The Bonn Climate Change Conference opened on Monday. In the morning, after opening statements, the SBSTA opening plenary took place. In the afternoon, the SBI opening plenary, convened, followed by the resumed SBSTA opening plenary. An in-session workshop on exploring financing and the use of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a SBSTA contact group, and SBSTA and SBI and informal consultations convened in the afternoon.
COP 21/CMP 11 President Ségolène Royal, France, opened the session. Receiving a standing ovation in gratitude for her service, UNFCCC Executive Secretary Christiana Figueres announced that “today marks a new era for all of us.”
COP 22/CMP 12 President-Designate Salaheddine Mezouar, Morocco, said COP 22 will be one of action, and emphasized a focus on climate finance, agriculture and resilience.
COP 21 President Royal called on negotiators to act as “builders,” working from the foundation laid in Paris.
During the opening statements, several groups highlighted the importance of building on the Paris Agreement, taking pre-2020 action and providing means of implementation (MOI).
Thailand, for the G-77/CHINA, underscored that action on adaptation and loss and damage cannot be deferred to after 2020.
The EU underlined the importance of domestic implementation of INDCs. Australia, for the UMBRELLA GROUP, called COP 22 an “implementation and action COP.”
Switzerland, for the ENVIRONMENTAL INTEGRITY GROUP (EIG), underscored the need to maintain the substance and balance of the Paris outcome. Colombia, for the INDEPENDENT ALLIANCE OF LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (AILAC), called for a coherent and balanced set of recommendations for the CMA.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo, for the LDCs, noted that vulnerable countries are “leading the way to put the Paris Agreement into action.”
Panama, for the COALITION FOR RAINFOREST NATIONS (CFRN), called for clear rules on transparency and market mechanisms.
Mali, for the AFRICAN GROUP, said COP 22 should prioritize: ensuring a comprehensive and rules-based process; crystalizing adaptation action; and elaborating the technology framework.
Maldives, for ALLIANCE OF SMALL OF ISLAND STATES (AOSIS), and Honduras, for the CENTRAL AMERICAN INTEGRATION SYSTEM (SICA) called for scaling up climate action.
Saudi Arabia, for the ARAB GROUP, emphasized commitment to the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities (CBDRRC), and procedural transparency and inclusiveness.
India, for BRAZIL, SOUTH AFRICA, INDIA AND CHINA (BASIC), noted the importance of the transparency framework, including of support.
Jordan, for the LIKE-MINDED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (LMDCs), called for treating all issues with the same degree of importance and recalibrating the bodies’ agendas as necessary.
LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AND MUNICIPAL AUTHORITIES (LGMA) called for coordinating with other bodies, including the Habitat III process.
WOMEN AND GENDER warned against falling into complacency and said ambition should be raised.
YOUTH NGOs (YOUNGOs) welcomed the recognition of inter-generational equity in the Paris Agreement. Noting their expertise, INDIGENOUS PEOPLES highlighted the need to respect, protect and fulfill human rights.
CLIMATE ACTION NETWORK (CAN) emphasized civil society’s role in ensuring transparency.
CLIMATE JUSTICE NOW! (CJN!) cautioned against implementing the Paris Agreement using unproven technologies.
BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY NGOs (BINGOs) looked forward to providing their expertise to define common rules for measuring and reporting.
FARMERS stressed the need to ensure that the global response to climate change does not threaten food production.
Chair Carlos Fuller, Belize, opened the session.
ORGANIZATIONAL MATTERS: With an amendment to the agenda sub-item on assessments of the IPCC and the global stocktake to read “Advice on how the assessment of the IPCC can inform the global stocktake referred to in Article 14 of the Paris Agreement,” parties adopted the agenda (FCCC/SBSTA/2016/1) and agreed to the organization of work.
The following items were briefly considered and forwarded to contact groups: scope of the next periodic review of the long-term global goal; response measures: improved forum and work programme; and modalities, work programme and functions under the Paris Agreement; and modalities for the accounting of financial resources in accordance with Article 9.7, of the Paris Agreement.
The following items were briefly considered and forwarded to informal consultations:
- Matters relating to Article 2.3 of the Protocol (response measures);
- Nairobi work programme;
- Technology framework under Article 10.4 of the Paris Agreement;
- Research and systematic observation;
- Advice on how the assessment of the IPCC can inform the global stocktake of Article 14 of the Paris Agreement;
- GHG data interface;
- Common metrics;
- Land use, land-use change and forestry;
- Emissions from international aviation and maritime transport;
- Training programme for review experts for the technical review of Annex I Parties’ GHG inventories;
- Implications of the choice of metrics used for GHGs listed in Annex A to the Protocol;
- Forests in exhaustion;
- Guidance on cooperative approaches;
- Rules, modalities and procedures for the mechanism to contribute to the mitigation of GHG emissions and support sustainable development; and
- Work programme under the framework for non-market approaches.
COOPERATION WITH OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS: In the afternoon, the Secretariat reported on its cooperative activities (FCCC/SBSTA/2016/INF.3). The IPCC reported on IPCC 43 decisions, including on producing a special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.
OTHER MATTERS: Parties took note of the synthesis report on the technical assessment process for proposed forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels (FCCC/SBSTA/2016/INF.2).
The SBSTA plenary then suspended and will reconvene Wednesday, 18 May.
