12 No. 308
12 AND COP/MOP 2 highlights:
twelfth Conference of the Parties (COP 12) to the
UN Framework Convention
on Climate Change (UNFCCC) began on Monday morning with an opening
ceremony, speeches and consideration of organizational matters. This was
followed in the afternoon by the opening of the second Conference of the
Parties serving as the Meeting of Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (COP/MOP
2). The Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) and Subsidiary Body for
Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) began their work, and the Ad
Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto
Protocol (AWG) also convened briefly late in the afternoon.
12 OPENING SESSION
Moody Awori, Vice-President of Kenya, officially opened the meeting. He
noted that sub-Saharan Africa will be among the regions hardest hit by
climate change and called for an environmentally sound and equitable
global strategy to provide a post-2012 response to climate change.
Tibaijuka, Director-General of the UN Office at Nairobi and UN-HABITAT’s
Executive Director, noted that the biggest environmental and human
settlement challenges are in developing countries.
a video address, COP 11 President Rona Ambrose (Canada) underscored the
need to find a truly effective global solution to climate change.
COP elected by acclamation Kivutha Kibwana, Kenya’s Minister of
Environment and Natural Resources, as President of COP 12. President
Kibwana said the Stern Review has highlighted the economic consequences of
climate change. He identified key conference goals, including: agreeing on
concrete activities for the five-year programme of work on adaptation;
encouraging equitable distribution of CDM projects; and using the review
of the mandate of the Expert Group on Technology Transfer (EGTT) for
“new thinking” on technology transfer.
Executive Secretary Yvo
de Boer highlighted moving from assessment to action on adaptation,
strengthening and making the CDM more accessible, Joint Implementation,
technology transfer, and maintaining momentum in talks on the future.
agreed to continue applying the draft rules of procedure with the
exception of draft rule 42 on voting (FCCC/CP/1996/2). The COP then
considered its agenda (FCCC/CP/2006/1 and Add.1). President Kibwana noted
no consensus on the item on second review of the adequacy of UNFCCC
Article 4. 2(a) and (b) (policies and measures). The item was held in
abeyance. Regarding an item on small island developing States (SIDS), the
US noted overlaps with other agenda items, while TUVALU said removing this
item would send a signal that the international community is unconcerned
about SIDS’ welfare. JAMAICA clarified that Tuvalu was not speaking for
all AOSIS members on this issue. President Kibwana said he would consult
informally, and parties adopted the agenda with this item in abeyance.
election of the Bureau, President Kibwana said current members would
remain until the new Bureau was finalized. Parties also adopted the list
of observers (FCCC/CP/2006/2). On the organization of work, Richard Kinley,
Secretary of the Conference, identified a number of issues that would be
taken up by SBI and SBSTA. President Kibwana noted agreement at SB 24 that
meetings after 6:00 pm should only be held under exceptional
circumstances, and said the Bureau would decide whether such circumstances
ABOUT THE BASE YEAR OF KAZAKHSTAN:
KAZAKHSTAN reported on its greenhouse gas emissions inventory, requesting
that 1992 be adopted as the base year for determining quantitative
commitments. He also noted his country’s forthcoming ratification of the
Kyoto Protocol. The RUSSIAN FEDERATION, UKRAINE, TURKMENISTAN and BELARUS
welcomed Kazakhstan’s intention to take on voluntary commitments and
ratify the Protocol. Finland, on behalf of the EU, said amending the
Protocol’s Annex B at COP 12 is not possible. She encouraged Kazakhstan
to first ratify the Protocol and defer consideration of its request to
COP/MOP 3. Normand Tremblay (Canada) will hold informal consultations.
Africa, for the G-77/CHINA, urged agreement on the five-year work
programme on adaptation and the Adaptation Fund, supported a wider mandate
for the EGTT, and called for initiating a process to consider the GEF’s
Resource Allocation Framework (RAF).
emphasized the need for technological and financial assistance for
adaptation. The EU highlighted the Stern Review, stressed the need for
long-term action where adaptation complements mitigation, and suggested
exploring new strategies under the Montreal Action Plan.
for the AFRICAN GROUP, noted that sub-Saharan Africa only accounts for
1.7% of CDM projects. He underscored priorities such as the adaptation
work programme, the SCCF, and the LDC and Adaptation Funds. Bangladesh,
for the LDCs, underscored compensation for victims of climate change and
immediate funding and implementation of completed National Adaptation
Plans of Action.
for the UMBRELLA GROUP, highlighted the prospects for outcomes from the
review of the Protocol under Article 9, adaptation and technology
transfer, the AWG and the Russian proposal on voluntary commitments. SAUDI
ARABIA called for progress on the issue of the impacts on developing
countries arising from countries’ responses to climate change. TUVALU
appealed for progress on the Montreal Action Plan, resources for
adaptation and capacity building.
2 opening session
12 President Kibwana opened COP/MOP 2. On organizational issues, he noted
some parties’ concerns with an agenda item relating to consultations on
the Russian proposal to develop appropriate procedures for the approval of
voluntary commitments. Parties agreed to the provisional agenda (FCCC/KP/CMP/2006/1)
the item on the Russian proposal held in abeyance, and invited SBSTA Chair
Kishan Kumarsingh (Trinidad and Tobago) to hold consultations with a view
to adopting the agenda on 9 November.
outlined its proposal to amend Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol and expressed
hope that a decision would be reached at this meeting. The EU stressed the
need to operationalize the Adaptation Fund and strengthen the capacities
of the LDCs to implement CDM projects. She highlighted the need to review
and enhance the Protocol in accordance with its Article 9. The G-77/CHINA
urged progress on adaptation and improving the geographical distribution
of CDM projects.
