Published by the
International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)
Vol. 12 No. 195
Monday, 10 June 2002
UNFCCC SB-16 HIGHLIGHTS
FRIDAY-SATURDAY, 7-8 JUNE 2002
On Friday, SBSTA convened in the morning to
continue consideration of cooperation with relevant international
organizations and to discuss UNFCCC Article 6 (education, training
and public awareness), the relationship between efforts to protect
the stratospheric ozone layer and to safeguard the global climate
system, and the special circumstances of Croatia under UNFCCC
Article 4.6 (flexibility for Annex I Parties with economies in
transition). Contact groups met throughout the day to consider
Protocol Articles 5 (methodological issues), 7 (communication of
information) and 8 (review of information), LULUCF under the CDM,
reporting and review of greenhouse gas inventories, the IPCC TAR,
Article 6, and policies and measures (P&Ms). The contact group on
AIJ completed its work.
On Saturday, contact groups were convened to
continue work on Articles 5, 7 and 8, the IPCC TAR, P&Ms, greenhouse
gas inventories, and LULUCF under the CDM.
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS: After a
presentation from a representative of RAMSAR, the EU suggested that
SBSTA consider a draft decision on cooperation with other
conventions and, with SWITZERLAND, TUVALU, and NORWAY, proposed
inviting the Secretariat to explore methodological issues relating
to emissions from international transport, and report results to
SB-17. This proposal was opposed by AUSTRALIA, the US and SAUDI
ARABIA. The EU said it is considering applying unilateral measures
to reduce emissions from international transport if no significant
progress is achieved within the International Civil Aviation
Organization (ICAO) and International Maritime Organization (IMO).
Chair Thorgeirsson said he would prepare draft conclusions on
cooperation with UN bodies, and that informal consultations would be
conducted on cooperation with other conventions.
ARTICLE 6: On education, training, and public
awareness, IPCC Executive Secretary Geoffrey Love reported on the
status of translation of IPCC documents into UN languages other than
English. Parties discussed the report from a recent workshop to
develop a work programme on Article 6 activities (FCCC/SBSTA/
2002/INF.10). Many Parties welcomed the discussion on the issue.
MALAYSIA, SENEGAL, NAMIBIA, BRAZIL, and ERITREA underscored the need
for Article 6 activities to be country driven. A contact group was
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OZONE AND CLIMATE EFFORTS:
Chair Thorgeirsson recalled a COP-5 decision (17/ CP.5)
requesting information on available and potential ways and means of
limiting emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons
(PFCs), including their use as replacements for ozone-depleting
substances. Several Parties stressed the importance of the IPCC and
the Technical and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP) of the Montreal
Protocol in providing information on this matter. INDIA said
reduction in the use of HFCs and PFCs could affect developing
countries’ economies. The US said actions undertaken to reduce HCFs
and PFCs must not undermine the phase-out of ozone-depleting
substances. SWITZERLAND favored a draft decision outlining actions
for presentation to COP-8. The EU noted that despite the current low
contribution of HFCs and PFCs to total greenhouse gas emissions,
efforts are necessary to avoid significant growth in these
emissions. Chair Thorgeirsson said Richard Bradley (US) would
undertake informal consultations on this issue.
OTHER MATTERS: Parties addressed the proposal
by Croatia under UNFCCC Article 4.6 to adjust the base year for its
greenhouse gas inventory from 1990 to 1991. CROATIA, supported by
CG-11, stressed its special circumstances. The EU urged careful
consideration of this matter, and said that implementation of
Article 4.6 must not undermine the integrity of the Protocol. UGANDA
cautioned that a decision on this matter would set a precedent under
this Article. Chair Thorgeirsson asked Jim Penman (UK) to facilitate
informal consultations to prepare draft conclusions and a possible
draft decision on this matter.
ARTICLES 5, 7 AND 8: On Friday, the contact
group considered the draft document on the expedited procedure for
the review for reinstatement of eligibility to use the mechanisms,
while a small drafting group worked on overall timeframes.
Participants agreed that Parties should give advance notice to the
Secretariat on requests for a review. The EU and INDIA supported
extending review time, if necessary, to ensure thoroughness.
AUSTRALIA and others opposed this, stressing resource implications
and the Party’s responsibility to provide information.
