Earth Negotiations Bulletin

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 A Reporting Service for Environment and Development Negotiations

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Published by the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)

Vol. 05 No. 183
Monday, 30 April 2001

SUMMARY OF THE NINTH SESSION OF THE COMMISSION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: 16-28 APRIL 2001

The ninth session of the Commission on Sustainable Development took place at UN headquarters in New York from 16-28 April 2001. Over 500 participants, including government ministers and other high-level officials, as well as representatives of business and industry, local authorities, the scientific and technological community and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), attended. In accordance with the Commission’s multi-year programme of work for the period 1998-2002, the session reviewed the sectoral themes of energy and atmosphere, the economic theme of transport, and the cross-sectoral themes of information for decision making and participation and international cooperation for an enabling environment.

After consideration of the agenda and organizational matters, four Multi-stakeholder Dialogues were held from 16–18 April, during which the scientific and technological community participated for the first time. Subsequently, a High-level Segment, comprised of a special panel, two interactive dialogues and a general debate, took place from 18-20 April. On 19 and 20 April, ministers and heads of delegations held several informal exchanges with the nominated CSD-10 Bureau members to provide political guidance on the preparatory process of the World Summit on Sustainable Development scheduled to take place in Johannesburg, South Africa, in 2002.

CSD-9’s work on developing decisions on the five sectoral and cross-sectoral themes was conducted in three Drafting Groups, which began their work on Monday, 23 April. There was protracted debate during the drafting sessions on both procedural and substantive matters. The G-77/China, the US and others objected to numerous new proposals introduced by the European Union on Monday, 23 April, that had not been agreed at during the Intersessional Working Group meetings held in February and March 2001. Substantive disagreements related to references to the use and transport of nuclear energy, sustainable development indicators, Rio Principle 10 (public participation), governance, climate change and the Kyoto Protocol. However, following extensive informal consultations held throughout Friday and into Saturday morning, delegates finally achieved consensus on all disputed text, and adopted the five decisions.

While there may have been slightly differing verdicts on the outcome of CSD-9, on one issue there was clear consensus: it is time to "radically restructure" the CSD, as CSD-9 highlighted the ever-present shortcomings that many observers have come to expect of the process. For many observers, CSD-9 was about preserving sovereign interests and narrowing down options for consideration at the 2002 Summit, rather than engaging in frank discussions on sustainable development with a view to defining specific policy-oriented recommendations. For the Johannesburg Summit to be groundbreaking, it should seize the opportunity to define mechanisms to operationalize sustainable development.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE CSD

The Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) emerged from Agenda 21, the programme of action adopted by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Agenda 21 called for the creation of the CSD to ensure effective follow-up of UNCED, enhance international cooperation, rationalize intergovernmental decision-making capacity, and examine progress of Agenda 21 implementation at the local, national, regional and international levels. In 1992, the 47th session of the UN General Assembly (GA) set out, in resolution 47/191, the CSD's terms of reference, composition, guidelines for the participation of NGOs, organization of work, relationship with other UN bodies, and Secretariat arrangements. The CSD held its first substantive session in June 1993 and has since met annually. In June 1997, five years after UNCED, the General Assembly held a Special Session (UNGASS-19), which adopted a "Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21." Among the decisions adopted at UNGASS was a new five-year CSD work programme, which identifies sectoral, cross-sectoral and economic sector/major group themes for the subsequent four sessions of the CSD. Overriding issues for each year are poverty, and consumption and production patterns.

CSD-6 met from 20 April to 1 May 1998. Participants considered the economic theme of industry and the sectoral theme of strategic approaches to freshwater management. They also reviewed implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and discussed the cross-sectoral themes of technology transfer, capacity building, education, science and awareness raising.

CSD-7 met from 19-30 April 1999, to consider the economic theme of tourism, the sectoral theme of oceans and seas and the cross-sectoral theme of consumption and production patterns. Participants also prepared for the UNGASS review of the Barbados Programme of Action.

CSD-8 met from 24 April to 5 May 2000. Participants deliberated on the economic theme of sustainable agriculture and land management, the sectoral theme of integrated planning and management of land resources and the cross-sectoral themes of financial resources, trade and investment, and economic growth. The conclusions and proposals in the final report of the Intergovernmental Forum on Forests were also discussed, as were preparations for the ten-year review of UNCED.

REPORT OF THE MEETING

CSD-9 Chair Bedrich Moldan (Czech Republic) opened the meeting on Monday, 16 April, and invited delegates to observe one minute of silence in honor of the late Vice-Chair Daudi Taliwaku (Uganda), who passed away in early April 2001. In his opening remarks, Chair Moldan underscored the CSD’s role in monitoring progress and achievements toward sustainable development.

Welcoming participants, Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs Nitin Desai highlighted energy as an area that was adding value to the work of the UN, noting that CSD-9 was the first UN meeting to discuss energy as a sectoral issue. He said the energy needs of populations and access to energy should be addressed as priorities, and noting that many concerns about the availability of resources for sustainable development are linked to energy, suggested merging the CSD agenda with that of poverty eradication.

ORGANIZATIONAL MATTERS: On Monday, 16 April, delegates elected Madina Jarbussynova (Kazakhstan) as Vice Chair to represent the Asian States and to serve as Rapporteur, and on Friday, 20 April, Margarida Rosa Da Silva Izata (Angola) was elected as Vice Chair to represent Africa on the Bureau. The other Bureau members include CSD-9 Chair Moldan, and Vice Chairs David Stuart (Australia), and Alison Drayton (Guyana), who had been elected at the first session of CSD-9 in May 2000.

Delegates accredited the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety as a CSD observer, and adopted the provisional agenda and other organizational matters (E/CN.17/2001/1). Chair Moldan explained the conduct of work during the debate and interactive dialogues of the High-level Segment and Drafting Groups. He invited ministers to the informal exchanges on Thursday, 19 April, and Friday, 20 April, and urged them to focus their interventions on the upcoming World Summit on Sustainable Development.

MULTI-STAKEHOLDER DIALOGUES

The Multi-stakeholder Dialogues on energy and transport took place from Monday, 16 April, to Wednesday, 18 April. Representatives of business and industry, workers and trade unions, NGOs, local authorities, and the scientific and technological community offered statements on four dialogue themes:

  • achieving equitable access to sustainable energy;

  • sustainable choices for producing, distributing and consuming energy;

  • public-private partnerships to achieve sustainable energy for transport; and

  • sustainable transport planning: choices and models for human settlement designs and vehicle alternatives.

Sessions commenced with short presentations by each stakeholder group, followed by reactions from two governments, general dialogue and closing recommendations by each group. Chair Moldan emphasized that the dialogue and recommendations made would inform the subsequent discussions of the CSD on energy, transport and atmosphere.

Several recommendations recurred throughout the dialogues, specifically: use of and investment in renewables, including new renewable technologies; greater energy access; transparent and participatory decision making; and the need for capacity building, stakeholder collaboration, research funding, technological transfer and poverty eradication. Debate over potential phase out of subsidies for unsustainable energy sources and the use of nuclear power figured prominently in discussions.

ACHIEVING EQUITABLE ACCESS TO SUSTAINABLE ENERGY: Business and industry called for, inter alia: market reform; improving energy efficiency; use of social impact assessments with energy production activities; and accounting of both external costs and benefits, including derivative benefits.

Trade unions noted concerns with transport-related accidents and recommended: greater worker participation in energy production and transport decisions; ratification of International Labor Organization Convention 155 on worker health; recognition of linkages between worker, community and environmental health; and greater support for research into the employment implications of the transition to sustainable energy.

NGOs urged governments to, inter alia: immediately phase out nuclear energy; place a moratorium on the extraction of fossil fuels from environmentally-sensitive areas; impose a carbon-based fuel tax; cease building large-scale dams; promote greater access for women to sustainable energy; and support the creation of a new UN agency to promote renewable and sustainable energy.

Local authorities called for increasing access for the poor to commercial energy, investment in cleaner energy, and use of certain subsidies for renewable and clean energy sources.

The scientific and technological community urged the phase out of subsidies, decentralized energy, increased support for research and development, greater use of life-cycle cost assessments and full-cost accounting, interdisciplinary collaboration, and incorporating science into decision making.

SUSTAINABLE CHOICES FOR PRODUCING, DISTRIBUTING AND CONSUMING ENERGY: Representatives of business and industry supported: the reduction of energy use through legislation and standards, labeling programmes, building codes and information provision; development of and improved access to technology; and development and provision of natural gas to developing countries.

Workers and trade unions recommended, inter alia: phasing out nuclear energy; increasing energy efficiency and decarbonization; improving building insulation; and job creation in renewable energy with a just transition from existing to emerging industries.

NGOs called for, inter alia: the phase out of nuclear energy and fossil fuel use; a moratorium on oil exploration in sensitive areas; increased focus on energy conservation, sustainable planning and construction; use of the Global Energy Charter as a policy tool; recognition of the role of the International Standard Organization’s standards, and their application; and establishment of a UN clearinghouse on energy technologies.

Local authorities called for: standards for clean energy production and air quality; priority investment to reduce energy demand and achieve energy efficiency; removal of obstacles inhibiting local authority provision of clean energy technologies; and government support for initiatives such as demand-side management, energy codes, and purchasing policies.

The scientific and technological community urged, inter alia: phasing out subsidies for polluting and unsafe energy systems; appropriate pricing incorporating externalities and life-cycle costs; eliminating regulatory impediments; promoting hydrogen fuel use; setting uniform standards to assess sustainable development; and increasing research in carbon sequestration.

PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FOR TRANSPORT: Business and industry urged: the development and funding of more sustainable and innovative transportation markets; establishing conditions for a sustainable market for gas-based fuels; and equal access to mobility. Workers and trade unions: expressed concern over the privatization of rail networks, negative aspects of the flags-of-convenience maritime system, and inefficient and unsustainable indirect transport of market products; and highlighted the close link between transport safety, work and environmental conditions. They called for: international standards for safety, environment and labor, and cooperation between business and industry in worker transport programmes.

NGOs suggested adopting policies to reduce transport demand and promoting non-motorized forms of transport, and noted: the influence of government investment on transport use; and the need for land-use changes, market-based measures and regulation to reduce emissions. Local authority representatives recommended: improvements in fuel and transportation technology; promotion of sustainable consumption; investment in cycling and walking routes with aesthetic and safety incentives; national standards for vehicle emissions; and use of public leadership and government purchasing power to promote cleaner transport and expand markets for cleaner vehicles.

