PERU).

International Legal Instruments and the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development: This section calls for regular assessment of the implementation and application of the principles contained in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. The G-77/CHINA was not prepared to discuss the compilation text, so all amendments to this section will be forwarded to UNGASS for consideration. A MEXICAN amendment calls for progressive development and codification of international law on sustainable development. An EU amendment calls for judicial and administrative channels to seek redress from decisions that are socially and environmentally harmful or violate human rights. The US, EU and NORWAY added proposals noting that compliance with international commitments can reduce conflict.

Information and Tools to Measure Progress: The section addresses issues related to tools to collect and disseminate information for decision-makers, indicators for sustainable development and national reports. The G-77/CHINA was not prepared to discuss the compilation text, so all amendments to the section will be forwarded to UNGASS for consideration. Amendments include calls for: gender-disaggregated data (CANADA); collaboration on high-tech info-communications infrastructure (JAPAN); environmental impact assessments (NORWAY); and peer reviews (CANADA, US and NORWAY).

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