On Thursday, 17 November, the UN Climate Change Conference continued in Marrakech, Morocco. In the morning, the High-Level Event on Accelerating Climate Action took place. Contact groups on climate finance under the COP also convened.
In the afternoon, informal consultations took place under the COP Presidency on the convening of CMA 1, and under the COP on entry into force of the Paris Agreement.
In the evening, the first parts of the COP and CMP closing plenaries took place.
The joint high-level segment continued throughout the day. A webcast of the joint high-level segment is available at:
HIGH-LEVEL EVENT ON ACCELERATING CLIMATE ACTION
COP 22 President Salaheddine Mezouar opened the event.
President Hilda Heine, Marshall Islands, urged delegates to turn from celebration to implementation, and progress on mitigation, adaptation, and loss and damage.
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon stressed the power of partnership in multilateral climate negotiations and commended the two Global Climate Action Champions’ work, saying action is unstoppable.
Global Climate Action Champions Hakima El Haité and Laurence Tubiana announced the launch of the Marrakech Partnership for Global Climate Action, to provide a stable basis for governments and non-state actors to align their efforts in 2017-2020.
Tubiana said the Partnership aims to make the Action Agenda more coherent, robust and organized, including through a structured plan of meetings to yield tangible results.
El Haité welcomed the new Global Climate Action Champion Inia Seruiratu, Minister for Agriculture, Rural and Maritime Development and National Disaster Management, Fiji.
In the second part of the event, on recognizing progress and identifying opportunities, rapporteurs and panelists shared results from the Action Days held during COP 22.
On forests, speakers stressed the need for accelerated investment, integrated approaches on forests, land use and land management, and that “the forest agenda has to ensure indigenous land titles and their link to forests.”
Stressing that “water is climate and climate is water,” speakers underscored that “the time of easy access to water has ended,” and consumers and businesses have an important role in responsible water management.
On agriculture and food security, speakers noted Morocco’s Adaptation of African Agriculture initiative and an FAO initiative on water use efficiency, and stressed the need to address food waste and shift to responsible consumption.
On oceans, speakers underscored the need for integrated and scalable solutions providing food, risk prevention and other services, and the importance of investments in nature-based infrastructure solutions.
On business and industry, speakers highlighted 360 US businesses’ call to the current and incoming US administration to support the goals of the Paris Agreement, and called for, inter alia, financial disclosure, economic signals and long-term roadmaps.
On transport, speakers announced the launch of a global roadmap for accelerated action on transport, with the goal of reducing sectoral emissions from “7.7 gigatonnes to less than three in 2050.”
On cities and human settlements, speakers noted a roadmap for climate change and cities announced at a local and regional leaders’ summit in Marrakech, and called for global cooperation in standards and regulations.
On energy, speakers identified as action areas, inter alia: ambitious energy efficiency policies; scaling up energy efficiency investments; enabling frameworks for renewable energy; and commitments from investors.
Representatives of countries and groups announced: the European Fund for Sustainable Development; an initiative for scaling up renewable energy in SIDS; a partnership for sustainable electricity trade between Germany, France, Morocco, Portugal and Spain; and a pledge by Rwanda to ratify the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol in early 2017. Countries also highlighted New Zealand’s efforts on sustainable agriculture and livestock production, and Pakistan’s climate change bill and Green Pakistan Programme.
Opening the third part of the event, on providing and mobilizing finance for climate action, Nicholas Stern, New Climate Economy, stressed the next 20 years are the defining decades for sustainable, inclusive growth.
Panelists called for: deploying budgetary and fiscal policies for NDCs; leveraging public-private finance targets to move from billions to trillions; and allowing green savings to flow towards low-carbon and green initiatives.
Country representatives highlighted: the US$27 billion Dubai Green Fund; Hungary’s support to partner countries’ NDC implementation; and Germany’s Climate Action Plan 2050 and a new US$50 million contribution to the Adaptation Fund.
Other speakers drew attention to: the World Bank’s commitment to doubling finance for climate resilient and sustainable infrastructure, and increasing financing for adaptation; the Marrakech Investment Committee for Adaptation (MICA) Fund; and GEF actions catalyzed since Paris, including 60 mitigation and adaptation projects.