The scientific and technological community stressed that affordable and environmentally-sound mobility is essential for sustainable development, and called for a zero-emission transport system and new transport infrastructure and technology.

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT PLANNING: CHOICES AND MODELS FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT DESIGNS AND VEHICLE ALTERNATIVES: In this dialogue segment, many participants commented on the importance of integrating transportation and land-use planning. Business and industry recommended: promoting effective instruments for economic, social and environmental goals; consolidating shipments in all modes of transport, including preventing empty truck movement; and urging government action regarding rule of law and justice, integrity in administration, transparency and accountability, robust economic policies and legitimate authority to act.

Representatives of workers and trade unions emphasized that women are key users of household energy resources and services, and requested, inter alia: an evaluation of the effects of liberalization on energy and transport services in transition countries; re-engineering of human settlements; participatory decision making with workers in transportation planning; and the inclusion of an educational component in all initiatives.

NGOs urged that public health should not be compromised by transport policy, noting that cost-benefit analysis often fails to account for the environmental and social costs of transport, and called for: meeting accessibility needs through improved footpaths and footbridges, as well as human-powered and non-motorized vehicles, not solely through airports and roads; examining government centralization of services; democratizing investment decisions; strengthening local production and distribution; examining vehicle emissions, safety and air standards; establishing socially, environmentally and gender-equitable and sustainable transport; reducing travel for routine activities; and reducing car dependency.

Local authorities recommended: local governments be given the authority to implement land-use policies to reduce travel demand and improve urban planning; local control over transportation investments; development of regional strategies for integrated and sustainable land use and transportation; use of local foods; and lifestyle changes.

The scientific and technological community urged: reconciling sustainability with the need for transport services; integrating changing demographics and appropriate prices, regulations, practices, and standards into transportation planning; research and development of technical inputs to ease the transition to more sustainable energy; decentralization of energy production; global partnerships that include the UN and vehicle manufacturers; and integration of resource planning, sustainable lifestyles, land use, transport systems, and different types of technologies.

On Friday, 20 April, Chair Moldan produced and presented a summary of the initiatives discussed during the Multi-stakeholder Dialogue.

HIGH-LEVEL SEGMENT

The High-level Segment began Wednesday afternoon, 18 April, with a Special Panel on Financing Energy and Transport. Interactive dialogues were held on Thursday, 19 April, on the theme of Transport and Energy, and on Friday, 20 April, on the successful integration of sustainable development into national policies. General debate on the CSD-9 themes was held on Thursday and Friday.

SPECIAL PANEL ON FINANCING ENERGY AND TRANSPORT: The facilitator, Under-Secretary-General Nitin Desai, said the session was expected to consider the type of financing available for energy and transport, to identify what governments need and to determine how industry could be involved. Representatives of the financial institutions presented examples of funding prospects from their institutions through, inter alia, micro-credit, renewable technology and leverage funds. Government representatives from Uganda, Indonesia and the Czech Republic outlined financing constraints in the energy and transport sectors, especially for public transport, renewable energy technologies (RETs), and upfront costs. Business and industry panelists discussed various forms of assistance, including financing options and prerequisites, as well as training and operations support.

The ensuing debate highlighted: a serious rural energy deficit and the need for public-private partnerships in its financing; reluctance to finance public transport and of constraints to its self-sustenance; obstacles to energy technology transfer and the need for diverse instruments for its realization; and the importance of land-use and urban planning in the realization of sustainable transport. Concluding the discussion, Desai drew ministers’ attention to the contradiction in the strong support expressed in favor of public transportation in developing countries and dismal investment therein, stressing that despite lack of commercial viability, public transport has social and other indirect economic benefits.

INTERACTIVE DIALOGUE ON ENERGY AND TRANSPORT: The dialogue focused on the global challenge of the growing need for, and private and public investment in, energy and transport. A number of governments focused on the issue of nuclear energy, with a majority opposing its use on the basis of upfront and decommissioning costs, and the unresolved problem of radioactive waste. Both developed and developing countries emphasized the need for, and indicated an interest in, renewable energy. There was also emphasis on demand-side energy management and the need to link energy to poverty reduction.

INTERACTIVE DIALOGUE ON SUCCESSFUL INTEGRATION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NATIONAL POLICIES: This dialogue examined two issues: how successfully sustainable development had been integrated in national policies, and the way forward. Presentations focused on, inter alia, rural electrification, renewable energy technologies, national energy strategies, the use of indicators and related poverty eradication strategies, and oil drilling and uranium mining on Indigenous Peoples’ lands.

GENERAL DEBATE: Three introductory statements preceded the general debate. Under-Secretary-General Desai reiterated that it was the first time energy was being discussed at a political level within the UN. UNEP Executive Director Klaus Töpfer outlined UNEP’s new initiatives, while UNEP Governing Council President David Anderson (Canada) reported on progress of the Open-ended Intergovernmental Group of Ministers, or their Representatives, on International Environmental Governance. He said the Group’s outputs would be forwarded to the preparatory committee for the World Summit on Sustainable Development.

Although the debate covered issues relating to transport, sustainable development indicators, information for decision making, atmosphere, and mainstreaming environmental decision making in national development strategies, the focus was mainly on energy issues. Many countries presented country strategies on: pollution and greenhouse gas emissions reductions; sustainable energy practices; and challenges and obstacles to realizing sustainable energy. A number of developing countries called for financial support, technology transfer and capacity building in different sectors, in particular those lacking private sector investment such as RETs development and rural energy access.

Regarding energy, several delegates, including Ireland, New Zealand, Germany, Nauru and Denmark, opposed the use of nuclear energy, but India said nations should determine their own energy policies, providing safety measures were ensured. There was strong support for the development of and energy access for rural communities. France and Italy said current models of development are unsustainable. Although the session’s mandate to review the theme of atmosphere ruled out issues under discussion in other forums, recent US pronouncements on the Kyoto Protocol stimulated debate on the issue, with many countries expressing support for the Protocol and others criticizing the US or urging reconsideration of its position. Concern was also expressed regarding the unprecedented growth in the ozone hole over the countries in the Southern Hemisphere.

There was emphasis on the link between energy and transport, urban planning that minimizes the use of private transport, and the need for standards on prior notification to countries that may be threatened in the shipment of radioactive waste and impact on health. The concerns raised on information for decision making were the need to involve all countries in the development of voluntary indicators and address the digital divide. Canada, the Rio Group of Nations and Norway expressed support for the CSD’s work on indicators for sustainable development.

A large number of countries also identified issues of interest relating to the World Summit on Sustainable Development, including: globalization and its impact on sustainable development; poverty eradication; an assessment of the outcomes of the Rio decisions; and that all issues for consideration at the Summit should be discussed during the preparatory process.

On Tuesday, 24 April, Chair Moldan distributed his summary of the discussions of the High-level Segment.

CSD-9 DECISIONS

Delegates addressed the draft decisions on the five themes under its agenda from 23-28 April. Vice-Chair Alison Drayton chaired Drafting Group I on energy and Drafting Group II on information for decision making and participation and on international cooperation for an enabling environment. Vice-Chairs David Stuart and Margarida Da Silva Izata (Angola) co-chaired Drafting Group III on atmosphere and transport. Due to the cross-cutting nature of some of the issues in the five draft decisions, many of the contentious issues were traded as "package deals" through informal consultations held on Thursday and Friday, 26-27 April. After extensive negotiations, the Commission adopted its five decisions (E/CN.17/2001/L.2) at 8:40 am on Saturday, 28 April.

ENERGY: Chaired by Alison Drayton, negotiations on energy began on the basis of the draft decision prepared by the Ad Hoc Open-Ended Intergovernmental Group of Experts on Energy and Sustainable Development (E/CN.17/2001/15). This decision contained six sections on general considerations, issues and options, overarching issues, regional cooperation and international cooperation, which dealt with diverse issues relating to, inter alia: energy efficiency, renewable energy and advanced fossil fuels, making markets work for sustainable development and international endeavors. The Drafting Group negotiated the draft decision on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday, and established an informal-informal group, chaired by Gustavo Ainchil (Argentina), to address issues on nuclear energy contained in the draft decisions on energy and on transport. The informal-informal group met on Thursday afternoon, 25 April, and throughout the day Friday, concluding its work on Friday at 6:30 pm. Remaining issues were resolved Friday night through informal negotiations.

Contentious issues that generated protracted debate resulting in two days of informal consultations were on recommendations regarding: the importance of taking into account Principle 16 of the Rio Declaration (internalization of environmental costs) in the context of energy policies; the effects of environmental standards on poverty eradication; the internalization of external environmental costs; nuclear safety and waste management, and regulation of transport of nuclear waste; energy efficiency codes and standards; the phase-out of harmful energy subsidies; resources to support energy for sustainable development; and networking among centers of excellence that are competent on energy technologies. Consensus on many of these issues was reached through informal consultations that considered related issues contained in the other draft decisions.

When adopting the decision, the Drafting Group deleted text where consensus was not possible, including: energy efficiency codes and standards, the phase-out of harmful subsidies in developed countries, promotion of atmospheric pollutant reductions, and references to the development of policies supporting energy for sustainable development. Disagreement on a number of difficult issues, including technology transfer and additional resources, was resolved by adopting previously agreed UN language.

Final Decision: Regarding general considerations, the decision (E/ CN.17/2001/L.2): emphasizes the centrality of energy in the achievement of sustainable development goals; notes wide inter-country disparities in energy consumption; acknowledges challenges in realizing adequate, predictable, new and additional financial resources as well as the need to increase investments from all stakeholders; and underlines States’ common but differentiated responsibilities and the importance of Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration (public participation).

On issues and options, the decision calls for, inter alia: energy policies that are supportive of developing countries’ poverty eradication efforts; support from the international community for national efforts to promote capacity building, technology transfer, investments and other forms of financial resources; and governments to develop and apply diverse energy policies.

The decision outlines the challenges, and recommends options and strategies on each of the key issues of accessibility of energy, energy efficiency, renewable energy, advanced fossil fuel technologies, nuclear energy technologies and rural energy and energy and transport.