CONTACT GROUPS: MODALITIES FOR ACCOUNTING OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES PROVIDED AND MOBILIZED THROUGH PUBLIC INTERVENTIONS IN ACCORDANCE WITH ARTICLE 9.7 OF THE PARIS AGREEMENT: In the contact group, delegates discussed the mode of work. Maldives, for AOSIS, AUSTRALIA and NEW ZEALAND proposed discussions based on previous work by the SBSTA and the Standing Committee on Finance (SCF). CHINA noted that the COP has not adopted some SCF reports. Co-Chair Outi Honkatukia (Finland) said the Secretariat would make previous reports available and informal consultations would convene Tuesday, 17 May.
COMMON METRICS TO CALCULATE THE CO2 EQUIVALENCE OF GHGs: During informal consultations, some parties wanted to close this item under the SBSTA, noting that the APA is mandated to consider it. Others preferred to hold a technical discussion under the SBSTA. Parties will consider draft conclusions on Wednesday, 18 May.
Chair Tomasz Chruszczow, Poland, opened the session.
ORGANIZATIONAL MATTERS: Chair Chruszczow invited parties to adopt the provisional agenda (FCCC/2016/SBI/1) with the sub-item on information contained in national communications from non-Annex I parties to the Convention held in abeyance. He said that SBI Vice-Chair Zhihua Chen (China) would convene informal consultations on this sub-item.
Thailand, for the G-77/CHINA, supported by SAUDI ARABIA and opposed by Australia, for the UMBRELLA GROUP, and the EU, called for amending the agenda item on the registry of NDCs by removing a reference to Paris Agreement Article 4.12 (on a public registry for NDCs) from its title. Chair Chruszczow reported that many parties had called for consideration of capturing adaptation efforts in a public registry.
After some debate, Chair Chruszczow proposed, and parties agreed, to adopt the agenda with the sub-item on non-Annex I national communications held in abeyance, and without the item on the NDC registry, on which parties agreed to hold further consultations for a way forward.
REPORTING FROM NON-ANNEX I PARTIES: Provision of financial and technical support: The GEF reported on its activities relating to the preparation of biennial update reports (BURs). IRAN noted the unresponsiveness of the GEF Secretariat to its inquiries on why project support was not received. Chair Chruszczow will hold informal consultations with interested parties to draft conclusions.
Summary reports on the technical analysis of BURs: The SBI took note of the summary reports on the technical analysis of BURs published since SBI 43.
The following agenda items were briefly considered and forwarded to contact groups:
- National adaptation plans;
- Third review of the Adaptation Fund;
- Third review of the implementation of the capacity-building framework under the Convention;
- Third review of the implementation of the capacity-building framework under the Protocol;
- Terms of reference for the Paris Committee on Capacity-building;
- Modalities, work programme and functions under the Paris Agreement of the forum on the impact of the implementation of response measures;
- Matters relating to Article 3.14 of the Protocol;
- Progress on the implementation of decision 1/CP.10;
- The scope of the next periodic review of the long-term global goal under the Convention and of overall progress towards achieving it;
- Gender; and
- Arrangements for intergovernmental meetings.
The following agenda items were briefly considered and forwarded to informal consultations:
- Compilation and synthesis of sixth national communications and first biennial reports from Annex I parties;
- Scope and modalities for the periodic assessment of the Technology Mechanism in relation to supporting the implementation of the Paris Agreement;
- Review of the Doha work programme on UNFCCC Article 6;
- Facilitative sharing of views under the international consultation and analysis process;
- Status of submission and review of second biennial reports from Annex I parties;
- Outcome of the first round of the international assessment and review process (2014–2015);
- Revision of the UNFCCC reporting guidelines on national communications;
- Review of CDM modalities and procedures;
- Review of the joint implementation guidelines;
- Procedures, mechanisms and institutional arrangements for appeals against CDM Executive Board (EB) decisions; and
Matters relating to the LDCs.
Chair Chruszczow suspended the session, which will reconvene on Tuesday, 17 May.
WORKSHOP: EXPLORING FINANCING AND USE OF THE CDM BY INTERNATIONAL CLIMATE FINANCE INSTITUTIONS
The workshop considered experiences in financing CDM projects, and explored barriers to and opportunities for utilizing the CDM to support climate financing activities. Speakers suggested making the CDM pipeline available for climate finance from the GCF, noted the CDM plays a minimal role in a growing but primarily self-labeling green bond market, and advocated certifying finance that is compatible with NDCs. One panelist emphasized that results-based finance is one of multiple financial tools that together can deliver results. Others urged recognizing the trade-offs between certainty in accounting with speed in registration. Recommendations for the CDM included changing the EB from a political to a professional body and considering new metrics, such as carbon intensity. Participants debated the CDM’s potential to fund adaptation and underscored the need to distinguish climate finance from offsetting.
IN THE CORRIDORS
After a well-deserved break from negotiations, refreshed delegates arrived at the World Conference Center Bonn. Many parties indicated readiness to start “putting some flesh onto the bones of the Paris Agreement.” Indeed, the words “unity” and “momentum” seemed omnipresent, with one participant pointing to the strong message sent by the 177 parties that have already signed the Paris Agreement.
While one delegate warned of the dangers of becoming “dizzy with euphoria,” some concerns rose that the SBI agenda item on the registry of NDCs mandated by the Paris outcome did not adequately reflect adaptation. Others expressed concern with the proposed APA agenda, but seemed hopeful that consultations would pave the way for a smooth start to its substantive work. Most countries indeed seemed to be determined to “ride the wave” of goodwill generated by Paris.