Earth Negotiations Bulletin (ENB)
Volume 12 Number 724 | Wednesday, 9 May 2018
Tuesday, 8 May 2018 | Bonn, Germany
The Bonn Climate Change Conference continued to work on the many interrelated issues under the Paris Agreement Work Programme (PAWP), particularly the transparency framework and Article 6 of the Agreement (cooperative approaches). Other issues discussed included capacity building, coordination of support for forest mitigation actions, arrangements for intergovernmental meetings, and research and systemic observation. The COP Presidency held a session to report back on the seven Talanoas held as part of the Talanoa Dialogue. The Long-Term Finance workshop continued, and the sixth Dialogue on Action for Climate Empowerment (ACE) met.
Talanoa Dialogue Report Back
Luke Daunivalu, COP 23 Presidency, Fiji, stated the report backs would reflect the stories, sentiments, and messages of the Dialogue.
On “where are we,” Amena Yauvoli, Fiji, highlighted stories on, inter alia, the: status of GHG emissions; effects of climate change; inadequate aggregate effect of the NDCs; importance of delivering on pre-2020 action; and actions by party and non-party stakeholders.
On “where do we want to go,” Sylwia Waśniewska, COP 24 Presidency, outlined stories on, inter alia, leadership, renewable energy, energy efficiency, and investment. She highlighted some stories were global and others local.
On “how do we get there,” Tui Cavuilati, Fiji, highlighted key messages, including the need for: commitment and ambition from all, including non-party stakeholders; political support; regulatory frameworks; mainstreaming climate action into development planning; and public and private finance.
Many welcomed the Talanoa Dialogue’s format and atmosphere.
EGYPT called for the summary report to reflect hope towards jointly addressing climate change. GABON called for a clear outcome from the process. INDONESIA looked forward to next steps.
AUSTRALIA welcomed the innovative solutions and best practices showcased. NEW ZEALAND expressed willingness to share these stories domestically.
Botswana, for the AFRICAN GROUP, hoped the Talanoas would refocus parties towards the 1.5°C vision. Maldives, for AOSIS, said the Dialogue’s political outcome should reaffirm the 1.5°C goal, and, supported by INDIA, urged it to recognize the emissions and finance gaps.
The EU described the Dialogue as the “first global stocktake” and a credibility test of the Paris Agreement’s ambition cycle. Solomon Islands, for the LDCs, urged operationalizing the Agreement at COP 24. CANADA looked forward to integrating the Dialogue’s spirit into broader work on the PAWP.
NORWAY stressed broad stakeholder inclusion in the just transition to a low-carbon economy. CHINA highlighted the need for systemic solutions and the participation of all. Mexico, for the EIG, underscored the Dialogue’s message of working as a community.
The COP 23 Presidency will continue bilateral consultations on next steps.
Agreement Article 9.5 (Developed Countries’ Biennial Ex-Ante Financial Communication): In informal consultations, parties welcomed the second iteration of the informal note. Some parties suggested making an amendment to clarify that developed countries “shall” provide information while others are “encouraged” to do so. Others cautioned against making textual edits at this stage.
Parties agreed to the draft conclusions and to continue deliberations on the basis of the informal note.
Capacity Building under the Convention and Protocol: On capacity building under the Convention, parties agreed to the draft conclusions. Views diverged on specific text on the importance of capacity building to the implementation of the Convention, differing on whether it is important in “enhancing” implementation, or in “enabling the effective and sustained” implementation. Parties eventually agreed on the wording “enhancing the effective implementation of the Convention.”
Parties also reached agreement on draft conclusions for capacity building under the Kyoto Protocol.
Coordination of Support for the Implementation of Activities Relating to Mitigation Actions in the Forest Sector by Developing Countries, Including Institutional Arrangements: In informal consultations, parties agreed to draft conclusions for the SBI and for the COP that concludes the SBI’s consideration of this issue.
National Adaptation Plans (NAPs): In informal consultations, parties were unable to agree to the draft conclusions and draft decision text. Parties debated language reflecting if “some” or “noteworthy” progress has been made in formulating and implementing NAPs. Views diverged on whether to “note” or “welcome” reports on: progress in the formulation and implementation of NAPs; progress, experiences, lessons learned, gaps, needs, and support in the process; and the Adaptation Committee workshop on accessing the GCF’s Readiness and Preparatory Support Programme. The Co-Facilitators will consult with the SBI Chair.
LDCs: In informal consultations, parties accepted a new iteration of text as the basis for discussions. Parties noted progress and remaining work to reach conclusions. The session was suspended to allow for informal informals.
Public Registry Referred to in Agreement Article 4.12 (NDC Registry): In informal consultations, parties agreed to draft conclusions. Several developed countries expressed reservations about efforts to ensure the conclusions showed parity with the adaptation communication public registry, with one noting this does not imply “additional affinity” between the two items.
Technology Framework under Agreement Article 10.4: In informal consultations, parties considered an updated draft of the technology framework, and draft decision text. A developing country group, supported by several others, underlined the lack of discussion on institutional arrangements and requested the decision text reflect that gap. Some developed countries noted that several issues had not been discussed and suggested noting that discussions will continue on all issues. Parties agreed to a revised draft decision and mandated the Co-Facilitators to revise the draft of the framework.
