The tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP10) to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) convened in Bergen, Norway from 20-25 November 2011. Approximately 300 participants, representing governments, non-governmental organizations, intergovernmental organizations, multilateral environmental agreements, scientists and the private sector attended. During the week, COP10 addressed a packed agenda and adopted 27 resolutions, including on: synergies and partnerships; overview of the process regarding the “future shape” of CMS, budget, enhanced engagement with the Global Environment Facility (GEF); wildlife disease and migratory species; migratory terrestrial species; global programme of work for cetaceans; and bird flyway conservation policy.
After considering proposals submitted by parties to amend the appendices of the Convention, the COP decided to list: under Appendix I, the saker falcon (Falco cherrug), the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus) and the far eastern and bristle-thighed curlew (Numenius madagascariensis and tahitiensis); under Appendix II, the argali mountain sheep (Ovis ammon) and bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus); and under Appendix I and II, the giant manta ray (Manta birostris).
On Friday morning, Heidi Sørensen, State Secretary, Norwegian Ministry of the Environment, commended COP10 for its work, and announced that Norway repealed its reservations on all species of whales and sharks, including under CMS Appendix II, the great white shark, and under Appendix I: white-beaked dolphin, Atlantic white-sided dolphin, killer whale, narwhal, pygmy right whale, Antarctic minke whale, Bryde’s whale, fin whale, sei whale and sperm whale. She stressed that these species would benefit from international collaboration for their management and conservation.
A BRIEF HISTORY OF CMS
Migratory species are vulnerable to a wide range of threats, including habitat shrinkage in breeding areas, excessive hunting along migration routes, and degradation of their feeding grounds. As a result of international concern over these threats, CMS was adopted in 1979 and entered into force on 1 November 1983. CMS, also known as the Bonn Convention, recognizes that states must be the protectors of migratory species that live within or pass through their national jurisdictions, and aims to conserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species throughout their ranges. CMS currently has 116 parties.
The Convention was designed to allow for expansion and revision of commitments and to provide a framework through which parties may act to conserve migratory species and their habitat by: adopting strict protection measures for migratory species that have been characterized as being in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of their ranges (species listed in Appendix I of the Convention); concluding agreements for the conservation and management of migratory species that have an unfavorable conservation status or would benefit significantly from international cooperation (species listed in Appendix II); and joint research and monitoring activities. At present, over a hundred migratory species are listed in Appendix I.
CMS also provides for the development of specialized regional agreements for Appendix II species. To date, seven agreements and 19 memoranda of understanding (MoUs) have been concluded. The seven agreements aim to conserve: populations of European bats; cetaceans of the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and contiguous Atlantic area; small cetaceans of the Baltic and North Seas; seals in the Wadden Sea; African-Eurasian migratory waterbirds; albatrosses and petrels; and gorillas and their habitats. The nineteen MoUs aim to conserve: the Siberian crane; the slender-billed curlew; marine turtles of the Atlantic coast of Africa; marine turtles of the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia; the Middle-European population of the great bustard; the Bukhara deer; the aquatic warbler; West-African populations of the African elephant; the saiga antelope; cetaceans in the Pacific islands region; dugongs; the Mediterranean monk seal; the ruddy-headed goose; grassland birds of southern South America; high Andean flamingos; South Andean Huemul; migratory sharks; and raptors (birds of prey in Africa and Eurasia). These agreements and MoUs are open to all range states of the species, regardless of whether they are parties to the Convention.
Eight Action Plans have also been concluded, on: Central Asian flyway; Sahelo-Saharan antelopes; Chinese crested tern; black-faced spoonbill; spoon-billed sandpiper; Madagascar pond heron; white-winged flufftail; and lesser flamingo. There are also three initiatives on bycatch, Eurasian Aridland mammals and the Houbara bustard.
COP6: The sixth meeting of the COP (4-16 November 1999, Cape Town, South Africa) adopted resolutions on: institutional arrangements; financial and administrative matters; by-catch; information management; Southern hemisphere albatross conservation; and concerted actions for Appendix I species. Seven species were added to Appendix I, including manatees of the marine areas of Panama and Honduras. Thirty-one species were added to Appendix II, including dolphins of South-East Asia and the whale shark. Recommendations were approved on cooperative actions for various Appendix II species.
COP7: The seventh meeting of the COP (18-24 September 2002, Bonn, Germany) added 20 species to Appendix I and 21 to Appendix II, with the fin, sei and sperm whales, and the great white shark being listed on both. COP7 also adopted resolutions on: electrocution of migratory birds, offshore oil pollution, wind turbines, impact assessments, and by-catch. The COP adopted decisions on, inter alia: future action on the Antarctic minke, Bryde’s and pygmy right whales; improving the conservation status of the leatherback turtle; an agreement on dugong conservation; the American Pacific Flyway Programme; and the Central Asian-Indian Waterbird Flyway Initiative.
COP8: The eighth meeting of the COP (20-25 November 2005, Nairobi, Kenya) addressed: the review of CMS implementation; sustainable use; the target to significantly reduce the current rate of biodiversity loss by 2010; measures to improve the conservation status of Appendix I species, including projects on Sahelo-Saharan antelopes and the Siberian crane; measures to improve the conservation status of Appendix II species, including raptors, migratory sharks and marine turtles; proposals for amendments to Appendices I and II; the CMS 2006-2011 Strategic Plan; the CMS Information Management Plan; and financial and administrative arrangements. The meeting added 11 species to Appendix I and 16 to Appendix II, with the basking shark, Bukhara deer and short-beaked common dolphin listed on both, and witnessed the signing of new MoUs on the West-African elephant and the saiga antelope.
COP9: The ninth meeting of the COP (1-5 December 2008, Rome, Italy) adopted 17 resolutions and five recommendations. It listed 11 species on Appendix I of the Convention, including three dolphin species and the West African manatee, as well as the cheetah, with the exception of the populations of Botswana, Zimbabwe and Namibia for which quotas are in place under the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Species listed in Appendix II include the African wild dog, saiga antelope and several dolphin populations. Following intense negotiations, mako sharks, the porbeagle shark and the northern hemisphere population of the spiny dogfish were also listed on Appendix II. The proposal to list the saker falcon on Appendix I was eventually withdrawn, but a resolution was adopted that sets out the direction for future work on this species, and proposes listing it at COP10 unless its conservation status improves significantly. At COP9, parties also agreed to launch an intersessional process to explore possibilities for the future strategies and structure of the CMS and the CMS family.
REPORT OF THE MEETING
On Sunday, 20 November 2011, the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP10) of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) opened with a musical performance, which included audience participation in one of the songs. During the opening ceremonies, His Highness Prince Bandar Al-Saud of Saudi Arabia, CMS Standing Committee Chair, urged parties to agree on options to provide CMS with institutional support and adequate resources to fulfill its objectives.
Welcoming participants to Bergen, Lisbeth Iversen, Commissioner, Bergen Municipality, noted that migratory species “know no borders,” and, recalling the responsibility to protect these species, said “they belong to all of us and we belong to them.”
CMS Executive Secretary Elizabeth Mrema, citing the recovery of the populations of the Saiga antelope, emphasized the utility of MoUs among other CMS mechanisms for the conservation of migratory species adding that success depends on cooperation of range states, political will and provision of adequate financing and synergies among multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs).
On Monday, 21 November 2011, CMS COP10, chaired by Mohammed Sulayem (Saudi Arabia), Chair of the Standing Committee (StC), started its work. Elizabeth Mrema, CMS Executive Secretary, thanked Norway for hosting the COP, the StC and Saudi Arabia for its leadership, and called for closer collaboration with governments, UN bodies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). She emphasized the financial challenges of the Convention, being addressed under the CMS future shape process. Armenia and Ethiopia, who have recently joined CMS, expressed their appreciation for joining the Convention and support for its goals. Swaziland thanked the CMS Secretariat for assisting its ratification process of the Convention, which he said was in its final stages.
KEYNOTE PRESENTATION: David Wilcove, Princeton University, US, stressed that the abundance of migratory species is the reason for their ecological, economic and cultural importance and proposed steps to create effective ecological networks to enhance conservation.
MOU SIGNING CEREMONY: On Monday, Italy, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, the European Union (EU) and its member states, and Romania signed both the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on the Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia (Raptor MoU) and the MoU on the Conservation of Migratory Sharks (Sharks MoU). In addition, the Netherlands signed the Sharks MoU, Ghana signed the Raptor MoU and Switzerland signed the MoU Concerning Conservation Measures for the Aquatic Warbler.