On the overarching issues, the decision also provides for:

  • the enhancement of research and development at the national, regional and international levels of advanced cleaner, more efficient technologies, advanced fossil fuel and renewable energy technologies;

  • capacity building of institutions, infrastructure and human resources in developing countries, and technological leadership in developing countries and countries with economies in transition (EITs), as well as a focus on capacity building in development cooperation;

  • supportive measures to promote technology cooperation that enables transfer of necessary technological know-how and builds up economic, technical and managerial capabilities;

  • assistance to developing countries in the area of information technology;

  • the urgent fulfillment of all Agenda 21 financial commitments, including provisions relating to new and additional resources that are both adequate and predictable, as well as attention to the difficulties of financing essential infrastructure investments in developing countries;

  • encouragement to governments to improve the functioning of national energy markets in a way that promotes sustainable development, overcomes market barriers and improves accessibility, taking into account that such policies are decided by each country; and

  • the need to strengthen community-based organizations and institutions, taking into account Rio Principle 10, with the full recognition of Principles 5 (poverty eradication), 7 (common but differentiated responsibilities) and 11 (unwarranted costs of environmental standards).

Regarding regional cooperation, the decision welcomes efforts made at the regional level and by interest groups to discuss the key issues, and formulate regional positions and programmes of action to promote energy for sustainable development. It encourages governments to actively promote the implementation of the resulting programmes of action, and recommends the implementation of regional and subregional endeavors that may require subregional, regional and international support. Specific recommendations include:

  • strengthening of national and regional energy institutions or arrangements for enhancing regional and international cooperation on energy for sustainable development;

  • promoting rural electrification projects at the regional level;

  • strengthening and facilitating, as appropriate, regional cooperation arrangements for promoting cross-border energy trade;

  • strengthening and, where appropriate, facilitating dialogue forums among regional, national and international procedures and consumers of energy;

  • promoting, where appropriate, cooperation among the concerned countries of the region and with the support of the international community, to improve development and production of hydro-carbon fields;

  • fostering regional cooperation when undertaking research, development and demonstration on energy efficiency, renewable energy, and advanced fossil fuels; and

  • encouraging regional cooperation for capacity building, including South-South cooperation.

With regard to international cooperation, the decision recognizes the critical role that international cooperation can play in assisting countries to achieve sustainable development. It recommends:

  • taking concrete measures to maximize existing financial resources and exploring ways to increase these resources and create innovative financing solutions to support energy for sustainable development, including considering how ODA can be used to leverage private funds;

  • continuing dialogue on issues relating to energy for sustainable development within the World Summit on Sustainable Development process;

  • promoting international public-private partnership cooperation programmes for the promotion of affordable, energy efficient and advanced fossil fuel and renewable energy technologies;

  • promoting networking centers of excellence on energy for sustainable development;

  • making available grants and loans to developing countries on favorable terms;

  • exploring the scope of using existing international mechanisms for financing infrastructure development to identify risks and ensure they are managed on a transparent basis; and

  • supporting international endeavors to promote equal access and opportunities for women in relation to energy.

TRANSPORT: Chaired by David Stuart, the Drafting Group on transport based its discussions on the elements for a draft decision contained in the Report of the Intersessional Ad Hoc Working Group on Transport and Atmosphere (E/CN.17/2001/16), and were set out in four sections relating to: general considerations, international and regional cooperation, and recommendations at the national level.

During the discussion, several issues posed difficulties. In the section on general considerations, the reference to "sustainable transport" was particularly contentious, with the G-77/China opposing its inclusion, preferring text on economic growth, social development and environmental protection as interdependent and mutually reinforcing components of sustainable development on decisions concerning transport. The EU, Canada and others, underlined the contribution of transport to sustainable development, and suggested maintaining references to sustainable transport and adding language on "safety and access" and referring to "services and systems."

Transport of nuclear waste was highly contentious, with Japan and the Russian Federation opposing any reference to it in the decision. New Zealand proposed a broader formulation including "hazardous substances," borrowing language from International Atomic Energy Agency terminology, and proposed additional text on notification and consultation. Resolution of this issue was achieved during the informal-informal consultations on nuclear energy, with text that refers to "transboundary movement of hazardous substances," without mention of nuclear waste.

The section on international cooperation addressed, inter alia: the availability of financial resources to developing countries and EITs; the relationship between transport, environment and health, and safety; phasing out of lead in gasoline; and international organizations’ actions to address climate change, air pollution and other impacts. In the same section, Saudi Arabia opposed any reference to cooperation for transport. Another contentious issue was text encouraging the CSD to urge the International Civil Aviation Organization to take concrete actions for limiting or reducing emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, in line with Article 2.2 of the Kyoto Protocol. The G-77/China, the US and Australia, challenged by Japan and the EU, highlighted that the Commission does not have the mandate to do this. The section on recommendations at the national level addressed, inter alia: developing strategies to mitigate overall emissions and noise; encouraging private sector involvement to improve efficiency and emissions control; capacity building and appropriate use of information technologies; promoting access to efficient, affordable, safe, and environmentally-sound public transport systems; promoting gender-sensitive planning; promoting public participation; and considering the internalization of external costs by implementing the polluter pays principle. The EU presented numerous amendments and proposals on these issues, although many were rejected by other parties. The G-77/China opposed reference to the polluter pays principle to eliminate environmentally-harmful subsidies. Many delegates disagreed on references to "best practices," as supported by the EU. After extensive discussions, delegates agreed on the G-77/China-proposed "successful experiences."

The G-77/China, the US, Australia, and Canada lamented that the EU proposals were too prescriptive and did not take into account different circumstances of States. India suggested these proposals be specified "for developed countries." The EU argued that their proposals resulted from the Multi-stakeholder Dialogues.

Final Decision: The final decision (E/CN.17/2001/L.2) has four sections that address general considerations, international and regional cooperation, and recommendations at the national level. Regarding general considerations, the decision recognizes, inter alia:

  • official development assistance (ODA) as a main source of external funding and the need for substantial and additional funding for developing countries;

  • the need for favorable access to and transfer of environmentally-sound technologies, including technology cooperation and transfer of know-how to build economic, technical and managerial capabilities;

  • the contribution of transport to sustainable development to be safe, affordable, efficient, environmentally sound, and ensure mobility and provide access to all sectors of society on an equitable basis;

  • the complex and multi-dimensional challenges of policy-making and the impact of transport-related activities on economic growth, social development and the environment;

  • the adverse environmental impacts of accidents, noise and air pollution and the effect of emissions on human health;

  • multi-stakeholder participation and coordination within and between governments as relevant for policy formulation;

  • the impacts on women’s health from lack of access to transport;

  • the need for adequate and efficient, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally-sound transport systems; and

  • the need to facilitate technical innovations and encourage research, development and transfer of cleaner technologies.

Regarding international cooperation, delegates decided the Commission should emphasize the importance of transport for sustainable development, and the importance of providing assistance to developing countries and EITs. The decision recommends that the international community cooperate to, inter alia:

  • facilitate the transfer of cleaner technologies, promote energy efficiency and improvement of transport systems for passengers and goods;

  • encourage international financial institutions and other donors to make transport for sustainable development a priority;

  • assist capacity building, including through human development and institutional strengthening;

  • support public-private partnerships to promote investments;

  • assist with the implementation of the UNGASS-19 mandate on the progressive phasing out of the use of lead in gasoline and consider reducing the levels of sulfur and benzene in fuel, as well as particulates in vehicle exhaust;

  • encourage the use and technology transfer of cleaner fuels; and

  • encourage international organizations’ action to foster affordable transport systems, improve safety and reduce pollution.

The text also recommends that International Maritime Organization member States consider ratifying Annex VI of the MARPOL Convention on the Prevention of Pollution from Ships.

Regional cooperation decisions relate to, inter alia: better utilization of regional commissions, banks and organizations; exchange of successful experiences; examining the possibility of strengthening existing transboundary pollution agreements; financing transport projects that contribute to sustainable development; and emphasizing the potential of a coordinated approach to integrated land use and infrastructure planning.

With regard to recommendations at the national level, the decision calls for, inter alia: integrating economic, social and environmental objectives using a broad package of policy instruments, including regulations, economic instruments, internalization of environmental cost in market prices, as well as environmental and social impact analysis and information; developing strategies to reduce noise from transport and make use of better vehicle technology and encouraging planning for safe infrastructure for non-motorized transport; and encouraging the involvement of the private sector to improve efficiency and emissions control. The decision also encourages governments to promote: capacity building and appropriate use of information technologies; access to efficient, affordable, safe, and environmentally-sound public transport systems, including rural, remote urban and inter-urban services; gender-sensitive planning and planning for aged and disabled transport services and systems; and public participation and access to information.

ATMOSPHERE: The Drafting Group, chaired by David Stuart, began its deliberations based on possible elements for a draft decision on protection of the atmosphere, contained in the Report of the Intersessional Ad Hoc Working Group on Transport and Atmosphere (E/CN.17/2001/16). Participants also convened in informal-informal consultations facilitated by David Drake (Canada) aimed at assisting delegates to make progress on clearing bracketed text. The draft decision addressed general considerations, international cooperation, regional cooperation and recommendations at the national level in relation to protection of the atmosphere, and was revised by Chair Stuart throughout the week to reflect new proposals and agreements by Parties.

During negotiations, delegates focused on a number of controversial issues, some of which related to numerous textual proposals brought forward by the EU. In particular, disagreements in the text related to:

  • guidance to the Parties to the Montreal Protocol and the UNFCCC, as well as language on the Kyoto Protocol;

  • equity and the historical share of developed countries in contributing to polluting emissions;

  • the effects of air pollution on cultural heritage;

  • private sector involvement in technology transfer;

  • air pollution in the context of human settlements;

  • monitoring of the Earth’s atmosphere; and,

  • regional cooperation, including capacity building.

Text on relevant multilateral environmental agreements required extensive negotiation. In particular, proposals and amendments by the EU on a number of sub-paragraphs advising Parties to the Montreal Protocol and the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol resulted in disagreements. In Drafting Group sessions on Tuesday, 24 April, and Wednesday, 25 April, delegates discussed whether to include various subparagraphs proposed or amended by the EU on climate change and ozone depletion. One particularly controversial proposal sought to urge all Parties to the UNFCCC to engage constructively in negotiating on modalities and implementing the Kyoto Protocol and ratifying it with the view to bringing it into force by 2002, rather than simply taking note of the ongoing negotiations, as originally proposed. The G-77/China, Japan and the US expressed reservations over whether the CSD had the competence or mandate to give direction to Parties to the UNFCCC or the Montreal Protocol, while Switzerland said it was appropriate for the CSD to take a position on some of these matters. The US wanted to delete the proposed reference to the Kyoto Protocol, while in a concluding statement to the Drafting Group on Saturday, 28 April, Japan noted that it supported the use of the Kyoto Protocol to combat global warming. Following informal consultations held from late Friday morning through to Saturday morning, negotiators managed to clear brackets on all relevant text, with the exception of the alternative proposals for language on negotiations under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol. In the absence of consensus, Chair Stuart indicated that the original simpler formulation would be retained, which notes ongoing climate negotiations under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol.