Review of the Effective Implementation of the Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN): In informal consultations, parties considered a revised draft decision. Some parties objected to text inviting the CTCN to consider implementing the findings and recommendations of the independent review. Parties tabled a compromise that directs the operational entities of the Financial Mechanism to do so, replacing paragraphs containing detailed guidance on implementation with more general guidance. One party opposed, noting the compromise does not address economies in transition. The Co-Facilitators will forward fully bracketed text to plenary.
Arrangements for Intergovernmental Meetings: Parties reviewed the draft decision and views diverged on the process to discuss the frequency and location of sessions after 2020. While parties agreed to consider the issue at SBI 50, they disagreed on whether the Secretariat should prepare a technical paper beforehand, to inform discussions, or after, informed by SB 50 discussions.
Matters Related to Article 6 (Cooperative Approaches): In morning informal consultations, parties welcomed the Co-Chairs’ iteration note containing revised draft elements for all three sub-items on Internationally Transferred Mitigation Outcomes (ITMOs), the mechanism, and non-market approaches. On next steps, it was suggested to start deliberations at COP 24 with agreed negotiating text, but it was noted that it would require further work on the draft elements documents including: elaborations where necessary; insertion of legal language; and streamlining to clarify options. Parties generally agreed on the need for an informal, pre-sessional, or in-sessional workshop, but diverged on the utility of submissions and technical papers.
In afternoon informal consultations, parties considered the new iteration notes of the three sub-items. “Fundamental” and “surgical” edits to the texts were communicated. A party urged inserting a paragraph in the draft conclusions recognizing there are “imperfections” in the text which will be corrected. Parties debated edits to the explanatory note that indicated the full range of views may not be captured in the texts. Corrected versions of the new iteration notes were made available.
On draft conclusions, many parties agreed, and one group opposed, to delete a mandate to the SBSTA Chair and contact group Co-Chairs to revise the draft elements text. Parties disagreed on the need to produce technical papers and for a roundtable to be organized in conjunction with the “resumed session of SBSTA 48.” Discussions continued in informal informals.
Nairobi Work Programme: In informal consultations, parties agreed on all but one paragraph of draft conclusions. Views diverged on the relationship between the Convention and the Paris Agreement. Some parties favored the phrasing “the Convention and its Paris Agreement,” arguing that the Agreement is under the Convention, while others preferred “the Convention and the Paris Agreement.” The Co-Facilitators will consult with the SBSTA Chair.
Research and Systemic Observation: In informal consultations, parties considered draft conclusions. Several developing countries suggested deleting acknowledgment of ongoing IPCC work in its sixth assessment cycle, and a reference to the Talanoa Dialogue’s use of the IPCC 1.5°C report, noting that the report has not been finalized. Several parties underscored the importance of the 1.5°C report, highlighting that the COP requested it as an input to the Dialogue. The Co-Facilitators will consult the SBSTA Chair.
Adaptation Communication and Transparency Framework: In joint informal consultations, interventions were invited on: what information should be requested in adaptation communication guidance, and what information under Agreement Article 13.8 (information related to climate change impacts and adaptation); and how to minimize duplication of work while ensuring “no issues are left behind.” Some parties cautioned against having two sets of guidance on communicating adaptation, and supported discussing this issue under APA item 4 (adaptation communication). Others supported continuing discussions under both agenda items, highlighting different functions of adaptation communications, noting these are forward-looking, and adaptation information under the transparency framework, noting this relates to actions parties have taken.
Transparency Framework: Informal consultations began with modalities for information on climate change impacts and adaptation. Parties disagreed about whether information on loss and damage should be included, with developed countries arguing that this falls outside the scope of Article 13 (transparency framework), and developing countries characterizing loss and damage as an important element of “climate impacts.” Some parties suggested adding information on loss and damage could be optional.
On overarching considerations and guiding principles, parties provided views on which elements are most appropriate for inclusion in: modalities, procedures and guidelines (MPGs); COP/CMA decisions; and overarching considerations to guide the development of MPGs. They discussed a list of possible elements for the COP and/or CMA decisions adopting the MPGs, with some countries characterizing this as premature. The Co-Facilitators will prepare a revised informal note for consideration on Wednesday.
Other Matters, Except the Adaptation Fund: In informal consultations, the Co-Facilitators invited parties to reflect on modalities for biennially communicating information in accordance with Agreement Article 9.5. Many developing countries stressed the need to have CMA 1 elaborate the modalities, while several developed countries said COP and SBI discussions are sufficient.
On the process for setting a new collective quantified finance goal, developing country groups, opposed by some developed countries, underlined the need for CMA 1 to initiate a process reviewing current practice and identifying gaps.
The Co-Facilitators will prepare a revised informal note covering discussions of all the “other matters,” including an in-session proposal by a party on loss and damage. They proposed attaching two CRPs on Agreement Article 9.5 to the revised note.
In the Corridors
As the conference enters its final stretch, positive vibes continued to reverberate from Sunday’s Talanoa Dialogue. Seasoned observers and delegates alike commented how the refreshing format had allowed participants to interact like “human beings,” even while many wondered how the more than 700 stories shared would be captured and translated into concrete climate ambition. With several draft conclusions remaining fully bracketed, and the need becoming ever clearer for the additional session in Bangkok reportedly agreed to by the Bureau, many hoped that negotiations too would “catch the Talanoa spirit.”