On Friday, the Principality of Monaco signed the MoUs for Raptors and Sharks.
On Monday, StC Chair Sulayem noted the Rules of Procedure had remained unchanged since COP9, and introduced the Rules of Procedure (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.5), which the COP adopted. Chair Sulayem then introduced the election of officers. Norway proposed, and delegates applauded, Øystein Størkersen (Norway) as the COP10 Chair.
Uganda, on behalf of the African Group, nominated James Lutalo (Uganda) as the Chair of the Committee of the Whole (COW), and the COP agreed. Cuba, on behalf of the Latin American and Caribbean Group, nominated Marcel Calvar (Uruguay) as the COW Vice Chair, and the COP agreed.
Delegates then adopted the meeting’s agenda (UNEP/CMS/ Conf.10.1/Rev.1 and 10.2/Rev.1) and work schedule (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.3), and established the Credentials Committee and open-ended working groups on the budget and future shape of CMS, the strategic plan, marine species, and the saker falcon.
REPORT OF THE CREDENTIALS COMMITTEE: On Monday, Nicola Scott (New Zealand), as Chair of the Credentials Committee, highlighted discrepancies found in the Rules of Procedure across languages and noted that the Rules provide no guidance on the language of submission of credentials. On Friday, Scott reported on the status of the Committee’s examination of credentials submitted for its review. The COP accepted the report.
INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES: Election of the StC: On Friday, COP10 appointed the following members to the StC for 2012-2014: Norway, Poland, Ukraine and Georgia, with France and Switzerland as alternates for Europe; Ghana, Tunisia and Uganda with South Africa, Mali and Republic of Congo as alternates for Africa; India and Pakistan, with Syria and Mongolia as alternates for Asia; Chile and Cuba, with Argentina and a second alternate from the Caribbean to be decided later for Latin America and the Caribbean; and New Zealand for Oceania, with Australia as an alternate. For the position of the Chair and Vice Chair, parties accepted Alfred Oteng-Yeboa (Ghana) and Øystein Størkersen (Norway), respectively.
Election of the Scientific Council: On Friday, incoming Scientific Council (ScC) Chair Fernando Spina (Italy) said he was honored to be appointed as the new Chair of the Scientific Council and thanked outgoing Chair John Mshelbwala (Nigeria) for setting a good precedent for the Council’s work.
COP10 agreed the following ScC appointments for the next triennium: Leon Benun, Kenya (Birds), Rodrigo Medellin, Mexico (Neo-tropical Fauna) and Colin Galbraith, UK (Climate Change) and re-appointed members: Bill Perrin, US (Aquatic Mammals); Zeb Hogan, US (Freshwater Fish); Barry Baker, Australia (Bycatch), Alfred Oteng Yeboa, Ghana (African Fauna); Taij Mundkur, India (Asiatic Fauna); and Colin Limpus, Australia (Marine Turtles).
REPORTS AND STATEMENTS ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CMS
On Monday, COW Chair James Lutalo opened the COW. Mohammed Sulayem, Chair of the StC, presented the report of the StC (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.7), highlighting that a new strategic plan would be required for the period 2015-2020, recommending that an intersessional working group be appointed for the task.
ScC Chair John Mshelbwala (Nigeria) presented the report of the ScC (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.8), proposing minor amendments and corrections, and underscoring the increasing importance of climate change in CMS work.
The Secretariat of the Agreement on the Conservation of Small Cetaceans of the Baltic, North East Atlantic, Irish and North Seas (ASCOBANS) presented its report (UNEP/CMS/Inf.10.18.2), highlighting, among other things, key decisions from its sixth Meeting of the Parties (MOP) and the designation by the parties of bycatch and underwater noise as priority areas. The Secretariat of the Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans in the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area (ACCOBAMS) highlighted its projects and initiatives, as described in its report (UNEP/CMS/Inf.10.18.1) on, inter alia: mitigation of the impacts of noise and fishing activity, collisions, whale-watching activities, and capacity building.
Noting that the Agreement on the Conservation of Gorillas and their Habitat (Gorilla Agreement) came into force in 2007, and thus is the youngest agreement in the CMS family, the CMS Secretariat outlined the membership, meetings and activities, as contained in its report (UNEP/CMS/Inf.10.18.5).
The Secretariat of the Agreement on the Conservation of Populations of European Bats (EUROBATS) presented recent activities in the work of its advisory committee and intersessional working groups, as outlined in its report (UNEP/CMS/Inf.10.18.4).
The Secretariat of the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) presented its activity report (UNEP/CMS/Inf.10.18.3), lauding the growing collaboration of CMS and AEWA. The UNEP/CMS Office in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE) presented on the implementation of the Raptors MoU and the MoU on Conservation and Management of Dugongs and their Habitats throughout their Range (Dugongs MoU), noting that these documents need updating as progress had been achieved since the information documents (UNEP/CMS/Inf.10.18.10 and UNEP/CMS/Inf.10.18.11) were prepared.
Argentina and Chile cited efforts and MoUs on albatrosses, petrels and flamingos. Chile said they have signed the Sharks MoU and have enacted laws against finning. Paraguay referred to progress on a MoU on pasturelands between Latin American countries for the preservation of migratory birds.
Congo voiced concern about the lack of funding for gorillas and migratory raptors saying the funding gap compromised conservation and called for the CMS Secretariat to support conservation activities. Senegal added that his country had completed the national plan for conservation of turtles. India said that they would like to sign the Raptor MoU due to threats to these birds posed by falconry.
REPORTS FROM CONVENTION AND AGREEMENT BODIES AND UN ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME: On Tuesday, Margaret Oduk, UNEP, presented the report of activities undertaken by UNEP (UNEP/CMS/Inf.10.17).
REPORTS FROM STATES: Depositary and host country: On Tuesday, in the COW, Germany presented the report of the Depositary for the triennium 2009-2011 (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.6/Rev.1), noting that six countries have acceded to the CMS since COP9, bringing the total number of parties to 116, as of 1 August 2011. She also described Germany’s efforts to encourage more countries to become parties to CMS.
National reports: On Tuesday in the COW, the CMS Secretariat introduced documents on the analysis and synthesis of national reports (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.11 and Annex), noting that 79 reports were received by the Secretariat, but only those submitted by the 10 June deadline were included in the analysis.
STATEMENTS ON COOPERATION: Synergies and partnerships: On Wednesday, the COW considered the revised draft resolution on synergies and partnerships (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.21/Rev.1). The CMS Secretariat presented new operative text, on, inter alia, coherent means to address species-level biodiversity conservation and avoiding duplication of work across MEAs.
On Friday, in plenary the CMS Secretariat introduced the revised draft resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.21.Rev.2) noting that bracketed text in paragraphs 5 and 13 were to be deleted. The EU and its member states proposed a change to operative paragraph 6 to clarify that the COP requests the Secretariat to “facilitate” collaboration with partners such as the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) rather than “provide support.” EUROBATS reported on progress during COP10 on the existing EUROBATS/CMS/FAO cooperation for bat conservation in Africa.
The COP adopted the resolution with minor amendments.
Final Resolution:In the resolution on synergies and partnerships (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.21/Rev.2) the COP:
• requests the CMS Secretariat to continue developing effective and practical cooperation with relevant stakeholders and formalize such cooperation with enough renewable joint work plans with targets and clear timetables aligned with the CMS Strategic Plan; and
• urges parties to establish close collaboration at the national level between the focal point of the CMS and the focal points of other relevant conventions.
Biodiversity-related MEAs: The CMS Secretariat introduced the relevant document (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.26/Rev.1) and the draft guidance on the integration of the conservation of migratory species issues to National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs) (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.27), linked to the guidelines on the integration of migratory species into NBSAPs and other outcomes from the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.18/Rev.1). She said the CMS Secretariat engages in partnerships through formal agreements and MoUs implemented through joint work plans, citing cooperation with CITES, the CBD and the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar), detailed in UNEP/CMS/Inf.35, Inf.36 and Inf.37. The EU and its member states suggested considering budgetary implications, including additional text aimed at highlighting the need to avoid duplication of efforts.
On Wednesday, the CMS Secretariat introduced the amended resolution on the guidelines (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.18/Rev.2). The EU noted that, since they were not being negotiated, parties’ comments should not be included. On Friday, in plenary, COP Chair Størkersen introduced a revised resolution and the COP adopted it with minor amendments.