Text on equity and developed countries’ historical share of atmospheric pollutants also resulted in extensive negotiations. The G-77/ China and Mexico supported text referring to equity and stating that developed countries must take the lead in addressing air pollution, as they have the greatest historical and current share of polluting emissions. Canada, the EU, Japan and the US opposed such language. Following extensive consultations, the matter was resolved early Saturday morning through a compromise formulation stating that developed countries have the greatest share of historical accumulation of atmospheric pollutants, and that addressing atmospheric issues involves dealing with many aspects and problems that could involve a range of factors, including equity and a lack of financial and technological resources.

Text on the effects of air pollution on cultural heritage was proposed by the EU on Monday, 23 April, but was opposed by the G-77/China. The issue was resolved in informal consultations held Friday, 27 April, which resulted in compromise text noting the negative impacts of air pollution on human health, socio-economic development, ecosystems and cultural heritage.

Regarding cleaner fuels and private sector involvement in technology transfer, the G-77/China indicated its support for private sector assistance to developing countries to involve "preferential terms." The EU, Canada and the US opposed this additional reference. Compromise text was adopted referring to technology transfer "on favorable terms, including concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed."

Text under the section on recommendations at the national level referring to human settlements required considerable discussion. Responding to the tabling by the EU of a number of proposals and amendments on issues such as air pollution in the context of human settlements, Canada and the G-77/China cautioned against shifting the primary focus away from atmosphere. The final agreed text did not refer specifically to human settlements, but addresses diseases resulting from indoor and outdoor air pollution.

Final Decision: The final decision (E/CN.17/2001/L.2) contains sections relating to general considerations, international cooperation, regional cooperation, and recommendations at the national level.

In the section on general considerations, the Commission’s decision emphasizes that the Earth’s atmosphere must be considered along with the oceans and the land surface as one of the three basic domains that comprise the global life-support system. It notes that human activities and natural disasters contribute to the build-up of atmospheric substances, with implications for climate change and variability, the ozone layer and air pollution. The text further notes the negative impacts of air pollution on human health, socio-economic development, ecosystems and cultural heritage, and the need for appropriate regional and international cooperation, as well as the role of developed countries in the historical accumulation of atmospheric pollutants, and the many challenges faced in addressing atmospheric issues.

The section on international cooperation focuses on the provision of assistance to developing countries and economies in transition through, inter alia, capacity building, data gathering and analysis, and development and introduction of cleaner fuels and air pollution abatement technologies. The further cooperation in the implementation of multilateral environmental agreements, including the Montreal Protocol, UNFCCC, Convention on Biological Diversity and Convention to Combat Desertification, is encouraged. In addition, all countries are encouraged to consider signing and ratifying or acceding to the future Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants at the earliest possible occasion, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is encouraged to consider supporting the increased involvement of developing country academics and experts in its work. The CSD also emphasizes the importance of strengthening international cooperation on monitoring of the Earth’s atmosphere.

Regional cooperation is encouraged for: supporting regional agreements on improved air quality and control of transboundary air pollution; improving methods to quantify and assess air pollution; and enhancing capacity building, institutional strengthening and stakeholder involvement, taking into account the special circumstances and needs of small island developing States.

On recommendations at the national level, governments are encouraged to, inter alia: improve data compilation and air quality monitoring; further develop and implement air quality strategies that include air pollution control and air quality management; and improve policies that reduce environmental health hazards, including through plans and strategies to prevent, mitigate and respond to diseases resulting from indoor and outdoor air pollution, paying special attention to the health of women and children.

INFORMATION FOR DECISION MAKING AND PARTICIPATION: The Drafting Group on information for decision making and participation was chaired by Alison Drayton. Negotiations were based on the elements for the decision on information for decision making and participation (E/CN.17/2001/17), contained in the report of the Intersessional Ad Hoc Working Group on information for decision making and participation and on international cooperation for an enabling environment. Informal consultations between the main negotiating blocs were held throughout the week on text relating to indicators for sustainable development, thus indicators were not formally discussed in the Drafting Group. Later in the week, informal consultations took place regarding EU proposals on Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration on public participation.

The elements for the decision on information for decision making and participation: highlight general considerations; describe guidance to the multilateral system, including on improvements in functioning, coherence and coordination, and training and capacity building; outline indicators for sustainable development; and give recommendations for activities at the national level.

Protracted discussions took place regarding EU proposals for numerous references to Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration on access to information, public participation in decision making, and access to judicial and administrative proceedings in environmental matters. One reference to Rio Principle 10 was kept in the section on recommendations for activities at the national level, with G-77/China-proposed additional wording on Rio Principles 5 (poverty eradication), 7 (common but differentiated responsibilities) and 11 (unwarranted costs of environmental standards). The EU proposed a new paragraph on an effective role for an independent, objective media in support of sustainable development. This paragraph was moved to the introductory section.

The issue of indicators was resolved through informal consultations mainly between representatives of the main negotiating blocs, with discussions based on a "nonpaper" circulated Monday, 23 April, and revised Tuesday. Agreed language on indicators was reached on Wednesday.

Final Decision: In the final decision (E/CN.17/2001/L.2), the section on general considerations was renamed "introduction." This section notes that significant gaps remain in the availability and uses of information in many countries, and that those developing countries suffering from inadequate infrastructure and information systems, as well as those parts of the population too poor to access new information sources, are being left behind. The section also states that developing countries, in particular, need technology transfer, capacity building and will require adequate, predictable, new and additional financial resources.

Under guidance to the multilateral system, the Commission, recognizing that enhancing information for decision making in order to achieve sustainable development will require international cooperation and actions compatible with national priorities and circumstances, and seeking to provide assistance to developing countries as well as EITs, encourages: international organizations, including international convention secretariats, to rationalize their requests for information; countries and relevant international organizations to develop information systems, which make the sharing of valuable data possible, including the active exchange of earth observation data; and greater access to Internet information for persons with disabilities.

The Commission urges strengthened cooperation and coordination among global observing systems and research programmes for integrated global observations.

It also encourages countries, particularly developed countries, with the cooperation of relevant international organizations, to: assist in training and capacity building; assist governments of developing countries to develop the needed technological infrastructure for sustainable development; and assist in strengthening national information systems and statistical agencies to ensure that efforts in data collection and analysis are efficient.

The CSD calls for: strengthening access by developing countries to information on sustainable development and measures to ensure that the commercialization of information does not become a barrier to developing countries; promoting the development and wider use by developing countries of innovative technologies; and assisting countries in their national efforts to achieve accurate, long-term, consistent and reliable data. The text also states that international organizations should build on existing efforts to improve the compatibility of data collection methodologies, and that the purpose of requests for data should be clearly specified.

Text on indicators for sustainable development, which was renamed "approaches to indicators of sustainable development," recognizes that any indicators developed under the CSD Work Programme are intended only for use by countries at the national level on a voluntary basis, suited to country-specific conditions, and shall not lead to any type of conditionalities, including financial, technical and commercial. The text states that the Commission could:

  • reiterate the need for CSD to keep under review the full range of indicators with full participation and ownership by UN member States;

  • in accordance with ECOSOC resolution 2000/27, emphasize that the indicators used by the UN Secretariat should be developed with the full participation of all countries and approved by the relevant intergovernmental bodies;

  • note the important role that national governments of the 22 testing countries played in developing the CSD Work Programme on experimental indicators;

  • encourage the further work on these and other indicators in line with national conditions and priorities in defining and implementing national goals for sustainable development;

  • stress the need to further develop indicators on means of implementation to evaluate progress toward goals in creating an enabling environment for development;

  • urge developed countries and international organizations to assist developing countries, as appropriate, in establishing basic capacities for the development of national indicators through, inter alia, financial support, capacity building, technical assistance and twinning arrangements; and

  • recall ECOSOC’s invitation to the Statistical Commission to serve as the intergovernmental focal point for the review of the indicators used by the UN system.

On recommendations for activities at the national level, governments, taking into account their priorities and respective national circumstances, with the support of the international community, are encouraged to consider:

  • taking measures to ensure access to environmental information, public participation in decision making and access to judicial and administrative proceedings in environmental matters in order to further Rio Principle 10 (public participation), taking into full account Rio Principles 5 (poverty eradication), 7 (common but differentiated responsibilities) and 11 (unwarranted costs of environmental standards);

  • collecting and providing access to relevant information for decision making for sustainable development, including gender disaggregated data, incorporating indigenous and traditional knowledge;

  • establishing guidelines to help distinguish between specialized information that can be effectively commercialized from information that should be freely available to the public;

  • developing strategies to improve access by all segments of society to information and communication technologies;

  • incorporating data and findings from research and monitoring activities into the decision making process;

  • incorporating sustainable development performance information produced by major groups, including the private sector, in relevant decision making processes;

  • promoting, with private sector participation, measures to give developing countries access to information essential for sustainable development;

  • fostering sustainable development, in cooperation with international organizations, by encouraging and providing needed technological infrastructure;

  • developing strategic partnerships with NGOs and the private sector to stimulate innovative data generation, collection and analysis methods; and

  • encouraging the application of traditional and community knowledge to sustainable resource and community management.

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR AN ENABLING ENVIRONMENT: Madina Jarbussynova chaired this Drafting Group during its first session on Monday, 23 April, while Alison Drayton chaired later sessions that convened on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday. The basis for discussion was the elements for a decision on international cooperation for an enabling environment (E/CN.17/ 2001/17), which highlighted general considerations, described actions to which the Commission could recommend the international community to agree, and gave recommendations for activities at the national level.