In closing remarks, COP 21 President Ségolène Royal congratulated participants and stakeholders for having taken up the Action Agenda with determination. Stressing that “governments alone cannot deliver the Paris agenda,” UNFCCC Executive Secretary Patricia Espinosa called for wide dissemination of success stories. Frank Bainimarama, Prime Minister, Fiji, said he is aware of the responsibility his country is entrusted with in assuming the COP 23 Presidency.
COP CONTACT GROUPS AND INFORMAL CONSULTATIONS
MATTERS RELATING TO FINANCE: Report of the SCF and Review of the Functions of the SCF: Reporting back from consultations, Co-Chair Outi Honkatukia (Finland) said parties had found a way forward on the remaining paragraph to be agreed, related to the SCF integrating financing for forests-related considerations into its 2017 workplan. The contact group agreed to forward the draft decision to the COP.
Report of the GEF to the COP and Guidance to the GEF: Co-Chair Richard Muyungi (Tanzania) presented a proposal on the remaining paragraphs to be agreed: deleting a paragraph on any additional, newly mandated transparency and capacity building support not being diverted from existing programmes; removing brackets from a paragraph on following policies and procedures in the review of funding proposals; and clarifying a paragraph welcoming the GEF Council’s decision to ensure that support for the CBIT will be included in the seventh replenishment.
With these changes parties agreed to forward the draft decision to the COP.
Long-Term Climate Finance: Reporting on informal informals to the contact group, Co-Chair Andres Mogro (Ecuador) said parties agreed to a set of paragraphs, with the understanding that the draft decision is a “package.” He noted the need to focus on the paragraphs under “scaling up” in particular.
EGYPT, opposed by the US and EU, suggested that two paragraphs were repetitious: a paragraph welcoming developed countries’ progress toward the goal of mobilizing US$100 billion annually by 2020; and paragraph 1, welcoming submissions by developed countries in response to Decision 1/CP.21, paragraph 114 (enhanced provision of, inter alia, finance and a roadmap to US$100 billion). The Philippines, for the G-77/CHINA, and SAUDI ARABIA bracketed paragraph 1.
Co-Chair Georg Børsting (Norway) closed the contact group, saying he would deliver the draft decision to the COP Presidency as the “final product” of the group and report on the unresolved issues.
Opening the meeting, COP 22 President Mezouar introduced the “Marrakech Action Proclamation for Our Climate and Sustainable Development.” Aziz Mekouar, COP 22 Presidency, read out the Proclamation, which received a standing ovation.
Reporting on consultations on CMA 1 and preparations for the entry into force of the Paris Agreement, COP 22 President Mezouar noted that consultations would continue and that proposals for decisions that integrate the viewpoints of all delegations on these matters would be prepared and presented to parties for consideration.
ORGANIZATIONAL MATTERS: Adoption of the Rules of Procedure: Parties agreed to continue consultations on this item (FCCC/CP/1996/2) at COP 23.
REPORTS OF THE SUBSIDIARY BODIES: Report of the SBSTA: The COP took note of reports of SBSTA 44 and 45 (FCCC/SBSTA/2016/2 and L.18), and adopted two decisions, on: implementation of the global observing system for climate (FCCC/SBSTA/2016/L.26/Add.1); and issues relating to agriculture (FCCC/SBSTA/2016/L.23).
Report of the SBI: The COP took note of the reports of SBI 44 and 45 (FCCC/SBI/2016/8 and Add.1, and L.25), and adopted two decisions, on: improving the effectiveness of the Doha work programme on Article 6 of the Convention (FCCC/SBI/2016/8/Add.1); and NAPs (FCCC/SBI/2016/L.32/Add.1).
In addition, the COP adopted two actions recommended by SBI 44 (FCCC/SBI/2016/8): concluding consideration of privileges and immunities for individuals serving on constituted bodies established under the Convention; and changing the submission deadline referred to in Decision 4/CP.21, paragraph 12a (on NAPs) to 4 October 2017.
Report of the APA: The COP took note of the reports of APA 1 and APA 1-2 (FCCC/APA/2016/2 and L.5) and adopted the decision (FCCC/APA/2016/L.4/Add.1).