Final Resolution:In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/10.18/Rev.3), the COP:
• invites CMS parties to review relevant CBD COP10 decisions and to acknowledge the obligations that apply to all CMS Parties; and
• urges CMS National focal points and StC members, as regional representatives, to work closely with national focal points in their region dealing with biodiversity-related MEAs, including the CBD and CITES, to integrate migratory species conservation into NBSAPs.
Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES): On Tuesday, in the COW, the CMS Secretariat presented the background note and draft resolution on cooperation between IPBES and CMS (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.47 and UNEP/CMS/Res.10.8).
The EU and its member states noted the importance of the CMS COP liaising with IPBES to ensure migratory species are included in its work and, subject to available resources, urged the CMS to participate in IPBES scientific assessments. On Friday, the COP adopted the resolution with minor amendments.
Final Resolution:In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.8/Rev.1), the COP:
• urges CMS focal points and the Scientific Council to communicate and liaise regularly with the national representatives of IPBES on the needs for research and policy guidance related to migratory species; and
• encourages parties and relevant organizations to make funds available to support the four functions of IPBES, namely assessments, policy support, capacity building and knowledge generation aimed at improving the science-policy interface related to the conservation of migratory species.
CURRENT STATUS AND “FUTURE SHAPE” OF THE CONVENTION
OVERVIEW OF THE PROCESS REGARDING THE “FUTURE SHAPE” OF CMS: Introducing this agenda item, Olivier Biber (Switzerland), Chair of the Intersessional Working Group on the Future Shape of CMS, described the intersessional process launched at COP9, explaining that the Working Group had been mandated to explore possibilities for the future strategies and structure of the CMS and the CMS family (UNEP/CMS/Res.9.13). He presented the three options outlined in the report on the future shape process (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.20): key reforms; improving conservation within the existing structure; and improving conservation via alterations to the existing structure.
Begonia Filgueira Reinaldo Tulloch, Environmental Regulation and Information Centre (ERIC), described the history of the intersessional process and outlined the different reform options. She highlighted parties’ responsiveness to the process and some of the challenges.
Several countries commented on the three options outlined, with Egypt suggesting that choosing one option does not necessarily exclude the others. The EU and its member states emphasized that all options require additional funding but favored the first option. Norway highlighted the need to improve states’ synergies in reporting. A joint working group was established to consider the future shape and the budget (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.18b).
The joint budget/future shape working group first met on Monday afternoon, chaired by Alfred Oteng-Yeboah (Ghana) with Trevor Salmon (UK) and Olivier Biber (Switzerland) as Vice Chairs. Discussions focused on how to decide on the activities under the options outlined by the Intersessional Working Group for the Future Shape of CMS. One suggestion was to prioritize activities that could be considered “low-hanging fruit,” in that they impose no additional financial burden. Another was to prioritize activities for the next triennium, with a number of participants acknowledging the challenges of the current global economic climate. Participants welcomed a suggestion to consider innovative approaches, such as establishing a secondary non-core budget for voluntary contributions for some of the activities, in line with other Conventions, like CITES and Ramsar.
On Tuesday, the joint budget/future shape working group continued its deliberations on the selection of the 16 (themed) activities developed from the intersessional working group (based on the three options presented in UNEP/CMS/Inf.10.14.10, as amended). Begonia Tulloch, ERIC, said the themes contain a number of activities categorized into three time-frames—short (by COP11), medium (by COP12) and long (by COP13). The working group agreed to first rank the activity themes according to “high,” “medium” and “low” priority and then consider the individual activities. One participant emphasized the need for coherence, urging that prioritization be related to a number of draft resolutions being considered by COP10, and others urged feeding into the strategic plan discussions.
For theme 6 (coordinated strategic plan for the CMS family), theme 11 (coordination of meetings) and theme 12 (growth of the CMS family), the group agreed to assign them “high” priority. For the remaining themes, the group assigned differing levels of priority, noting in some cases the need to consider individual activities under each.
For theme 3 (enhancing scientific research and information), many favored high priority, referring to significant data gaps, but some preferred medium given the increased workload implications and the existence of other bodies, such as IPBES. For theme 5 (global gap analysis and resource analysis), participants favored medium and high priorities, while some lamented this analysis had not been carried out earlier in the process. For theme 14 (seeking fundraising opportunities), one participant emphasized tapping into innovative financing measures and the group agreed to medium and high.
The group focused on the activities they assigned the highest priorities, and these activities were then assigned short-, medium-, or long-term timeframes. They noted that medium- and long-term activities would be recommended for consideration by the Intersessional Working Group on the Strategic Plan.
On Wednesday afternoon in plenary, joint working group on budget and future shape Chair Oteng-Yeboah reported on progress. The group then met in closed sessions on Wednesday and Thursday, through to the early hours of Friday morning, to: consider the activities they recommended endorsing as short-term, high priorities; set a list of activities to recommend adopting for implementation in 2012-14 and analyze whether they would be financed; review and propose amendments to the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.1/Rev.1) to reflect their discussions; and review the impact of the future shape and budget recommendations on other relevant proposals, including the resolution on the strategic plan (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.5/Rev.3), and propose amendments accordingly.
On Friday in plenary, COP10 Chair Størkersen introduced the resolution on the future shape and, with Uganda and Mali, thanked the joint working group for their efforts. The COP adopted the resolution with a minor amendment.
Final Resolution: In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.9/Rev.2 and annexes), the COP:
• endorses the set of prioritized activities in Annex 1;
• adopts the set of activities listed in Annex 2, including their institutional, legal and organizational implications, for implementation in 2012-2014, financed from the core budget, voluntary contributions or donations from sponsors;
• requests the Strategic Plan Working Group to make use of the medium- and long-term activities listed in Annex 3 in developing the CMS Strategic Plan 2015-2023;
• urges parties and institutional bodies of the CMS and invites UNEP and other stakeholders to contribute and/or undertake Annex 1 activities; and
• instructs the CMS Secretariat and invites CMS family secretariats to report to the StC (or their equivalent) on Annex 2 activity implementation.
Annex 1 outlines activities by theme, with specific activities across three time-frames. The themes include: alignment with international environmental governance (IEG) reform; carrying out a global gap analysis and resource assessment; coordinated strategic plans for the CMS family; restructuring of the ScC to maximize expertise and knowledge capacity; and strengthening MoU coordination and servicing.
Annex 2 activities include: closer collaboration with UNEP regional offices; undertaking an assessment of MoUs and their viability; building on current data harmonization practices and systems for data reporting; coordination of fundraising activities with parties, partners and stakeholders; and using external assessment and monitoring systems, such as the UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Center (WCMC).
Annex 3 activities include: discussion of IEG reforms at COPs and StC meetings; establishment of a CMS-wide scientific institutions, if appropriate; and applying the CMS core budget to species groups and MoUs, where appropriate.
Strategic Plan: On Tuesday, the CMS Secretariat introduced discussion on the strategic plan (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.21 and Conf.10.22/Rev.1), noting that, on the basis of recommendations of the StC, the proposal was to include activities for the next triennium in the existing strategic plan by updating and extending the plan to 2014. He then introduced a draft resolution on the CMS Strategic Plan 2015-2020 (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.5/Rev.1), which includes the Terms of Reference (TORs) for an intersessional working group mandated to work on the new strategic plan.
On Wednesday in plenary, the Chair of the Working Group on the Strategic Plan, Ines Verleye (EU), reported that the group, in its two meetings, had agreed on text for the draft resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.5) and Terms of Reference for the Intersessional Working Group on the Strategic Plan 2015-2020. She highlighted that they considered the period 2015-2020 insufficient to implement the strategic plan and have favored 2015-2023. The working group also agreed to maintain the 2006-2011 Strategic Plan and have a separate Strategic Plan for 2012-2014.
Final Resolution: In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.5/Rev.3), the COP decides to develop a new strategic plan for the period 2015-2023 and confirms the need for intersessional work on its elaboration; and decides to set up a working group with the task of drafting the next Strategic Plan 2015-2023 for consideration at CMS COP11.
