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The special vulnerability of SIDS to this problem was highlighted, particularly in view of reduced land surface in these countries. A more controversial element was the issue of hazardous and toxic wastes and the outstanding question of transboundary movement of these substances and the use of SIDS and their territorial seas for the disposal of waste generated by other States. The right of SIDS to refuse entry of hazardous substances into their territory was also mentioned. This issue was not resolved and the text remained in brackets. Measures likely to alleviate these problems include emission discharge and pollution standards, promoting awareness and education, ratification and implementation of the relevant conventions and the development of regional and international cooperation.