A number of contentious issues were discussed during informal consultations on Thursday and Friday. The G-77/China preferred references to: economic growth, social development and environmental protection; development of a strategy and action plan to reverse the decline in ODA; ways in which ODA could be complemented by private sector resources; and control of capital and investment flows for the purpose of maintaining financial stability. The EU supported text on the integrated and coordinated follow-up to major UN conferences and summits and on good governance at the national level. The US preferred text referring to efforts to reverse the decline of ODA "for countries who have so agreed" to meet targets and to efforts of developing countries to "effectively employ" capital and investment flows.

Final Decision: In the final decision (E/CN.17/2001/L.2), the section on general considerations notes that:

  • a dynamic and enabling international economic environment supportive of international cooperation is needed in the pursuit of sustainable development;

  • the Commission is committed to an open, equitable, rule-based, predictable and non-discriminatory multilateral trading and financial system;

  • the Commission reiterates the continuing relevance and importance of all the principles agreed in the Rio Declaration, including the principle that, in view of the different contributions to global environmental degradation, States have common but differentiated responsibilities; and

  • the need to ensure a balance among economic development, social development and environmental protection.

The section also states that the process of globalization is one of the elements of the international economic environment, that it presents opportunities as well as challenges and risks to sustainable development, and that the follow-up of all major UN conferences and summits, together with the Millennium Declaration and the international development targets relevant to sustainable development, are of importance.

The section on international cooperation states that: financial resources and mechanisms play a key role in Agenda 21 implementation; ODA is a main source of external funding for developing countries; and new and additional funding for sustainable development and for Agenda 21 implementation will be required. It also states there is a need for favorable access to, and transfer of, environmentally sound technologies, in particular to developing countries.

The Commission recommends that the international community agree to support:

  • developing countries in their efforts to achieve sustainable development in accordance with their priorities and national programmes and/or strategies for sustainable development;

  • efforts to further reform and improve the multilateral financial institutions;

  • the efforts of developing countries to put in place effective financial regulatory systems so that capital and investment flows help maintain financial stability and reduce the risks of excessive international financial volatility in order to achieve sustainable development objectives;

  • the full implementation of the enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries initiative;

  • regional and subregional cooperation, including South-South cooperation; and

  • developing countries in the development and implementation of national sustainable development programmes and/or strategies, including through the transfer of environmentally-sound technologies on favorable terms, including concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed.

It also recommends that the international community improve: the coordination of ODA, based on recipient country needs, priorities and strategies; the catalytic role of ODA; and market access for products from developing countries, ensuring the effective application of all provisions of the Uruguay Round Final Act embodying the results of multilateral trade negotiations.

In addition, the Commission recommends that the international community:

  • reaffirm that the UN has a central role in promoting international cooperation for sustainable development;

  • take necessary action to reverse the downward trend in ODA and strive to fulfill the commitments undertaken to reach the accepted UN target of 0.7% of GNP for ODA as soon as possible;

  • improve and streamline the functioning of the Global Environment Facility to make it more responsive to the needs and concerns of developing countries;

  • find lasting solutions to the debt problems of heavily indebted low- and middle-income developing countries by using, as appropriate, available mechanisms for debt relief;

  • assist developing countries seeking integration into the world trading system, notably the World Trade Organization;

  • pursue continued trade liberalization through, inter alia, the elimination of trade distorting policies, protectionist policies and non-tariff barriers to trade;

  • ensure that trade, environment and development policies are mutually supportive so as to achieve sustainable development;

  • encourage investment in developing countries, including through insurance mechanisms and financial instruments;

  • develop mechanisms for mobilizing new and additional financial resources, including financial instruments, public-private partnerships, and public-public partnerships;

  • assist developing country access to environmentally-sound technologies and ensure that international assistance for technology transfer is based on national and local needs; and

  • assist developing countries and EITs in capacity building to support technology development and transfer, institutional strengthening and human resource development.

Under recommendations at the national level, governments, taking into account their national circumstances and priorities and, with the support of the international community, as appropriate, are encouraged to:

  • create an enabling domestic environment for sustainable development through, inter alia, an equitable and predictable legal framework, capacity building, and the implementation of appropriate macro-economic, social and environmental policies and transparent, effective, participatory and accountable governance;

  • formulate and implement national sustainable development programmes and/or strategies, through a national consultative process;

  • improve opportunities for the private sector, NGOs and other major groups to contribute to sustainable development, economic planning and poverty eradication; and

  • develop and implement policies, programmes and incentives that integrate economic development, social development and environmental protection.

CLOSING PLENARY

Chair Bedrich Moldan called to order the CSD-9 closing Plenary at 8:10 am on Saturday morning, 28 April, inviting the Drafting Group Chairs to present their reports.

Alison Drayton, Chair of Drafting Group I, reported on the outcome of consultations on energy. The consensus language document was adopted, as amended by Plenary, which also noted the relevant documents: the report of the Secretary-General on sustainable production, distribution and use of energy; trends in national implementation (E/CN.17/2001/12 and Corr.1), and the report of the Ad Hoc Open-ended Intergovernmental Group of Experts on Energy and Sustainable Development (E/CN.17/2001/15).

Drayton, also Chair of Drafting Group II on information for decision making and participation, reported on the outcome of consultations, and the report was adopted by Plenary. The Plenary also noted the relevant documents: the Report of the Secretary-General on information for decision making and participation: Commission on Sustainable Development work programme on indicators of sustainable development (E/CN.17/2001/4/Add.1); the report of the Secretary-General on national reporting to the Commission on Sustainable Development (E/CN.17/2001/14); and the report of the Intersessional Ad Hoc Working Group on Information for Decision-making and Participation and on International Cooperation for an Enabling Environment (E/CN.17/2001/17). On cooperation for an enabling environment, Chair Drayton introduced the report of the Drafting Group, which was adopted by Plenary, which also noted the report of the Secretary-General on international cooperation for an enabling environment for sustainable development (E/CN.17/2001/5).

David Stuart, Chair of Drafting Group III, presented to Plenary the informal paper on the sector theme atmosphere, and noted Japan’s formal statement regarding the Kyoto Protocol. The report was adopted. Plenary also noted the relevant documents: the report of the Secretary-General on the protection of the atmosphere (E/CN.17/ 2001/2) and the report of the Intersessional Ad Hoc Working Group on Transport and Atmosphere (E/CN.17/2001/16). Stuart also presented the informal paper on transport, noting that the decision on transport was the outcome of consultations and agreed upon by consensus. It was adopted by Plenary, which also noted the relevant documents: the Report of Secretary-General on Transport (E/CN.17/2001/3) and the notes by the Secretary-General on the Multi-stakeholder Dialogues on sustainable energy and transport (E/CN.17/2001/6/Add.1-5).

Chair Moldan asked Plenary to acknowledge: the note by the Secretariat on the high-level meeting (E/CN.17/2001/CRP.2), the note by the Secretariat on the World Summit on Sustainable Development (E/CN.17/2001/CRP.3), and the note by the Secretariat on the draft programme budget for the biennium 2002-2003 for the Division for Sustainable Development, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (E/CN.17/2001/L.1). Madina Jarbussynova then presented the report of CSD-9 (E/CN.17/2001/L.2), which will contain the five decisions that were presented by the Drafting Groups as informal papers. The report was adopted.

In his closing remarks, Chair Moldan expressed thanks to delegates for their hard work and his gratitude at the conclusion of an extreme process, noting that the CSD is at a critical stage, preparing for the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002. The G-77/ CHINA, with SAUDI ARABIA and the EU, expressed special thanks to Chair Moldan, Drafting Group Chairs Drayton and Stuart, as well as their negotiating partners. The G-77/CHINA highlighted the meeting’s merits of consensus, dialogue, and altruism. The EU praised the accomplishments of the Commission, considering this year’s huge agenda. Chair Moldan gaveled the session to a close at 8:45 am on Saturday morning, 28 April 2001.

A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF CSD-9

CSD-9: A ROCKY FOUNDATION FOR THE 2002 SUMMIT

"Every revolution evaporates and leaves behind it the slime of new bureaucracy." – Franz Kafka

"Frustrating!" This is how many delegates and NGO observers voiced their feelings toward the end of CSD-9, a sentiment that has not changed since the meetings of the Intersessional Ad Hoc Working Groups in February and March. That this was the prevailing attitude was not entirely unexpected, as it was long anticipated that CSD-9 would be a difficult meeting. Not only were the issues under discussion ripe for controversy – after all this was the first time that energy was being discussed at an integrated political level within the UN – but the negotiations were always likely to be affected by the background politics and national interests leading up to the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. Throw into the pot a particularly tense series of Intersessional meetings, stir in the United States’ unilateral withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol and the reintroduction by the EU of numerous prescriptive proposals that had been eliminated during the Intersessionals, and it was clear that some would find good cause for indigestion.

With the euphoria of adopting text on Saturday morning after a marathon 24-hour session, a number of delegates were more upbeat on the outcome. They suggested that reaching agreement on such a contentious topic as energy, even if the text was far from perfect, constituted significant progress in the context of the intense political positioning that was taking place in the run up to the 2002 Summit.

While there may be slightly differing verdicts on the outcome of CSD-9, on one issue there was clear consensus: it is time to "radically restructure" the CSD. The two weeks of CSD-9 highlighted the significant shortcomings that many observers have come to expect of the process. Instead of pushing the envelope on new and emerging issues, and bridging the North-South divide, CSD-9 allowed seasoned New York negotiators to fall back on previously agreed text, and to reify existing divisions. For NGOs coming to the CSD hoping to see it provide clear direction on sustainable development in the lead up to the 2002 Summit, this was a rude awakening. No wonder then that a number of NGO participants, particularly from the South, left bleary-eyed on Saturday morning, deeply dispirited with the prospects for Johannesburg.

IDENTIFYING THE BONES OF CONTENTION

The sectoral and cross-sectoral themes under discussion provided fertile ground for disagreement: not only were the themes a solid basis for raising some of the traditional bones of contention – such as financial resources, good governance, capacity building, and reference to the role of other forums – but they also gave rise to strong concerns specific to each theme. These included such issues as nuclear energy, sustainable development indicators, international transport of hazardous waste, phasing out lead in fuel, elimination of subsidies, and introduction of energy efficiency standards.