RESOURCES OF THE CONVENTION
BUDGET: On Monday in plenary, CMS Deputy Executive Secretary Bert Lenten presented on CMS funding and activities at COP2, 5 and 9 to illustrate the growing demands on the Convention, and introduced the draft CMS budget 2012-2014 (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.18b). He explained that the draft budget was divided into fixed and variable costs, and presented six scenarios, from a 0% to a 25% increase. Noting the need to match the Convention’s mandate to the available resources, he said parties must either increase resources or reduce expectations for CMS work. Madagascar’s question about the possibility of developing a funding mechanism was deferred to the working group. Argentina voiced concern that some of the characteristics of the Convention lead to high demands on developing countries for financial contributions.
The joint budget/future shape working group, with Chair Oteng-Yeboah and Vice-Chairs Salmon and Biber (Switzerland) met from Monday afternoon through to the early hours of Friday morning, with closed sessions on the budget held on Wednesday and Thursday through Friday morning. The group considered the activities they recommended endorsing as short-term, high priorities in light of budget proposals to set a list of activities to recommend adopting for implementation in 2012-14 and to be financed by the core budget; reviewed and proposed amendments to the budget resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.1/Rev.1) to reflect their discussions; and reviewed the impact of the future shape and budget recommendations on other relevant proposals, including the resolution on the strategic plan (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.5/Rev.1).
On Friday afternoon in plenary, CMS Deputy Executive Secretary Lenten introduced the resolution and thanked the joint working group on budget/future shape. COP10 adopted the resolution.
Final Resolution: In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.1/Rev.1), the COP, inter alia:
• adopts the core budget 2012-2014, which represents a 5% increase from the previous triennium (Annex I), and the list of activities that can be implemented subject to voluntary contributions (Annex II);
• decides to draw €130,000 annually from the CMS Trust Fund to support the budget for the next triennium, thereby reducing assessed contributions;
• expresses concern about the recruitment without COP approval of a CMS Associate Programme Officer in the US, noting it does not set a precedent;
• adopts the scale of contributions listed in Annex III;
• decides to set a threshold of eligibility for funding delegates to attend the Convention’s meetings at 2% on the UN scale of assessments and excludes countries listed in Annex IV and/or countries with payments in arrears of more than three years;
• instructs the CMS Executive Secretary to service the implementation of the Strategic Plan 2012-2014 within available resources;
• encourages parties to make voluntary contributions and requests the CMS Secretariat to provide parties with a list of core ongoing and future activities and projects not covered by the core budget for this purpose;
• encourages non-parties and others to consider contributing to the CMS Trust Fund;
• requests the CMS Secretariat to enhance regionalization of conservation efforts by having local coordinators with assistance from, among others, UNEP, NGOs and MEAs;
• requests the UNEP Executive Director to, inter alia, consider providing financial support to specific CMS activities; and
• approves the terms of reference for the CMS Trust Fund administration set out in Annex V.
RESOURCE MOBILIZATION: On Tuesday, the CMS Secretariat introduced the report on resource mobilization (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.19), outlining areas of work supported by voluntary contributions, including: work on the future shape of the CMS; outreach; capacity building; negotiation of new instruments; and servicing of CMS instruments, such as the West African Elephant MoU and Aquatic Warbler MoU. She also listed the actions requested of the COP, inter alia, to acknowledge and appreciate financial and in-kind support from donors, urge the provision of additional extra-budgetary resources and be open to new and innovative ways of meeting the Convention’s financial needs.
On Friday, the COP took note of the report.
ENHANCED ENGAGEMENT WITH THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT FACILITY: On Tuesday, the CMS Secretariat introduced the document UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.41 and draft resolution UNEP/CMS/Res.10.25, noting that no formal mechanism exists for CMS to access GEF funds. For longer-term support she said CMS would need to be designated as a convention for which the GEF is a financial mechanism. On Friday, the COP adopted the resolution.
Final Resolution: In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.25), the COP:
• encourages parties to seek opportunities for enhancing dialogue at national and regional levels with the focal points of the GEF; and
• instructs the Secretariat to solicit input from parties and liaise with relevant bodies of the GEF and the secretariats of other biodiversity-related MEAs to investigate options for enhancing engagement with the GEF.
MEASURES TO IMPROVE THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF APPENDIX I SPECIES
PROGRESS ON CONCERTED AND OTHER ACTIONS FOR CMS SPECIES THAT ARE NOT COVERED BY AN ARTICLE IV INSTRUMENT: On Tuesday in the COW, the CMS Secretariat presented the report on progress on concerted and other actions for CMS species that are not covered by an Article IV instrument (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.12), reporting on progress on the Sahelo-Saharan Megafauna Action Plan and the Central Eurasian Arid Mammals Action Plan. On Friday, the COP noted the report.
OTHER MEASURES: On Tuesday in the COW, the CMS Secretariat introduced both the agenda items on other measures to promote the conservation of Appendix I species and on other measures to promote conservation and sustainable management of Appendix II species, with an associated draft resolution on concerted and cooperative actions (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.23). Noting that the lists of species in the CMS appendices continue to increase, with species not having been taken off the list since COP8, she explained the draft resolution reviews the list of species on the appendices and proposes the removal of species already covered by CMS instruments. New Zealand recommended that the ten key actions for remedying problems, listed in UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.36 on enhancing the effectiveness of measures to promote the conservation and sustainable management of Appendix II species, be added as an annex to the draft resolution.
On Friday in plenary, the EU and its member states suggested amendments for the paragraph on requests to the Scientific Council to liaise with relevant experts, including those nominated as focal points for concerted and cooperative actions on a global synthesis of issues. Delegates agreed and the COP adopted the resolution with this and other minor amendments.
Final Resolution: In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.23/Rev.2), the COP:
• adopts the lists of species designated for concerted and cooperative actions contained in the resolution annexes, and encourages parties and other organizations to take steps to improve the conservation status of listed species;
• encourages parties to ensure that initiatives to undertake concerted or cooperative actions specify the expected conservation and institutional outcomes, along with timeframes for these; and
• endorses recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of the concerted and cooperative actions process, as summarized in an annex to the resolution.
MEASURES TO IMPROVE THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF APPENDIX II SPECIES
PRIORITIES FOR CMS AGREEMENTS: Introducing discussion on the development of new and future agreements on Tuesday in the COW, the CMS Secretariat presented the report on new agreements (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.9) and a draft resolution on perspectives for future agreements (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.16). She also presented the gap analysis on Central African elephant conservation (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.46) and a detailed gap analysis report (UNEP/CMS/Inf.10.27), proposing three options for CMS to consider: a legally binding agreement; provision of capacity-building support to increase consultations among African countries; or facilitated consultation with the Central African CMS range states.
In the COW on Wednesday, the Secretariat presented the revised resolution, renamed “Priorities for CMS Agreements” (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.16/Rev.1). Norway proposed moving the reference to endorsing future CMS actions to an annex, but the EU and its member states did not agree.
On Friday afternoon, following informal consultations between the EU and Norway to resolve the outstanding concerns, the plenary considered the amended draft resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.16/Rev.3). The EU and its member states presented the proposed changes, first explaining the division of operative paragraph 5, on the development of a policy approach to the development, resourcing and servicing of agreements in the context of future strategies and structures of the CMS and CMS family, into two separate paragraphs. He then pointed to the removal of operative paragraph 7 on the endorsement of actions on a list of priorities, along with the deletion of the subsequent list of taxa. He explained this deletion was to prevent limiting the priorities, in light of agreement in the future shape discussions to a gap analysis and assessment, which he said “leaves things open.” These amendments were supported by New Zealand and Uganda. Cameroon confirmed that progress on Central African elephants remains a high priority, and announced his country’s interest, with Congo, in taking a lead on facilitated consultations with Central African countries. Morocco requested the deletion of a paragraph referring to the range states of Sahelo-Saharan megafauna, and COP Chair Størkersen noted this deletion was already included in the revisions proposed by Norway and the EU and its member states. The COP adopted the draft resolution.
Final Resolution: In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.16/Rev.3), the COP urges range states of existing CMS agreements that have not yet done so to sign, ratify or accede to those agreements and to take an active part in their implementation. The COP encourages the CMS Secretariat to continue its efforts to seek partnerships to support and enhance the effective operation of agreements under the Convention.
The COP also welcomes the conclusion and entry into effect during the past triennium of MoUs on the conservation of high Andean flamingos and their habitats, the South Andean Huemul and migratory sharks, and, inter alia, instructs the Secretariat to develop a policy approach to the development, resourcing and servicing of agreements in the context of the resolution on future strategies and structure of the CMS and the CMS family (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.9/Rev.2) for consideration at COP11.