CONSIDERATION OF PROPOSALS BY PARTIES FOR AMENDMENTS TO THE CONVENTION UNDER ARTICLE 15: Proposal from the Russian Federation to Amend Convention Article 4.2(f): The COP agreed to continue consideration of this sub-item at COP 23.
Proposal from Papua New Guinea and Mexico to Amend Convention Articles 7 and 18: The COP agreed to continue consideration of this sub-item at COP 23.
REPORT OF THE ADAPTATION COMMITTEE: The COP adopted the decision (FCCC/SB/2016/L.4).
WIM: The COP adopted the decisions (FCCC/SB/2016/L.8 and L.9).
DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGIES: Joint Annual Report of the TEC and the CTCN: The COP adopted the decision (FCCC/SB/2016/L.5).
Linkages between the Technology Mechanism and the Financial Mechanism of the Convention: The COP adopted the decision (FCCC/CP/2016/L.6).
REPORTING FROM AND REVIEW OF ANNEX I PARTIES TO THE CONVENTION: The COP adopted a decision from SBI 44 on the outcome of the first round of the IAR process 2014-2015 (FCCC/SBI/2016/8/Add.1).
REPORTING FROM NON-ANNEX I PARTIES TO THE CONVENTION: The COP adopted a decision and conclusions on the work of CGE (FCCC/SBI/2016/L.28/Add.1 and Add.2).
CAPACITY-BUILDING UNDER THE CONVENTION: The COP adopted a decision from SBI 44 on the PCCB (FCCC/SBI/2016/8/Add.1) and the third comprehensive review of the implementation of the framework for capacity-building under the Convention (FCCC/SBI/2016/L.38).
IMPLEMENTATION OF CONVENTION ARTICLE 4.8 AND 4.9: Implementation of the Buenos Aires Programme of Work on Adaptation and Response Measures (Decision 1/CP.10): The COP took note of the conclusions (FCCC/SBSTA/2016/L.22).
MATTERS RELATING TO THE LDCs: The COP took note of the SBI conclusions (FCCC/2016/SBI/L.31).
GENDER AND CLIMATE CHANGE: The COP adopted the decision (FCCC/SBI/2016/L.37).
OTHER MATTERS REFERRED TO THE COP BY THE SUBSIDIARY BODIES: The COP noted that no other matters were raised under this item.
ADMINISTRATIVE, FINANCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL MATTERS: Audit Report and Financial Statements for 2015, and Budget Performance for the Biennium 2016-2017: The COP adopted a decision from SBI 44 on financial and budgetary matters (FCCC/SBI/2016/8/Add.1) and a decision on administrative, financial and institutional matters (FCCC/SBI/2016/L.41/Add.1), which contains the outcomes on the agenda sub-items on the audit report and financial statements for 2015 and budget performance for the biennium 2016-2017.
THE BAHAMAS raised a concern regarding the eligibility criteria to the trust funds and requested this be added to the report of the session, to which the COP 22 President agreed.
Decision-Making in the UNFCCC Process: The COP decided to continue consideration of this item at COP 23.
Review of the Process Established by Decision 14/CP.1 Relating to the Selection and Nomination of the Executive Secretary and the Deputy Executive Secretary: The COP requested the SBI to continue consideration of this item at SBI 46.
The COP suspended at 8:41pm.
ORGANIZATIONAL MATTERS: Status of the Ratification of the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol: CMP 12 President Mezouar informed that the depositary had received the 73th ratification instrument, from Australia, on 9 November 2016, and that 71 instruments are still needed for the Amendment to enter into force. The CMP took note of the call made by the CMP 12 President for all parties to accelerate their domestic procedures to ratify the Amendment.
REPORTS OF THE SUBSIDIARY BODIES: Report of the SBSTA: The CMP took note of the reports of SBSTA 44 and 45 (FCCC/SBSTA/2016/2 and L.18), and adopted a decision on CCS in geological formations as CDM project activities (FCCC/SBSTA/2016/L.19/Add.1).
Report of the SBI: The CMP took note of the reports of SBI 44 and 45 (FCCC/SBI/2016/8 and Add.1, and L.25).
In addition, the CMP adopted an action recommended by SBI 44 (FCCC/SBI/2016/8) on concluding consideration of privileges and immunities for individuals serving on constituted bodies established under the Kyoto Protocol.