To understand the areas of disagreement, it is essential to appreciate the nature of the "negotiating game" that played itself out during the CSD process, where discussion on seemingly fundamental concepts such as eco-efficiency lost out to extended debates on issues such as the difference between "energy for sustainable development" and "sustainable energy." This is a game that, as one observer noted, has clear Orwellian undertones. As Orwell put it in 1984: "Don’t you see that the whole aim of Newspeak is to narrow the range of thought." For many observers, this was exactly what CSD-9 was all about: using the negotiations as a basis for preserving sovereign interests and narrowing down the options for consideration at the 2002 Summit, rather than engaging in frank discussions on sustainable development, with the goal of developing specific policy-oriented recommendations.

At the risk of oversimplifying the various nuances, the negotiations throughout CSD-9 were characterized primarily by the strong exchanges between the EU and the G-77/China, with JUSCANZ members and the Russian Federation taking a comparatively backseat role. Putting it simply, the EU was intent on using CSD-9 to define a number of significant commitments for sustainable development, and to defend language promoting the implementation of these commitments specifically at the national level. The G-77/China, on the other hand, emphasized developing country circumstances and sought to minimize the potential introduction of any form of conditionalities by rejecting new proposals for national implementation as well as any hint of backtracking on Rio commitments. Significantly, the G-77/ China negotiators generally offered little in the way of new substantive proposals, largely focusing their efforts on underlining the importance of new and additional financial resources, and broadly defining sustainable development in the context of poverty eradication.

Throughout this interchange between the EU and the G-77/China – as characterized for example by the extensive discussions on "affordability" – there was generally limited substantive input from JUSCANZ members. A number of observers suggested that these countries were content to allow the G-77/China to lower the threshold of substantive performance commitments, with the US, for example, largely restricting its interventions to language relating to financial commitments. This was hinted at by an EU representative, who expressed concern with the tendency of the G-77/China to interpret all of the recommendations within the negotiating text solely from the perspective of developing countries, thus letting developed countries off the hook from more onerous obligations. In the words of the EU delegate: "this makes the whole exercise stupid!" A predominant cause of this tendency was seen to be the fact that the G-77/China was represented overwhelmingly by what some refer to as the "New York Mafia," a cadre of permanent representatives whose modus operandi is to defend previously agreed negotiating positions and who generally have limited technical expertise on the issues under negotiation.

"THE BROTHERHOOD"

Concern over the nature of developing country participation was reflected throughout the negotiations by a number of developed country delegates who expressed their frustration that the G-77/China appeared to be voicing the interests of only a small set of delegates. This was highlighted by a number of participants who expressed particular concern that on several key issues, arguments in favor of sustainable development practices were being overridden by the predominant influence of OPEC interests. Noting that Iran, as spokesperson for the Group, was flanked throughout much of the discussions by delegates from Saudi Arabia and Nigeria, observers also highlighted that during the drafting group discussions a number of the G-77 members felt compelled to express views that diverged from the stated Group position, sometimes hinting at a sense of frustration at having to follow the party line. As one senior AOSIS country representative put it, rather wearily during the informal discussions on nuclear energy, "to be frank we have been forced to identify ourselves with the G-77/ China."

A number of G-77/China participants highlighted the significant influence on the Group’s internal caucuses of a self-proclaimed "brotherhood" of UN permanent representatives, often at the expense of input from representatives from the capitals. A more seasoned participant underlined concern that the Group’s predominant insistence on financial issues, and their comparatively weaker calls during CSD-9 for capacity building and technology transfer, could be seen to benefit some of the larger developing countries at the expense of their smaller, less influential counterparts.

WHITHER THE CSD: RIPE FOR CHANGE?

Throughout the two-week meeting there was an increasingly visible sentiment in the corridors that the CSD cannot carry on in its current format, if at all. As one EU delegate put it, "Capitals are increasingly asking themselves, is this really worth it?" This sentiment was also voiced by a Minister from a G-77/China country who lacked the patience to sit through a litany of prepared ministerial statements during the High-level Segment, lamenting that "this process is a complete waste of time." Also, in the words of a JUSCANZ member, "There is no future for the CSD in its current shape." One developed country delegate questioned the relevance of CSD given the fact that after ten years delegates still have failed to come up with a satisfactory definition of sustainable development.

This frustration with the CSD in general is not shared by some observers who underline the apparent uniqueness of the CSD process in providing for external input. However, a number of commentators suggested that the positive perspectives of certain NGOs and delegates on the CSD may be indicative of those who have become unduly wedded to the process, and perhaps "blinded by its false reality," thus tending to overplay its impact. While the Multi-stakeholder Dialogues are a laudable process, and have had an impact during certain sessions such as in prompting CSD initiatives on agriculture and tourism, a number of delegates questioned whether the Dialogues in CSD-9 will have a noticeable long-term influence.

Those participants who are frustrated with the CSD process offered a number of recommendations to address its growing "crisis of credibility." These include: reducing the number of issues that are being addressed during each session; focusing only on new and emerging subjects that are not being addressed elsewhere; reducing the tendency to rely on previous text; doing away with the Intersessional Working Group meetings "which are completely useless;" encouraging external stakeholders to come forward with concrete proposals during the Multi-stakeholder Dialogues; changing the timing and format of the High-level Segment; and holding the meetings outside of New York.

CSD-10: LAYING THE FOUNDATIONS FOR CHANGE?

Following the outcome of the discussions of CSD-9 it is clear that if there is to be a frank exchange of views at the World Summit on Sustainable Development, and a genuine commitment to identifying innovative solutions for sustainability, then there will need to be a profound change in the negotiating atmosphere that characterized CSD-9, as well as many of the previous CSD meetings. Delegates gathering for CSD-10 are faced with significant challenges, and a wonderful opportunity to demonstrate their leadership by defining a credible process for identifying and addressing the key issues for discussion at the 2002 Summit.

The meeting at Rio in 1992 was a landmark in defining the agenda of sustainable development. If the meeting in Johannesburg is to be equally groundbreaking, then it should seize the opportunity to define new mechanisms for governance on sustainable development, rather than revisiting stale debates. Should it fail to do so, then those who deem the CSD process Kafkaesque may feel vindicated. It remains to be seen whether the Johannesburg Summit will produce the revolution in mindsets that many deem necessary for sustainable development, or whether instead it will result in the perpetuation of an existing bureaucracy producing vague text and expectations of inefficiency.

THINGS TO LOOK FOR

IMBIZO CONFERENCE OF AFRICAN LEADERS ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: This meeting will take place from 7-9 May 2001, in Spier Village, South Africa. Participants will consider a variety of themes related to business and sustainable development, including the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development. For more information, contact the Industrial Environmental Forum of Southern Africa, tel: +27 11 880-0079 or 0077; fax: +27 11 447-0848; e-mail: iefsa@mweb.co.za; Internet http://www.ief.co.za/imbizo/

WORLD SUSTAINABLE ENERGY CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION (SUSTAIN 2001): This conference will be held from 8-10 May 2001, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. It will provide visitors and delegates with an opportunity to see a wide array of projects, equipment and services from individual components to projects for generating, selling and buying clean and reliable energy in a competitive market. For more information, contact: Marc V. Sterel, Amsterdam RAI; tel: +31-20-549-1212; fax: +31-20-549-1843; e-mail: sustain2001@rai.nl; Internet: http://www.sustain2001.com

CONFERENCE ON EUROPE AND THE WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: This meeting will be held in Brussels from 10-11 May 2001. The meeting will focus on identifying practical contributions Europeans can make to support the 2002 World Summit in dealing with issues related to poverty. Major themes include water, agriculture, trade, finance, debt reduction, sustainable energy, peoples’ empowerment and global governance. For more information, contact: Francisco Flores, European Partners for the Environment; tel: +32(0) 2 771 1534; fax: +32(0) 2 539 4815; e-mail: eupe@glo.be; Internet: http://www.epe.be/objective2002/

SEVENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON URBAN TRANSPORT AND THE ENVIRONMENT FOR THE 21ST CENTURY: This conference will be held from 14-16 May 2001, on Lemnos Island, Greece, and is being organized by Wessex Institute of Technology, UK. Urban Transport 2001 will cover a variety of issues concerned with urban transport, land-use and the city environment. For more information, contact: Gabriella Cossutta, Conference Secretariat; tel: +44-238-029-3223; fax: +44-238-029-2853; e-mail: gcossutta@wessex.ac.uk; Internet: http://www.wessex.ac.uk/conferences/2001/urban01/

THIRD UN CONFERENCE ON LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES: This meeting will be held from 14-20 May 2001, in Brussels, Belgium. For more information, contact: Office of the Special Coordinator for Least Developed, Landlocked and Island Developing Countries, UNCTAD; tel: +41-22-907-5893; fax: +41-22-907-0046; Internet: http://www.unctad.org/en/subsites/ldcs/document.htm and http://www.un.org/events/ldc3/conference/

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE INFORMATION RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION: This conference will be held 20-23 May 2001, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The conference theme is "Managing Information Technology in a Global Economy." For more information, contact: Information Resources Management Association; tel: +1-717-533-8879; fax: +1-717-533-8661; e-mail: jtravers@irma-international.org; Internet: http://www.irma-international.org/call2001.htm

54TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF THE ASSOCIATION OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT: This Congress will take place from 20-25 May 2001, in London, UK, and will include the International Exhibition of Public Transport-City Transport. For more information, contact: International Association of Public Transport; tel: +32-2-673-6100; fax: +32-2-660-1072; e-mail: administration@uitp.com or events@uitp.com; Internet: http://www.uitp.com

SIXTH ANNUAL THIRD MILLENNIUM PETROLEUM CONFERENCE: This conference will be held on 21-22 May 2001, in London, UK. It will examine themes such as energy issues in the 21st century, global exploration and production, and new frontier and growth zones. For more information, contact: Global Pacific & Partners, tel: +1-281-597-9578; fax: +1-281-597-9589; e-mail: dgclarke@global.co.za; Internet: http://www.petro21.com/international

CONFERENCE OF PLENIPOTENTIARIES FOR THE STOCKHOLM CONVENTION ON PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS: The preparatory meeting for the Conference of Plenitpotentiaries will take place on Monday, 21 May 2001, in Stockholm. The actual Conference to sign the Stockholm Convention will take place from 22-23 May 2001. For more information, contact, UNEP Chemicals, tel: +41-22-917-8193; fax +41-22-797-3460; e-mail: pops@unep.ch; Internet: http://www.chem.unep.ch/pops/