On Saturday, the group reviewed the parts of the
guidelines under Articles 7 and 8 pending since COP-7, namely:
reporting of supplementary information under Article 7.1; reporting
of supplementary information under Article 7.2; review of
information on assigned amounts pursuant to Article 3.7 and 3.8,
ERUs, CERs, AAUs and RMUs; and review of national registries.
BRAZIL, for the G-77/CHINA, said it was waiting for outcomes from
the group on LULUCF under the CDM. NEW ZEALAND distributed a
non-paper to facilitate work.
Co-Chair Helen Plume asked delegates to submit
any proposals on review of national registries in writing to the
Secretariat and said a new copy of the Working Paper incorporating
Party views would be available Monday morning. Parties also engaged
in an initial exchange of views on review of demonstrable progress
under Article 3.2, to be revisited during SBSTA’s second week. The
Secretariat distributed draft conclusions.
AIJ: The contact group on the uniform
reporting format (URF) for AIJ under the pilot phase completed its
work on the draft revised URF (FCCC/SB/2000/6/Add.1) on Friday.
Delegates agreed to several amendments to the sections on
summarizing the AIJ project and on financing, and approved the draft
annexes. Following informal consultations, participants approved the
section on mutually agreed assessment procedures. They also inserted
a sentence in the chapeau clarifying that the content provided by
the revised URF is "for informational purposes only and should not
be construed as adopting the underlying concepts."
Parties concluded their work by approving draft
conclusions for consideration by SBSTA, as well as a draft COP-8
decision. The draft conclusions agree on the revised URF and
encourage Parties involved in AIJ to submit reports using this URF.
The draft decision adopts the revised URF and urges Parties involved
in AIJ to use it.
GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORIES: On Friday,
Co-Chair Newton Paciornik reminded Parties of the work ahead,
including the revision of outstanding text on reporting guidelines,
the common reporting format (CRF) tables, and pending issues held
over from Thursday. The EU read a proposal for a new paragraph on
capturing carbon from flue gases and Co-Chair Paciornik deferred it
for consideration at a later meeting. On uncertainties for
reporting, CANADA said these should be quantified and reported, but
not in the CRF, which compares data across parties. PERU recommended
the inclusion of uncertainties, while the US said uncertainties
should fall under national inventory reporting (NIR). On the NIR,
Co-Chair Paciornik said the EU, CHINA, PERU and US should elaborate
a solution to unresolved differences. CHINA opposed a US proposal
that CRF tables contain key source categories, proposing that
uncertainties cover all categories. Co-Chair Audun Rosland invited
Parties to reach conclusions on pending issues by Saturday morning.
A sub-group met in the evening to consider the CRF tables, with key
outstanding issues including table 7 on uncertainties for key
sources (FCCC/SBSTA/2002/2/ Add.3).
On Saturday, Co-Chair Rosland explained the
technical sub-group’s proposed editorial changes to the tables of
the CRF, and outlined proposals for resolving pending issues,
including those relating to base-years, key sources and
uncertainties. Discussion focused on the proposed structure of NIR,
on when to use "shall" or "should" in the guidelines, and on how the
guidelines will apply to Parties that choose 1995 as their baseline
under Protocol Article 3.8.
LULUCF UNDER THE CDM: This group met in
afternoon and evening sessions on Friday and an evening session on
Saturday. On Friday, Co-Chair Karsten Sach introduced a revised TOR
and agenda for work to develop definitions and modalities for
including LULUCF under the CDM. Participants debated how to take
into consideration accounting, reporting and review aspects when
developing these, as proposed by the G-77/CHINA. CANADA cautioned
against moving beyond the group’s mandate.
The G-77/CHINA suggested compiling an options
paper on modalities for accounting, reporting and review aspects,
while the EU, CANADA and JAPAN preferred integrating these issues
into the other options papers. In the agenda for work, CHINA
proposed moving up deadlines to allow more time for preparation.
Regarding submissions on modalities, MALAYSIA stressed the need for
initial exchange of views.
On Saturday, Parties agreed on text relating to
draft TOR and an agenda for work to develop definitions and
modalities, including afforestation and reforestation activities
under the CDM. On definitions, Parties discussed a Canadian proposal
to change the baseline year under definitions of "reforestation"
from 1989 to 1999.