CONSERVATION EMERGENCIES: In the COW on Thursday, the Secretariat presented the document and draft resolution on modus operandi for conservation emergencies (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.38 and Res.10.2), explaining that the Secretariat has been reacting to emergencies, such as the mass mortality of the Mediterranean monk seal in 1997, outbreak of avian influenza in 2005 and die-off of saiga antelope in 2010, on a case-by-case basis, and needed to develop a standard procedure for these responses.
The EU and its member states recognized the importance of mechanisms to respond to emergencies, but preferred these be supported by voluntary contributions rather than the core budget. Uruguay, supported by Chile and the FAO, proposed adding reference to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The FAO also proposed amendments to text referring to FAO crisis management mechanisms. IUCN informed delegates of grants for emergencies available through its Save Our Species (SOS) programme. On Friday, the COP made minor amendments to the draft resolution and adopted it as amended.
Final Resolution: In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.2/Rev.1), the COP:
• decides that emergency response shall be set in motion only when at least one CMS party or the High Seas are affected, but that non-parties may be considered in exceptional circumstances;
• instructs the CMS Secretariat to apply steps to emergency response, outlined in an annex to the resolution, as appropriate;
• calls on parties to contribute, on a voluntary basis, to a dedicated fund for the implementation of the emergency modus operandi; and
• instructs the CMS Secretariat to identify UN agencies, intergovernmental organizations, NGOs, industry and other relevant agencies that may be able to respond to emergencies affecting migratory species and their habitats.
CRITICAL SITES AND ECOLOGICAL NETWORKS FOR MIGRATORY SPECIES: On Wednesday in the COW, the CMS Secretariat introduced the report on critical sites and ecological networks (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.39) and the draft resolution as amended to include the comments of ScC17 (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.3/Rev.1 Annex/Rev.1). He emphasized the need to recognize the link between species and their habitats and, in particular, protect stopover sites and migratory corridors. Many parties supported the resolution.
On Friday in plenary, Australia, supported by the EU and its member states, suggested amendments to operational text on parties developing ecological networks, inviting other range states and relevant organizations, along with parties, to collaborate in work on networks of protected and managed sites. The COP adopted the draft resolution with this and other minor amendments.
Final Resolution: In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.3/Rev.2), the COP calls on parties and MoU signatories to consider the network approach in the implementation of existing CMS instruments and initiatives. The COP, inter alia:
• urges parties to make use of complementary tools and mechanisms for the identification and designation of critical sites and site networks for migratory species and populations, including through further designation of Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar sites) for migratory waterbirds and other migratory wetland-dependent taxa; and
• highlights the added value of developing ecological networks under CMS where no other network instruments are available.
The COP requests the ScC to, inter alia: conduct a strategic review to assess the extent to which and the manner in which existing major protected area systems and initiatives aimed at promoting ecological networks address the needs of migratory species throughout their life cycles and migratory ranges, and identify among CMS and potential future use of ecological network concepts and approaches.
BARRIERS TO MIGRATION: On Wednesday in the COW, Hein Prinsen, Bureau Waardenburg, presented on the review of and guidelines for mitigating conflict between migratory birds and electricity power grids, offering an overview of the loss of birds to collisions and electrocution. The CMS Secretariat introduced the background documents (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.29/Rev.2 and Conf.10.30/Rev.2) and the associated draft resolution on power lines and migratory species (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.11). The EU and its member states underscored the need to prevent and reduce impacts caused by power grids.
In plenary on Friday afternoon, several amendments were proposed to a revised version of the draft resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.11/Rev.1), including from the EU and its member states asking to change operative text from “adopts” to “welcomes” the guidelines contained in UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.3, noting the guidelines had not been negotiated. Australia, supported by New Zealand, suggested, in the same operative paragraph, specifying these guidelines apply to the African-Eurasian region. Switzerland, supported by the EU, spoke out against restricting the guidelines, saying these could be useful to other regions. Parties resolved this by agreeing to add language to implement these guidelines “as applicable,” and the COP adopted the resolution as amended.
Final Resolution: In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.11/Rev.1), the COP:
• welcomes the “Guidelines on how to avoid or mitigate the impact of electricity power grids on migratory birds in the African-Eurasian region” (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.30);
• urges parties and encourages non-parties to implement these Guidelines, as applicable;
• encourages electricity companies to disseminate the Guidelines widely within their networks, including at relevant conferences; and
• requests the ScC, specifically the working groups on birds and flyways, to monitor the implementation of the resolution and to provide further guidance when relevant new developments on reducing the impact of power lines on birds become available, such as improved mitigation techniques.
CLIMATE CHANGE AND MIGRATORY SPECIES: On Thursday in the COW, the CMS Secretariat introduced discussion on the draft resolution on migratory species conservation in light of climate change (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.19), using the example of ocean acidification to highlight the complexity of climate change.
On Friday in plenary, the CMS Secretariat introduced the revised resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.19/Rev.2) and the draft “Message to Durban” from Norway as the COP10 Presidency, noting the discussions in a working group on Thursday. In response to a question from Iran, CMS Executive Secretary Mrema explained that the text on promoting regional workshops had been removed from operative paragraph 14 (capacity building) so as not to restrict the possible kinds of capacity-building efforts. Plenary adopted the resolution with minor amendments from the EU.
Final Resolution:In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.19/Rev.2), the COP:
• urges parties to employ adaptive management measures and the ecosystem-based approach in addressing climate change impacts;
• encourages parties and relevant organizations to evaluate and reduce the additional impacts on migratory species resulting from changes in human behavior due to climate change (the so-called “tertiary effects”), such as increased shipping and exploitation in the Arctic ocean areas; and
• encourages parties and relevant stakeholders to make use of available funding mechanisms, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus conservation (REDD+), to support the maintenance of ecosystem services, with the close involvement of local communities.
MIGRATORY TERRESTRIAL MAMMALS: On Wednesday in the COW, UNEP-WCMC presented the findings of the Review on Terrestrial Mammals, including bats (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.44 and UNEP/CMS/Inf.10.15). The review, she explained, is an evaluation of the eight existing CMS instruments on terrestrial mammals, including bats, and considers the extent to which the instruments address the threats facing these taxa. She noted that several options are proposed for the effective implementation and further development of CMS instruments, to maximize the geographic and taxonomic coverage of CMS, while enhancing the Convention’s credibility and influence. On Friday, the COP took note of the Review.
MIGRATORY AQUATIC SPECIES: Review of freshwater fish: On Thursday in the COW, the CMS Secretariat introduced the documents and draft resolution on the review of freshwater fish (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.31, Conf.10.33 and Res.10.12) aimed at informing how CMS can best protect and manage these species and developing a systematic way of identifying species that might qualify for listing.
Paraguay proposed amendments referring to her country’s work on migratory fish in the Rio de la Plata Basin. IUCN indicated its willingness to work with the ScC to continue updating the list of threatened, transboundary migratory freshwater fish.
In plenary on Friday afternoon, Zeb Hogan, CMS Councillor for Fish, introduced the revised draft resolution on migratory freshwater fish (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.12/Rev.1), noting that comments made in the COW by IUCN and Paraguay had been integrated into the revised resolution. The EU and its member states asked to amend reference to the dates of the Strategic Plan to reflect that it was not for 2006-2014, but rather that there was a Strategic Plan 2006-2011 and an updated version for 2012-2014. The COP adopted the resolution.
Final Resolution:In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.12/Rev.1), the COP:
• requests parties and invites non-parties to strengthen measures to protect migratory freshwater fish species and to improve the monitoring of freshwater fish in order to assess the level of vulnerability of each population according to IUCN Red List criteria; and
• urges parties to submit listing proposals for those species highlighted in the review as threatened, as well as other species that would benefit from international cooperation.
Migratory marine turtles: On Friday, UNEP-WCMC introduced the main findings of the review on marine turtles (UNEP/CMS/10.45 and Inf.10.16). The US supported the cooperation between the MoUs on the conservation and management of marine turtles and their habitats of the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia and concerning conservation measures of marine turtles of the Atlantic coast of Africa as well as synergies among other turtle instruments.
The COP took note of the review.
Assessment of bycatch in gillnet fisheries: A marine issues working group, established on Monday, considered the draft resolution on assessment of bycatch in gillnet fisheries (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.14). On Thursday, Barry Baker (Australia), Chair of the working group, presented the revised resolution and associated documents in the COW (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.3, Res.10.14 and Inf.10.30). The EU and its member states supported the resolution, and said they would provide amendments, noting the resolution would enable an efficient approach for fisheries management.