FIRST ROAD TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER CONFERENCE: This conference will be held from 23-25 May 2001, in Arusha, Tanzania. Organized by the Tanzania Technology Transfer Centre, themes and topics of the conference include: establishment and operation of a technology transfer center; road technology transfer programmes; effective road technology transfer; road safety and road traffic management; and appropriate technology for road construction and maintenance. For more information, contact: Abdul A. Awadh, Secretary, Organizing Committee, c/o Tanzania Conference Services Ltd; tel: +255-22-212-2139/+255-811-336-987; fax: +255-22-211-6379; e-mail: tcs@twiga.com or tzcenter@udsm.ac.tz

CONFERENCE ON NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR SAFE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND ROAD TRANSPORT: This conference will convene on 6-7 June 2001, in Trollhättan, Sweden, and will examine current challenges within road traffic. For more information, contact: Marianne Palovaara, Project Manager; tel: +46-8-405-2224 or +46-70-557-7604; e-mail: marianne.palovaara@industry.ministry.se; Internet: http://www.vv.se/for_lang/english/euinfoblad/infoblad2.engelskt.pdf

"ISTANBUL+5" - SPECIAL SESSION OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY FOR AN OVERALL REVIEW AND APPRAISAL OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE HABITAT AGENDA: This Special Session of the UN General Assembly will be held from 6-8 June 2001. It will review and appraise progress made on the implementation of the outcome of the second UN Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II), which was held in Istanbul, Turkey in 1996. For more information, contact: Axumite Gebre-Egziabher, UN Centre for Human Settlements, Nairobi, tel: +254-2-623-831; e-mail: Axumite.Gebre-Egziabher@unchs.org; Internet: http://www.istanbul5.org/

THIRD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ECOSYSTEMS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: This conference will be held from 6-8 June 2001, in Alicante, Spain. The meeting will provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of recent work on the engineering and modeling aspects of ecosystems and sustainable development. For more information, contact: Susan Hanley, Conference Secretariat; tel: +44-238-029-3223; fax: +44-238-029-2853; e-mail: shanley@wessex.ac.uk; Internet: http://www.wessex.ac.uk/conferences/2001/ecosud01

CONFERENCE ON PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR PARTNERSHIPS: THE ENTERPRISE GOVERNANCE: This conference will be held from 6-9 June 2001, in Enschede, The Netherlands. Its aim is to gain a better understanding of current issues on the working relationship between public and private sectors and voluntary organizations. For more information, contact: Mel J. Hall, Enterprise and Business Excellence Centre, Sheffield Business School; tel: +44-114-225-2895; fax: +44-114-225-5265; e-mail: M.J.Hall@shu.ac.uk; Internet: http://www.sms.utwente.nl/ppp/

PROMOTING GLOBAL TRANSFER ACTIVITIES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGIES: This conference will be held from 8-10 June 2001, in Berlin, Germany and will present governmental and non-governmental initiatives for the transfer of renewable energy technologies. For more information, contact: Eurosolar; tel: +49-22-836-2373; fax: +49-22-836-1279; e-mail: inter_office@eurosolar.org; Internet: http://www.eurosolar.org/conferences/2001/solarenergy_main.html

UNITED NATIONS FORUM ON FORESTS: The first substantive session of the UNFF will be held at UN headquarters in New York from 11-22 June 2001. For more information, contact: UNFF Secretariat, tel: +1-212-963-6208; fax: +1-212-963-3463; e-mail: vahanen@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/forests.htm

FIRST EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON GREEN POWER MARKETING: This conference will be held from 28-29 June 2001, in St. Moritz, Switzerland. This forum will address international trading and marketing of renewable energy. For more information, contact: Nicole Giger or Sabine Spoerri; tel: +41-1-296-8709; fax: +41-1-296-8702; e-mail: info@greenpowermarketing.org; Internet: http://www.greenpowermarketing.org/

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CHALLENGES OF A CHANGING EARTH: This conference will be held in Amsterdam from 10-13 July 2001. It will examine the scientific basis needed to understand the complexities of the Kyoto Protocol and define the global carbon debate within a dynamic Earth System and human context. The conference is organized by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, together with its global change partners, the World Climate Research Programme and the International Human Dimensions Programme for Global Environmental Change. For more information, contact: Susannah Eliott, International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme; tel: +46-8-1664-48; fax: +46-8-1664-05; e-mail: susannah@igbp.kva.se or igbp@congrex.nl; Internet: http://www.igbp.kva.se

OPEN-ENDED EXPERT MEETING ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CAPACITY BUILDING PROVISIONS OF THE CARTAGENA PROTOCOL ON BIOSAFETY:  This meeting will take place from 11 to 13 July 2001, in Havana, Cuba, subject to the availability of funds. For more information, contact: the CBD Secretariat; tel: +1-514-288-2220; fax: +1-514-288-6588; e-mail: secretariat@biodiv.org; Internet: http://www.biodiv.org

CONFERENCE ON DETECTING ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE: SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: This conference will take place from 16-20 July 2001, in London, UK. The conference will focus on applications involving the detection and understanding of long-term changes in natural and disturbed environmental systems, and will review methods of environmental change detection across different disciplines. For more information, contact: Catherine E. Stickley, Environmental Change Research Centre, Department of Geography, University College; tel: +44-20-7679-5562; fax: +44-20-7679-7565; e-mail: c.stickley@ucl.ac.uk; Internet: http://www.nmw.ac.uk/change2001/

RESUMED COP-6 OF THE UNFCCC SUBSIDIARY BODIES: The resumed COP-6 (as outlined under COP-6 decision FCCC/CP/2000/L.3) of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change will be held from 16-27 July 2001, in Bonn. For more information, contact: the UNFCCC Secretariat; tel: +49-228-815-1000; fax: +49-228-815-1999; e-mail: secretariat@unfccc.int; Internet: http://www.unfccc.int

NINTH WORLD CONFERENCE ON TRANSPORT RESEARCH: This conference will be held from 22-27 July 2001, in Seoul, Republic of Korea. The conference aims to convene managers, policy makers and academics in a single forum to exchange views on the practice and theory of transport research, with an emphasis on the interface between research results and policy-making. For more information, contact: WCTR Secretariat; tel: +82-31-910-3100; fax: +82-31-910-3200; e-mail: secretariat@wctr2001.org; Internet: http://www.wctr2001.org/

21ST SESSION OF THE OPEN-ENDED WORKING GROUP OF THE PARTIES TO THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL: This meeting is scheduled to be held from 24-26 July 2001, in Montreal, Canada. For more information, contact: Ozone Secretariat; tel: +254-2-62-1234; fax: +254-2-62-3601; e-mail: ozoneinfo@unep.org; Internet: http://www.unep.org/ozone

INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER: This meeting will convene from 29 July – 2 August, 2001 in St. Petersburg, Florida, US. The Third General Assembly will be held simultaneously. For more information, contact: Enrique Ordonez, Federal Highway Administration, Office of International Programs; tel: +1-202-366-0217; fax: +1-202-366-9626; e-mail: enrique.ordonez@fhwa.dot.gov; Internet: http://www.international.fhwa.dot.gov

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT REGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING – AFRICA REGION: This meeting will be held from 28-31 August 2001, in Nairobi, Kenya. It will undertake a regional assessment of progress, including: main achievements on sustainable development in the region since 1992; prospective outlooks and main constraints faced by the region; and new initiatives and commitments within the region and its subregions toward overcoming constraints and fostering further progress. For more information, contact: Hiroko Morita-Lou, DESA; tel: +1-212-963-8813; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: morita-lou@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

CONFERENCE ON SUSTAINABLE APPLICATIONS FOR TROPICAL ISLAND STATES – SATIS 2001: This conference will be held from 29-31 August 2001, in Kingston, Jamaica, and will aim to provide a forum for dissemination of information on the use and development of renewable energy technologies and systems in tropical islands, particularly in the Caribbean. For more information, contact: Raymond M. Wright; tel: +876-929-5380; fax: +876-926-3928; e-mail: rwright@pcj.com; Internet: http://www.pcj.com/whatsnew.htm

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON GLOBALIZATION OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT - CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: This meeting will take place in Trieste, Italy, from 11-13 September 2001. It is being co-organized by Harvard University’s Center for International Development and Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, and the Third World Academy of Sciences. For more information, contact Derya Honca, Program Coordinator, Center for International Development, Harvard University; tel: +1-617-495-1923; e-mail: m_derya_honca@harvard.edu; Internet: http://www.cid.harvard.edu/cidbiotech/r&dconf/description.htm

NINTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MODELING, MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT OF AIR POLLUTION 2001: This conference will be held from 12-14 September 2001, in Ancona, Italy. The meeting will emphasize the development of experimental and computational techniques that can be used as a tool for the solution and understanding of practical air pollution problems from which it is possible to evaluate proposed emission control techniques and strategies. For more information, contact: Gabriella Cossutta, Conference Secretariat; tel: +44-238-029-3223; fax: +44-238-029-2853; e-mail: gcossutta@wessex.ac.uk; Internet: http://www.wessex.ac.uk/conferences/2001/air01/index.html

CONFERENCE ON INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT 2001: This conference will be held from 17-21 September 2001, in Havana, Cuba. It will be an opportunity for an exchange of experiences among authorities, scientists, industry representatives and technical experts involved in transport. For more information, contact: Huberto Valdés Rios, Secretario Ejectivo; tel: +537-62-3051/3058, ext. 230; fax: +537-33-8250; e-mail: iitransp@transnet.cu; Internet: http://www.transnet.cu/web/convencion/convencion.html

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT REGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING – EUROPEAN REGION: This meeting will be held from 24-25 September 2001, in Geneva, Switzerland. It will undertake a regional assessment of progress, including: main achievements on sustainable development in the region since 1992; prospective outlooks and main constraints faced by the region; and new initiatives and commitments within the region and its subregions toward overcoming constraints and fostering further progress. For more information, contact: Hiroko Morita-Lou, DESA; tel: +1-212-963-8813; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: morita-lou@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ECOLOGY & TRANSPORTATION: This conference will be held from 24-28 September 2001, in Keystone, Colorado, US. Topics include wetlands and water quality, threatened and endangered species, habitat management, and land use planning. For more information, contact: David L. Zeigler; tel: +1-850-922-7209; fax +1-850-922-7217; e-mail: david.zeigler@dot.state.fl.us; Internet: http://www.dot.state.fl.us/emo/sched/ICOWET.htm