IPCC TAR: On Friday evening, delegates met to
consider the Co-Chairs’ proposed draft conclusions on how the TAR
can support the work of the UNFCCC subsidiary bodies, particularly
the SBSTA. Co-Chair Rawleston Moore requested views on elements
omitted from the draft conclusions, and CHINA suggested specific
issues related to technology transfer, which the G-77/CHINA
suggested could be addressed by the Expert Group on Technology
Transfer (EGTT). The EU suggested a greater focus on the IPCC
Special Report on Technology Transfer.
Parties continued their deliberations on Saturday
morning, basing their discussions on a Co-Chairs’ list of issues
raised Friday, including financial matters, the Protocol,
adaptation, science and organizing principles. CHINA said any
discussion on the Protocol should consider the impacts of
implementation, and SAUDI ARABIA called for a scientific assessment
of these impacts. On adaptation, Co-Chair David Warrilow noted that
no specific subsidiary body agenda item addresses adaptation. The
G-77/ CHINA supported more information on adaptation policy options,
and JAPAN said a mitigation portfolio was also necessary. A revised
text will be prepared by the Co-Chairs.
ARTICLE 6: Parties suggested key
words/concepts to guide the Co-Chairsï¿½ work in clarifying a draft
work programme on facilitating the implementation of Article 6,
including: "country driven," "appropriate international support and
funding," "information exchange," "cost effectiveness," "integration
within sustainable development priorities," "targeted audiences,"
"practical," and "sustained." On the objectives of the work
programme, the US and others suggested using those contained in
Article 6. On priorities, Parties discussed identifying financial
resources, facilitating the exchange of information and improving
IPCC outreach as short-term needs, and improving national
communications, evaluation methods, and education curricula. The
group will reconvene Monday to consider draft conclusions and a
draft COP decision.
POLICIES AND MEASURES (P&Ms): The contact
group on P&Ms met on Friday night and Saturday afternoon. On Friday,
Co-Chair Pierre Giroux (Canada) outlined the relevant COP-7 decision
(13/CP.7) and requested comments on how to move forward on
implementing this decision.
Several Parties emphasized the value of
exchanging information and sharing experiences. AUSTRALIA and the US
supported a stock taking exercise to review available information,
including from recent workshops. SAMOA, speaking for AOSIS, said the
stock taking exercise is set for SB-17. He endorsed continuing
information exchange, an examination of policy formulation
processes, and sectoral analysis. The EU called for a work programme
to support concrete activities. SWITZERLAND suggested developing a
scoping paper addressing topics such as reporting and review, and
methodological issues. The US proposed information sharing on
cost-benefit analyses used to evaluate P&Ms, and JAPAN highlighted
the importance of national circumstances.
On Saturday, Co-Chair Giroux introduced a
one-page document containing a table reflecting issues raised the
previous evening. The table included headings on the consideration
of initial results from actions taken under the COP-7 decision, and
on a framework for action. Several Parties said the table was a
useful basis for their work, and made suggestions for amendments or
additions to the headings and content. Co-Chair Giroux said text
would be developed based on Partiesï¿½ comments and would be available
IN THE CORRIDORS
The "hot" issue among delegates over the weekend
had less to do with climate change than with national pride. As
negotiations continued on Friday and Saturday, many participantsï¿½
attention seemed to be on events thousands of miles away in Asia ï¿½
and, perhaps surprisingly, it was not those taking place in Bali.
Dozens of delegates had their eyes glued to
television screens showing the latest World Cup action, with many
seemingly unable to tear themselves away from "crucial" games such
as Englandï¿½s thriller against Argentina. The level of interest was
so great that delegates postponed a LULUCF meeting to avoid a clash
with Brazilï¿½s fixture against China. Indeed, the passion displayed
for the "beautiful game" here in Bonn had one observer jokingly
questioning what further tense clashes on the pitch might mean for
On a more serious note, Canadaï¿½s proposal to
change the baseline year for "reforestation" caused a flurry of
diplomatic activity late Saturday night.
THINGS TO LOOK FOR TODAY
SBI: The first meeting of the SBI will
convene at 10:00 am in Plenary I. The SBI is scheduled to consider
its entire agenda, including national communications, review of the
financial mechanism, and other issues.
CONTACT GROUPS: Contact groups will be held
on the IPCC TAR, greenhouse gas inventories, and other issues. Check
the television monitors for further details.