On Friday afternoon in plenary, Chair Baker presented the revised resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.14/Rev.2), explaining that amendments included the removal of “overreliance” on a gillnet study that parties and the ScC had not had adequate time to review. Chair Størkersen said the dates associated with the Strategic Plan would be corrected in the text.
Ecuador supported the resolution, but said her country would send updated data on fisheries for the section on Ecuador contained in the information document referred to in the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Inf.10.30), and asked that this be included in the document. Chair Størkersen confirmed that the new data could be added. The COP adopted the resolution.
Final Resolution: In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.14/Rev.2), the COP urges parties to assess the risk of bycatch arising from their gillnet fisheries, as it relates to migratory species; and instructs the ScC to develop terms of reference for studies identifying the degree of interaction between gillnet fisheries and CMS-listed species.
Programme of work for cetaceans: On Thursday, the CMS Secretariat presented the draft resolution on the global programme of work for cetaceans (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.15), which had been considered by the marine issues working group. The Secretariat noted that it follows from a COP8 resolution on adverse human-induced impacts on cetaceans (UNEP/CMS/Res.8.22) for the development of a work programme for further strategic action.
On Friday, Working Group Chair Baker presented the revised draft resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.15/Rev.1). Outlining the extensive revisions from the working group, noting many of these were to remove duplication and clarify language, he said the resolution had been adjusted to ensure it was within the scope of the COP8 resolution.
Norway referred to a statement made by the Norwegian State Secretary of the Environment, announcing the lifting of some reservations to cetacean and shark listings on the appendices, noting this decision had been informed by the best available science. South Africa asked for correction of the dates of the Strategic Plan, and the EU and its member states asked the Secretariat to verify references to the Strategic Plan across all resolutions. Denmark announced the resolution had been accepted by Denmark and the Faroe Islands. The COP adopted the resolution.
Final Resolution: In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.15/Rev.1), the COP:
• reiterates its urgent call to parties and non-parties that exercise jurisdiction over any part of the range of cetacean species listed on CMS appendices, or over flag vessels that are engaged outside national jurisdictional limits, to cooperate, as appropriate, with relevant international organizations;
• urges parties and non-parties to promote the integration of cetacean conservation into all relevant sectors; and
• instructs the ScC and CMS Secretariat to address the actions foreseen in the global programme of work for cetaceans and review the regional threats for the remaining CMS-listed aquatic mammals.
Underwater noise: On Thursday in the COW, the CMS Secretariat introduced and outlined amendments to the draft resolution on further steps to abate underwater noise pollution for the protection of cetaceans and other migratory species (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.24/Rev.1), which had been considered by the marine issues working group, noting the revised title referred to “migratory species” rather than “biota.”
On Friday in plenary, Working Group Chair Baker said that this resolution builds on UNEP/CMS/Res. 9.9 and is needed because of the increase of noise pollution sources, particularly from offshore wind farms and other anthropogenic activities, adding that the resolution highlights the need for research and for collaboration with private sector to develop technologies that reduce noise in the sea.
The EU and its member states offered a change of text instructing “governing bodies,” rather than the “Secretariat” of the CBD and others, to keep these bodies informed on progress on this resolution. The COP adopted the resolution with these amendments.
Final Resolution: In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.24/Rev.2), the COP urges parties to prevent adverse effects on cetaceans and other migratory marine species by restricting the emission of underwater noise to the lowest necessary level; and urges parties to ensure that environmental impact assessments take full account of the effects of activities on cetaceans and consider potential impacts on marine biota and their migration routes.
Marine debris: The draft resolution on marine debris (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.4) was considered by the working group on marine issues. On Tuesday the Chair introduced the resolution, saying that comments from the UK, Norway and India had been incorporated into the text. It was agreed to include sharks among fauna affected by marine debris and the FAO among organizations working on or with knowledge on marine debris.
On Friday in plenary, Working Group Chair Baker introduced the revised resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.4/Rev.2) noting changes had been made to the definition of the term “marine debris,” and a paragraph proposed by Guinea had been added to request the CMS Secretariat to foster linkages with relevant regional and other international instruments. COP10 adopted the resolution.
Final Resolution: In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/10.4/Rev.2), the COP requests parties to report the amounts, impacts and sources of marine debris in waters within their jurisdiction on marine species listed on Appendix I and II of the Convention; and requests the ScC to identify gaps in marine debris management and best practices in waste management on marine vessels, to develop and improve codes of conduct.
WILDLIFE DISEASE AND MIGRATORY SPECIES: On Thursday in the COW, the CMS Secretariat reported on the Task Forces on Avian Influenza and Wildlife Diseases (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.42 and UNEP/CMS/Res.10.22), saying that the draft resolution highlights recent outbreaks of avian influenza and the need for constant monitoring and continued synergies between CMS and the World Health Organization (WHO), OIE and FAO on information and control of wildlife disease.
Chile called for recognition of the rising risk of transmission of wildlife diseases to domestic livestock and vice-versa. Norway also highlighted that livestock disease transmission to wildlife is prevalent. New Zealand recommended an extension of the Task Force mandate beyond 2012, adding that the process of verification of disease incidence reports may affect the speed of intervention. IUCN, supported by Birdlife International, said that the Species Survival Network deals with wildlife diseases and health through the Wildlife Health Specialist Group and asked that this be mentioned in the document. The Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) cited the 2004 “One World, One Health initiative,” which supports field veterinary programmes and research on transmission of diseases.
On Friday in plenary, the CMS Secretariat clarified that the name of the task force after consultations has been changed from “Scientific Task Force on Wildlife Diseases” to “Scientific Task Force for Wildlife Diseases and Ecosystem Health,” recommending this name be maintained in the resolution. The COP adopted the resolution with minor amendments.
Final Resolution: In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/10.22/Rev.1), the COP:
• requests parties to endorse the recommendation of the Scientific Task Force for Wildlife Diseases and Ecosystem Health to incorporate the Scientific Task Force on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds as a thematic working group;
• encourages parties to endorse the proposal for a modus operandi for conservation emergencies as a mechanism to improve the rapid response to mass mortality events affecting migratory species and other conservation emergencies; and
• urges parties, and invites other governments or donors, such as the GEF, to provide adequate financial support for workshops aimed at building cooperation across different conventions on wildlife disease issues.
GUIDELINES FOR SMALL-GRANTS PROGRAMMES: In the COW on Thursday, the CMS Secretariat introduced, and the COP took note of the revised Guidelines (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.43). The Secretariat said the Guidelines have become more relevant since the COP10 Donors Meeting on Tuesday, where funding was proposed for the programme. He remarked that the funding was for developing country projects that enhance conservation of CMS-listed species.
MIGRATORY AVIAN SPECIES: Bird flyway conservation policy: On Tuesday in the COW, noting the activities of the CMS Flyways Working Group during the intersessional period, the CMS Secretariat introduced the Bird Flyway Conservation Policy (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.23) and the associated draft resolution on guidance on global flyway conservation and options for policy arrangements (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.10). Taej Mundkur, Chair of the CMS Flyways Working Group, outlined the mandate, representation, review work and meetings of the working group, and described progress on global coordination and streamlining of work on flyways.
On Wednesday, many parties expressed support for the revised draft resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.10/Rev.1), including Kazakhstan, who highlighted work on cranes and ecological site networks, and BirdLife International, who pointed to conservation of albatrosses and petrels and to bycatch mitigation and monitoring measures. The Secretariat agreed to ensure this draft resolution is coordinated with the resolution on priorities for CMS Agreements (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.16). In discussions on Thursday in the COW, Australia supported the inclusion of reference to marine debris in the resolution, citing it as a threat to migratory birds.
In plenary on Friday, Australia proposed adding text on promoting actions to protect Antarctic seabirds, including through the Antarctic Treaty system and other relevant agreements. The EU and its member states asked for clarification on the role of AEWA, and, expressing concern about AEWA being referred to as an overarching framework CMS instrument, asked that the reference to “instrument” be deleted. The deletion, supported by Switzerland, was accepted. The COP adopted the resolution with some amendments.