Chair Kumarsingh opened SBSTA’s 25th session. Parties adopted the agenda
(FCCC/SBSTA/2006/6), with the item on SIDS held in abeyance pending
consultations under COP 12.
PROGRAMME OF WORK ON ADAPTATION: Parties
stressed the importance of finalizing the programme of work, with many
calling for it to lead to concrete action. The EU and CANADA supported
proceeding on the basis of draft text from SBSTA 24, while the US noted
willingness to consider new consolidated text. The G-77/CHINA highlighted
the need to ensure that agreed activities and modalities are not
renegotiated. Chair Kumarsingh introduced SBSTA 24 text with technical
corrections but no substantial changes. This text will be used in contact
group discussions co-chaired by Helen Plume (New Zealand) and Leon Charles
Secretariat introduced this issue (FCCC/SBSTA/2006/MISC.10 and Add.1,
FCCC/SBSTA/2006/INF.8). EGTT Chair Bernard Mazijn
(Belgium) reported on EGTT’s work and annual report. Ghana, for
G-77/CHINA, underscored a technology transfer fund and adaptation
technologies, while the US expressed some concerns about such a fund. The
REPUBLIC OF KOREA, AUSTRALIA, SWITZERLAND, EU, and others supported
continuation of EGTT. JAPAN said technology needs assessments (TNAs)
should be regarded as an integral part of sustainable development
strategies for developing countries. CHINA called for a multilateral
mechanism for financing technology transfer. UGANDA stressed that
negotiations are about technology transfer under the Convention, “not
under the market.” He noted that CDM does not address technology
transfer. CANADA noted synergies between EGTT and CSD 14. Carlos Fuller
(Belize) and Kunihiko Shimada (Japan) will chair a contact group.
Chair Thomas Becker (Denmark) opened SBI 25. The meeting’s agenda (FCCC/SBI/2006/12
and Add.1) was adopted, with the item on SIDS held in abeyance.
The Secretariat introduced the report on national greenhouse gas inventory
data from Annex I parties (FCCC/SBI/2006/26). The EU noted that, while the
total aggregated greenhouse gas emissions recorded by Annex I parties have
decreased between 1990 and 2004, there has been an upward trend in recent
years. He called for additional policies and measures in Annex I countries
and expressed confidence the EU will meet its Kyoto targets. AUSTRALIA
expressed concern with the way national greenhouse gas inventory data are
presented in the report, especially exclusion of LULUCF data.
I COMMUNICATIONS: Lilian
Portillo (Paraguay), for the Consultative Group of Experts (CGE),
presented a report on regional training workshops on vulnerability and
adaptation, and greenhouse gas inventories (FCCC/SBI/2006/25). Chair
Becker announced that CGE membership will be the subject of informal
consultations. SWITZERLAND and CUBA called for the extension of CGE’s
mandate. The US called on the CGE to shift its focus to ensuring
consistency of reporting.
improving access to financial and technical support (FCCC/SBI/2006/24 and
FCCC/SBI/2006/MISC.14), the CGE, supported by the EU, highlighted linking
the preparation of communications with sustainable development and poverty
reduction strategies. The G-77/CHINA urged the GEF to improve the
efficiency of its funding process. Arthur Rolle (Bahamas) and Henriette
Bersee (Netherlands) will conduct informal consultations.
FINANCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL MATTERS: Financial statements for 2004-2005:
The Secretariat introduced this issue (FCCC/SBI/2006/14 and Adds.1&2),
noting that: previous recommendations have increased transparency in
reporting and internal controls; some recommendations in the current
report are already being implemented; and addressing late payment of
contributions requires parties’ cooperation.
performance for the biennium 2006-2007:
The Secretariat reported on its expenditures over the first six months of
2006 (FCCC/SBI/2006/15) and status of contributions under the UNFCCC and
Kyoto Protocol Trust Funds (FCCC/SBI/2006/INF.6). He noted that the Trust
Funds remain the main source of funding for core activities and expressed
hope the CDM will soon become self-financed. SWITZERLAND welcomed the
expansion of the global carbon market but said the UNFCCC needed to
consider its future role. CHINA highlighted imbalances in UNFCCC staff
from Annex I and non-Annex I parties, and the PHILIPPINES added that
resource allocation should reflect the views of developing countries.
review of the Secretariat:
The EU noted substantial work on this issue. Stressing the Secretariatï¿½s
high standards and effectiveness, she suggested that this item be
Dovland (Norway) will conduct informal consultations on administrative,
financial and institutional matters.
MATTERS: Levels of emissions for the base year of Croatia:
The Secretariat noted a COP 11 decision confirming flexibility under
UNFCCC Article 4.6 (flexibility for EITs) on Croatiaï¿½s base year
emissions, with the details to be finalized later. Jim Penman (UK) will
conduct informal consultations.
Chair Michael Zammit Cutajar opened AWG 2 and highlighted two main items
on its agenda, on further commitments and the length of commitments for
Annex I parties, and on the work plan and schedule of future sessions.
Parties adopted the agenda (FCCC/KP/AWG/2006/3). Luiz Alberto Figueiredo
Machado (Brazil) briefed delegates on an AWG in-session workshop scheduled
for Tuesday, 7 November.
delegates were heard commenting on how smoothly the first day had gone
logistically, especially considering pre-meeting concerns about how the
UNï¿½s beautiful but relatively small Office at Nairobi might cope with an
estimated 6000 delegates. However, substantive issues appeared to be
causing more concerns, with fears over whether negotiators will be able to
navigate their way through such a heavy agenda now that evening sessions
are ruled out except under ï¿½exceptional circumstances.ï¿½ There was also
grumbling among some delegates that SBSTA had already broken the new
ï¿½6:00 pm ruleï¿½ by meeting until close to 7:00 pm. Others, however,
argued that some flexibility on evening sessions will be essential.