MATTERS RELATING TO THE CDM: The CMP adopted a decision on guidelines on the CDM (FCCC/KP/CMP/2016/L.4).
MATTERS RELATING TO JI: The CMP adopted a decision on guidelines on the implementation of Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol (FCCC/KP/CMP/2016/L.2). The CMP also adopted a decision on the review of the JI guidelines (FCCC/SBI/2016/8/Add.1).
MATTERS RELATING TO THE ADAPTATION FUND: Report of the Adaptation Fund Board: The CMP adopted the decision (FCCC/KP/CMP/2016/L.3).
Third Review of the Adaptation Fund: The CMP adopted the decision (FCCC/SBI/2016/8/Add.1). The Bahamas, for the G-77/CHINA, expressed appreciation for the contributions made by donors to the Adaptation Fund and said the group looks forward to ensuring the continuity of the Adaptation Fund serving the Paris Agreement.
REPORT ON THE HIGH-LEVEL MINISTERIAL ROUNDTABLE ON INCREASED AMBITION OF KYOTO PROTOCOL COMMITMENTS: CMP 12 President Mezouar reported that the informal consultations had not yielded consensus on how to proceed and that this item will be on the provisional agenda of CMP 13.
REPORTING FROM AND REVIEW OF PARTIES INCLUDED IN ANNEX I: NCs: The CMP took note of the information.
Final Compilation and Accounting Reports for the First Commitment Period for Annex B Parties under the Kyoto Protocol: The CMP took note of the information.
Annual Compilation and Accounting Report for the Second Commitment Period for Annex B Parties under the Kyoto Protocol: The CMP took note of the information (FCCC/KP/CMP/2016/6 and Add.1).
CAPACITY-BUILDING UNDER THE KYOTO PROTOCOL: The CMP adopted a decision on the third comprehensive review of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries under the Kyoto Protocol (FCCC/SBI/2016/L.39).
Matters Relating to Kyoto Protocol Article 2.3 (Adverse Effects of Policies and Measures): The CMP took note of joint SBSTA and SBI consideration of these items and requested the SBSTA and SBI to continue considering this sub-item at SB 46.
Matters Relating Kyoto Protocol Article 3.14 (Minimizing Adverse Effects): The CMP took note of joint SBSTA and SBI consideration of these items and requested the SBSTA and SBI to continue considering this sub-item at SB 46.
Other matters referred to the CMP by the subsidiary bodies: No issues were raised under this item.
ADMINISTRATIVE, FINANCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL MATTERS: Audit Report and Financial Statements for 2015: The CMP adopted a decision from SBI 44 on financial and budgetary matters (FCCC/SBI/2016/8/Add.1) and a decision on administrative, financial and institutional matters (FCCC/SBI/2016/L.41/Add.2).
CMP 12 President Salaheddine Mezouar then suspended the plenary at 9:17pm.
IN THE CORRIDORS
On Thursday, delegates retraced the steps they have taken up and down the Bab Ighli venue for the last ten days. Some delegates observed as the day wore on, that they also retraced their steps on several issues central to this week.
In informal consultations on the outcomes and decisions of the CMA, delegates’ views continued to differ, including on how to find a “home for orphan issues,” which are mandated by the Paris outcome, but not yet addressed under the Subsidiary Bodies. One delegate lamented that “some orphans are more impoverished than others,” advocating for equal treatment.
While parties’ views also differed on how to plan for the 2018 facilitative dialogue, when to reconvene CMA 1 and even whether to use the Presidency’s proposed decision as the basis of text, they agreed on the need for clarity on how to move forward. In this, they only heard that there would be a new text distributed “as soon as it is ready.”
Some decision texts concluded during CMP and COP plenaries, and participants were treated to a celebration of the Marrakech Action Proclamation, which at times had drawn consternation from groups of developing and developed countries alike. Inspired by another new acronym, some delegates hoped that it could serve as a MAP, through which the CMA negotiations could find their feet and step forward.
ENB SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS: The Earth Negotiations Bulletin summary and analysis of the Marrakech Climate Change Conference will be available on Monday, 21 November 2016, online at: http://enb.iisd.org/climate/cop22/enb/