Final Resolution: The resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.10/Rev.2) contains general recommendations and requests, and also outlines specific actions related to the following six flyways: African-Eurasian, American, Central Asian, East Asian-Australasian, Pacific, and Seabird. The COP:
• urges parties, invites range states and calls upon other partners and stakeholders to afford high priority to the conservation of sites and habitats identified as being of importance to migratory birds, and to carry out work to determine how best to manage landscapes, including the designation of protected transboundary habitat corridors and ecological networks;
• calls on parties and the CMS Secretariat to promote the collaborative conservation of migratory birds by working with other bodies whose prime objective is not wildlife conservation; and
• requests parties to review the coverage and protection status of current site networks and ensure that known key migratory stop-over sites are protected.
Improving the conservation status of migratory landbirds in the African-Eurasian region: On Thursday in the COW, Ghana introduced the draft resolution on measures for improving the conservation status of migratory landbirds in the African-Eurasian region (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.27) saying that landbirds were not adequately covered under existing instruments, including AEWA, and underscoring the urgent need to reduce landbird mortality. Senegal, Cameroon and Guinea commended Ghana for the resolution, and the EU and its member states supported the resolution and offered amendments in writing. Switzerland said they would like to participate in development of the action plan.
On Friday, the COP considered and adopted the revised resolution.
Final Resolution: In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.27/Rev.1), the COP, inter alia, urges parties and invites non-party range states and other stakeholders to:
• engage in cooperative activities to promote the sustainable management of migratory landbirds of the African-Eurasian flyway, in particular by, among other things, alleviating habitat degradation, eliminating unsustainable harvesting and monitoring population trends throughout the region; and
• with the CMS Secretariat, develop an Action Plan for the conservation of African-Eurasian migrant landbirds and their habitats throughout the flyway.
Taxonomy and nomenclature of birds listed on the appendices: On Thursday in the COW, the CMS Secretariat introduced the relevant document and draft resolution (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.32 and UNEP/CMS/Res.10.13). CITES welcomed the extension of cooperation on taxonomy and nomenclature of birds with CMS, noting it would reinforce the leadership role of CITES and CMS on species nomenclature.
On Friday afternoon in plenary, John O’Sullivan, CMS Appointed Councillor for Birds, presented the amended draft resolution on standardized nomenclature of birds listed on the CMS appendices (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.13/Rev.1), which had been considered in an informal drafting group on Thursday. He noted changes including the addition of an operative paragraph related to the evaluation of the possible adoption of a single nomenclature and taxonomy for birds, to be considered at COP11. The COP adopted the resolution, as amended.
Final Resolution: In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.13/Rev.1), the COP:
• adopts the taxonomy used by the African Census Analysis Project (ACAP) as the Convention’s standard nomenclatural reference for albatrosses and large petrels;
• adopts a rule for “aggregation cases” to take account of the merged species conservation status and the status of the merged component species;
• requests the ScC Chair to liaise with the Chairs of Scientific Advisory Bodies of biodiversity-related conventions, secretariats of relevant MEAs, and relevant international organizations, including IUCN, BirdLife International, Wetlands International and UNEP-WCMC, with the aim of evaluating the possible adoption of a single nomenclature and taxonomy for birds, and to inform ScC18, with a view to adopting a resolution at COP11; and
• instructs the CMS Secretariat to transmit the resolution to the CITES Secretariat, for consideration by CITES scientific bodies.
Minimizing the risks of poisoning to migratory birds: On Thursday in the COW, Switzerland introduced discussion on minimizing the risk of poisoning to migratory birds, and BirdLife International outlined the background document (UNEP/CMS/Inf.10.40) and draft resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.26). Calling the poisoning of migratory birds a significant and avoidable cause of mortality, BirdLife International listed the categories of poisoning to be considered by the proposed working group, including deliberate, accidental and secondary poisoning. Many delegations supported the resolution.
On Friday in plenary, New Zealand recommended an amendment to the effect that the working group will conduct its work “primarily” electronically. The COP adopted this resolution with the amendment.
Final Resolution: In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.26/Rev.1), the COP calls on parties, non-party range states and other stakeholders to engage in cooperative activities to address the poisoning of migratory birds. To this end, it calls on the ScC and Secretariat to establish, under the ScC, an intersessional working group to work electronically to undertake a detailed assessment of, inter alia, the scope and severity of poisoning for migratory bird species and significant knowledge gaps across range states or in specific areas.
The COP, among other things, decides that the working group should seek to include in its scope: deliberate use of poisons; unintentional poisoning through accidental or negligent misuse; primary poisoning of migratory animals through poison baits; secondary poisoning of migratory animals; and lead, especially ammunition.
PROPOSALS SUBMITTED BY PARTIES TO AMEND THE APPENDICES OF THE CONVENTION: On Wednesday, the CMS Secretariat introduced proposals submitted by CMS parties (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.15) to add five species to Appendix I and three species to Appendix II of the Convention. COP10 approved the listings.
Giant manta ray: On Wednesday, Ecuador presented the proposal to include the giant manta ray (Manta birostris) (Proposal I-5 and II-3) in Appendix I and II, highlighting its vulnerability to human exploitation such as direct or indirect fishing pressure.
The EU and its member states, Senegal, Australia, Chile, the US and others expressed support for the proposal. Norway highlighted the threatened status of M. alfredi, with Madagascar noting it would support its listing as well. Shark Advocates International, on behalf of a coalition of NGOs, expressed strong support for the proposal.
Final Decision: On Friday, the COP agreed to list the giant manta ray in Appendix I and II.
Argali mountain sheep: On Wednesday, Kazakhstan introduced the joint proposal with Tajikistan to list the Argali mountain sheep (Ovis ammon) (Proposal II-1) in Appendix II, noting their threatened status and the fact that their conservation requires a transboundary approach. He identified the saiga antelope MoU as a good precedent for a possible argali MoU.
Pakistan, India, Uzbekistan, the EU and its member states, Saudi Arabia, WCS and WWF-RUSSIA expressed support for the proposal.
Final Decision: On Friday, the COP agreed to list the argali mountain sheep in Appendix II.
Saker Falcon: On Wednesday in the COW, the EU and its member states introduced the proposal to list the saker falcon (Falco cherrug), excluding the population in Mongolia (Proposal I-1 Rev). Switzerland supported listing of the falcon, while Saudi Arabia questioned whether listing is the best tool to conserve and improve the status of the species. CITES called for coherence and consistency to inform the decision about this listing proposal.
The proposal was discussed by a working group chaired by Colin Galbraith (UK). The working group met Monday through Thursday and considered: the wide geographic range of the species and the interest in it; the need to align activities between CMS and CITES; and a suite of options, including listing, listing and developing an action plan or task force, not listing but still developing an action plan or task force, or doing nothing. Many members of the working group expressed the view that failure to list the species would not be consistent with the mandate given at COP9 to list the falcon unless data showed significant improvement in the status of the population. Others highlighted that, given that illegal trade is the main threat to the conservation of saker falcon, CITES is the most appropriate MEA to deal with its conservation.
On Friday, Uzbekistan introduced the proposal for listing the saker falcon, excluding the populations in Mongolia (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.15 and Annex/Rev.1), and an associated resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.28) noting the working group had reached consensus on the Appendix I listing conditional on the criteria contained in the resolution. Saker falcon working group Chair Galbraith outlined the resolution and urged provision of resources for its implementation. Kazakhstan, Mali, Ethiopia, the EU and its member states, Croatia and Nigeria supported the proposed listing and the resolution, with Nigeria lauding, inter alia, the working group’s efforts for coherence with other MEA processes, including CITES. While not opposing the listing, Egypt questioned whether an Appendix I listing was the appropriate measure, noting the lack of field data and the importance of the species in his region’s traditional culture. He asked that the COP report note this concern.
COP10 agreed to the listing of the saker falcon, excluding populations in Mongolia, in Appendix I, together with the resolution, with minor formatting amendments.
Final Resolution: In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.28), the COP:
• agrees to list the saker falcon in CMS Appendix I, excluding the population in Mongolia, and decides to establish an immediate concerted action;
• agrees to establish a task force;
• agrees that improvements in the conservation status in any range state may allow sustainable taking from the wild in that range state; and
• recommends to report to COP11, and to consider downlisting the saker falcon at that time.
Final Decision: On Friday, the COP agreed to list the saker falcon under Appendix I.
Red-footed falcon: On Wednesday, the EU and its member states presented their proposal to list the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus) (Proposal I-2) in Appendix I, noting this proposal is required by the action plan for the CMS Raptors MoU. Ukraine, noting it is a range state for the species, supported the proposal.