EIGHTEENTH SESSION OF THE IPCC PLENARY: This meeting will be held from 24-29 September 2001, in London, UK. The purpose of the meeting is to adopt/approve the Synthesis Report. For more information, contact: Renate Christ, IPCC Secretariat, tel: +41-22-730-8574; e-mail: christ_r@gateway.wmo.ch; Internet: http://www.ipcc.ch/activity/master-sch.html

EIGHTH WORLD CONGRESS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS: This meeting will convene from 30 September – 4 October 2001, in Sydney, Australia. Its aim is to provide a platform for the presentation and discussion of advanced concepts, research results and deployment activities. For more information, contact: Congress Secretariat, tel: +61-2-9241-1478; fax: +61-2-9251-3552; e-mail: its2001@itsworldcongress.org; Internet: http://www.itsworldcongress.org

5TH CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES TO THE UN CONVENTION TO COMBAT DESERTIFICATION: COP-5 will be held in Geneva, from 1-12 October 2001. For more information, contact the UNCCD Secretariat, tel: +49-228-815-2800; fax: +49-228-815-2898/99; e-mail: secretariat@unccd.int; Internet: http://www.unccd.int

Second Meeting of the Intergovernmental Committee for the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (ICCP-2): This meeting will be held in Nairobi, Kenya, from 1-5 October 2001. For more information, contact: CBD Secretariat, Montreal, Canada: tel: +1-514-288-2220; fax: +1-514-288-6588; e-mail: secretariat@biodiv.org; Internet: http://www.biodiv.org

EIGHTH PIC INC MEETING: The eighth session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for the Preparation of the Conference of Parties of the Rotterdam Convention for the Application of the PIC Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade (INC-8) will be held from 8-12 October 2001, in Rome. For more information, contact: Niek van der Graaff, FAO; tel: +39-6-5705-3441; fax: +39-6-5705-6347; e-mail: Niek.VanderGraaff@fao.org; or Jim Willis, UNEP Chemicals; tel: +41-22-917-8111; fax: +41-22-797-3460; e-mail: chemicals@unep.ch; Internet: http://www.pic.int/

13TH MEETING OF THE PARTIES TO THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL: MOP-13 will be held in Colombo, Sri Lanka, from 15-19 October 2001. For more information, contact: Ozone Secretariat; tel: +254-2-62-1234; fax: +254-2-62-3601; Internet: http://www.unep.org/ozone

18TH WORLD ENERGY COUNCIL CONGRESS: This conference will be held from 21-25 October 2001, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The main themes of the Congress are world and regional energy market challenges and market mechanisms for energy resource allocation in the medium- and long-term. For more information, contact: US Energy Association, tel: +1-202-331-0415; fax: +1-202-331-0418; e-mail: RHWmson@aol.com; Internet: http://www.worldenergy.org/

Ad-Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Access and Benefit-Sharing: This meeting, held under the auspices of the Convention on Biological Diversity, will be held in Bonn, Germany, from 22-26 October 2001. For more information, contact: CBD Secretariat, Montreal, Canada: tel: +1-514-288-2220; fax: +1-514-288-6588; e-mail: secretariat@biodiv.org; Internet: http://www.biodiv.org

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT REGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING – LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN REGION: This meeting will be held from 23-24 October 2001, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It will undertake a regional assessment of progress, including: main achievements on sustainable development in the region since 1992; prospective outlooks and main constraints faced by the region; and new initiatives and commitments within the region and its subregions toward overcoming constraints and fostering further progress. For more information, contact: Hiroko Morita-Lou, DESA; tel: +1-212-963-8813; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: morita-lou@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT REGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING – WEST ASIA REGION: This meeting will be held from 28-30 October 2001, in Cairo, Egypt. It will undertake a regional assessment of progress, including: main achievements on sustainable development in the region since 1992; prospective outlooks and main constraints faced by the region; and new initiatives and commitments within the region and its subregions toward overcoming constraints and fostering further progress. For more information, contact: Hiroko Morita-Lou, DESA; tel: +1-212-963-8813; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: morita-lou@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

SEVENTH CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES TO THE UN FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE: COP-7 is scheduled to take place from 29 October - 9 November 2001, in Marrakech, Morocco. For more information, contact: the UNFCCC Secretariat; tel: +49-228-815-1000; fax: +49-228-815-1999; e-mail: secretariat@unfccc.int; Internet: http://www.unfccc.int/

CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY SBSTTA-7: The seventh session of the CBD’s Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice will meet in Montreal, Canada, from 12-16 November 2001. This meeting will be followed by Open-ended intersessional meeting on the Strategic Plan, National Reports and the implementation of the Convention, from 19-21 November 2001, also in Montreal. For more information on both of these meetings, contact the CBD Secretariat, Montreal, Canada: tel: +1-514-288-2220; fax: +1-514-288-6588; e-mail: secretariat@biodiv.org; Internet: http://www.biodiv.org

2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT REGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING � ASIA AND PACIFIC REGION: This meeting will be held in November 2001, in a venue yet to be determined. It will undertake a regional assessment of progress, including: main achievements on sustainable development in the region since 1992; prospective outlooks and main constraints faced by the region; and new initiatives and commitments within the region and its subregions toward overcoming constraints and fostering further progress. For more information, contact: Hiroko Morita-Lou, DESA; tel: +1-212-963-8813; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: morita-lou@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT: This conference will be held from 19-21 January 2002, in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The technical scope will include power generation from offshore wind, waves, current and tidal schemes. The conference will also consider future technologies, in the medium- to long-term time frame, to address the technical issues for future development of these renewable energy sources. For more information, contact: A.K.M. Sadrul Islam (Secretariat), Convenor; fax: +880-2-861-3046; e-mail: sadrul@me.buet.edu

SECOND PREPCOM FOR THE 2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: This meeting of the CSD acting as the Preparatory Committee will take place from 28 January - 8 February 2002, at UN headquarters in New York. It will review the results of national and regional preparatory processes, examine the main policy report of the Secretary-General, and convene a Multi-stakeholder Dialogue. For more information, contact: Andrey Vasilyev, DESA; tel: +1-212-963-5949; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: vasilyev@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10; Major groups contact: Zehra Aydin-Sipos, DESA; tel: +1-212-963-8811; fax: +1-212-963-1267; e-mail: aydin@un.org

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON FINANCING FOR DEVELOPMENT: The UN International Conference on Financing for Development will be held in February/March 2002 in Mexico. It will bring together high-level representatives from governments, the United Nations, and other leading international trade, finance and development-related organizations. The Preparatory Committee is expected to meet in New York from 2-8 May 2001, in October/ November at a date to be decided and from 14-25 January 2002. For more information, contact: Financing for Development Coordinating Secretariat, United Nations Headquarters, New York, Harris Gleckman, tel: +1-212-963-4690; e-mail: gleckman@un.org or Federica Pietracci, tel: +1-212-963-8497; e-mail: pietracci@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/esa/ffd

THIRD PREPCOM FOR THE 2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: This meeting of the CSD acting as the Preparatory Committee will take place from 18-29 March 2002 or from 1-19 April 2002, at UN Headquarters in New York. It is expected to produce the first draft of a "review" document and elements of the future work programme of the CSD. For more information, contact: Andrey Vasilyev, DESA; tel: +1-212-963-5949; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: vasilyev@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10; Major groups contact: Zehra Aydin-Sipos, DESA; tel: +1-212-963-8811; fax: +1-212-963-1267; e-mail: aydin@un.org

FOURTH PREPCOM FOR THE 2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: This meeting will take place from 6-17 May 2002, in Jakarta, Indonesia. It will include Ministerial and Multi-stakeholder Dialogue Segments, and is expected to result in elements for a concise political document to be submitted to the 2002 Summit. For more information, contact: Andrey Vasilyev, DESA; tel: +1-212-963-5949; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: vasilyev@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/rio+10; Major groups contact: Zehra Aydin-Sipos, DESA; tel: +1-212-963-8811; fax: +1-212-963-1267; e-mail: aydin@un.org

WORLD SUMMIT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: The World Summit for Sustainable Development will take place in Johannesburg, South Africa, in September 2002. For more information, contact: Andrey Vasilyev, DESA; tel: +1-212-963-5949; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail: vasilyev@un.org; Internet: http://www.un.org/ rio+10.

This issue of the Earth Negotiations Bulletin � enb@iisd.org is written and edited by Jonathon Hanks jon@iisd.org, Wendy Jackson wendy@iisd.org, Hern�n L�pez hernan@iisd.org, Wagaki Mwangi wagaki@iisd.org, Alison Ormsby alison@iisd.org and Chris Spence chris@iisd.org. The Digital Editors are Leila Mead leila@iisd.org and Ken Tong ken@iisd.org. The Editor is Pamela S. Chasek, Ph.D. pam@iisd.org and the Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James "Kimo" Goree VI kimo@iisd.org. The Operations Manager is Marcela Rojo marcela@iisd.org and the On-Line Assistant is Diego Noguera diego@iisd.org. The Sustaining Donors of the Bulletin are the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Government of Canada (through CIDA), the United States (through USAID), the Swiss Agency for Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL), the United Kingdom (through the Department for International Development - DFID, and the Foreign & Commonwealth Office), the European Commission (DG-ENV), the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Government of Germany (through German Federal Ministry of Environment - BMU, and the German Federal Ministry of Development Cooperation - BMZ). General Support for the Bulletin during 2001 is provided by the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Austria, the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Environment of Norway, the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Environment of Finland, the Government of Australia, the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Sweden, the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Japan Ministry of Environment (through the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies - IGES). The Bulletin can be contacted by e-mail at enb@iisd.org and at tel: +1-212-644-0204; fax: +1-212-644-0206. IISD can be contacted by e-mail at info@iisd.ca and at 161 Portage Avenue East, 6th Floor, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 0Y4, Canada. The opinions expressed in the Earth Negotiations Bulletin are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and other funders. Excerpts from the Earth Negotiations Bulletin may be used in non-commercial publications only and only with appropriate academic citation. For permission to use this material in commercial publications, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services. Electronic versions of the Bulletin are sent to e-mail distribution lists and can be found on the Linkages WWW server at http://enb.iisd.org. Free subscriptions available at http://iisd.ca/enb/email.asp. The satellite image was taken above New York �2001 The Living Earth, Inc. For information on the Earth Negotiations Bulletin, or to arrange for reporting from your conference or workshop send e-mail to kimo@iisd.org.

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