Final Decision:On Friday, the COP agreed to list the red-footed falcon under Appendix I.
Far-eastern curlew: On Wednesday, John O’Sullivan, CMS Appointed Councillor for Birds, presented two proposals for Appendix I listings (Proposals I-3 and 4): from the Philippines, for the far-eastern curlew (Numenius madagascariensis); and from the Cook Islands, for bristle-thighed curlew (N. tahitiensis). The EU supported both the listings.
Final Decision:On Friday, the COP agreed to list the far-eastern curlew and bristle-thighed curlew under Appendix I.
Bobolink: On Wednesday, O’Sullivan also presented a proposal from Bolivia to list the bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) (Proposal II-2) on Appendix II, explaining that, although the species is numerous, evidence suggests there has been a 52% decline in its population. This listing proposal was supported by Paraguay, Uruguay, Ecuador and Argentina.
Final Decision: On Friday, the COP agreed to list the bobolink under Appendix II.
CMS OUTREACH AND COMMUNICATION
OUTREACH AND COMMUNICATION ISSUES: On Thursday, the CMS Secretariat presented the report on the implementation for the Outreach and Communication Plan since COP9 (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.14 and Res.10.7/Rev.1). On Friday, the COP adopted the resolution with no amendments.
Final Resolution: In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.7/Rev.1), the COP endorses the CMS Outreach and Communication Plan for 2012-14; and agrees to provide adequate resources to support the implementation of the Plan in the CMS Budget for 2012-2014.
CAPACITY BUILDING: On Thursday in the COW, the CMS Secretariat introduced a report on the implementation of the capacity-building strategy work plan for the next triennium and the relevant resolution (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.16, Conf.10.17 and Res.10.6).
On Friday in plenary, the CMS Secretariat introduced the resolution on the capacity-building strategy. The EU and its member states asked to include reference to regional capacity-building workshops. Iran proposed adding a reference to ecosystem and community-based climate change adaptation training kits. The COP adopted the resolution with small additions.
Final Resolution: In the resolution (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.6/Rev.3), the COP calls on parties to provide ear-marked voluntary contributions for the implementation of the Capacity-Building Work Plan for 2012-2014; and support the CMS Secretariat in identifying capacity-building needs and implementing capacity-building activities.
“YEAR OF THE…” SPECIES CAMPAIGNS: On Thursday, the CMS Secretariat reported on campaigns on: the 2009 Year of the Gorilla; 2010 International Year of Biodiversity; 2011-2012 Year of the Bat; and the CMS/CBD collaboration on the annual World Migratory Day (UNEP/CMS/Conf.10.13).
CMS AMBASSADORS: On Thursday, the CMS Secretariat reported on, and the COW applauded, the role of CMS Ambassadors, thanking the four CMS Ambassadors: Kuki Gallmann, Peter Schei, Ian Redmond and Stanley Johnson.
On Friday, Chair Størkersen presented the resolution on the appointment and procedures for recruitment of a new Executive Secretary for CMS (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.29), highlighting that the appointment of the next Executive Secretary should be transparent, in consultation with parties and involving the participation of the StC. He said it requests that a qualified person be selected on a temporary basis until an appointment is made. In the plenary on Friday, delegates adopted the resolution.
Final Resolution: In the resolution on appointment procedures for the CMS Executive Secretary (UNEP/CMS/Res.10.29), the COP expresses its appreciation to Elizabeth Mrema for her work, and, following her decision to resign the post:
• stresses the need for the appointment of the next Executive Secretary to be carried out in a transparent way;
• emphasizes the desire of parties to be consulted on the matter in a full and timely manner; and
• requests the UNEP Executive Director to arrange for the recruitment of a new Executive Secretary, selected and appointed as a UNEP staff member in accordance with UN staff rules and regulations and following the procedure contained in an annex to the resolution, and to ensure continuity in the work of the Secretariat by the timely appointment of a suitably qualified person on a temporary basis in the interim.
THESIS AWARD CEREMONY: On Tuesday, the Secretariat held a COP10 Thesis Award Ceremony, with the winner, Lucy King, presenting her work on the interaction between the African elephant and the African honeybee and its application as an elephant deterrent.
On Friday, delegates adopted the meeting report. Elizabeth Mrema, CMS Executive Secretary, thanked the outgoing Chair of the StC Mohammed Saud Sulayem. Elsa Nickel (Germany) expressed appreciation to Elizabeth Mrema for her dedicated service to CMS.
Mrema thanked Norway for hosting COP10, and also thanked CMS Secretariat staff, the StC and ScC, and all partners, donors, parties, persons and organizations that worked to make COP10 a success.
Brita Slettemark (Norway) read closing remarks on behalf of Heidi Sørensen, State Secretary, Ministry of the Environment, and Erik Solheim, Minister of the Environment and International Development, highlighting, among other things, the importance of ecological networks between critical sites to the conservation of migratory species. She congratulated delegates on their work, but reminded them that “resolutions are just the beginning” and action is needed. She closed COP10 at 6:30 pm.
A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF CMS COP10
“The story of bird migration is the story of promise: a promise to return,” we are told in the opening to the film Winged Migration. Flocking together in the rainy, but charming, city of Bergen, Norway, participants to the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP10) to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) met to fulfill their promises to return to the negotiating table to find ways to set their course for the protection of migratory species. Delegates—including numerous members of the wider CMS family—demonstrated their dedication to the process, and laid the vital groundwork needed for the next leg of their journey.
Assessing the Convention in the context of the broader CMS family, including other biodiversity-related Conventions, this brief analysis examines how the negotiations concluded at COP10 strengthen the Convention and help set the course for its future and continued efforts to protect increasingly-threatened migratory species.
THE FLIGHT OF THE FALCON: COMMITTED, COHERENT AND SUSTAINABLE
The proposal to list the saker falcon under Appendix I was the focus of a working group throughout the week, but the discussions had implications for the Convention beyond the listing of a single species. Since parties at COP9 had agreed to list the falcon at COP10 if its population continued to decline, members of the working group reflected on the loss of the Convention’s credibility if these commitments are not honored.
The species warrants CMS listing based on its continued decline, according to the proposal submitted by the EU, which highlights threats to the falcons such as electrocution, persecution, habitat destruction and pesticide use. However, members noted that the main threat to the species—illegal trade—falls under the auspices of CITES, and pointed to risks of duplicating CITES’s work. Consequently, the working group reflected on how to reconcile the COP9 commitment with the current call for “coherence and consistency” with the activities of CITES.
Furthermore, discussions turned to the issue of sustainable use, through stories of falconry, presented not only as a driver of illegal trade but also as part of the cultural heritage of some of the countries represented in the working group. Many recognized sustainable use as a critical component of conservation efforts, which also emerged as a consideration in other discussions at the meeting, notably the Appendix II listing proposal for Argali mountain sheep, a species that owes its conservation and management in some range countries to proceeds from sustainable trophy hunting.
To reconcile these opposing considerations, and preserve the credibility of the Convention, members finally agreed to a compromise that would list the falcon, but include an adaptive provision for downlisting, to allow for taking of falcons, if their populations show signs of recovery.
MIGRATING TOGETHER—THE CMS FAMILY
Scientists have found that the V-shaped formation used by migrating geese serves two important purposes: first, it conserves their energy. Each bird flies slightly above the bird in front of him, to reduce wind resistance. The birds take turns being in front, falling back when they tire. The second benefit is that it is easy to keep track of every bird in the flock and assists with communication and coordination within the group. In these challenging economic times, it seems particularly fitting that CMS, as a convention focused on transboundary migratory species, should follow the example of some of the species it is designed to protect and operate as a flock of instruments. Holding formations, though, is not an easy task, and this section outlines the successes and ongoing challenges in coordination within and across CMS and associated biodiversity-related multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs).
CMS in the lead: parenting a family of instruments: In recent years, the Convention has grown exponentially, with a proliferation of memoranda of understanding (MoUs) and agreements. CMS Executive Secretary Elizabeth Mrema, in her opening address at COP10, referred to the CMS “family,” currently consisting of seven binding agreements and 19 MoUs and actions plans. While many consider this growth an indication of the Convention’s success, the responsibilities associated with these instruments are resource-intensive. Several delegates expressed concern that a number of the instruments are effectively “dormant,” with little funding or activity. Some also lamented that a single person in the CMS Secretariat shoulders the burden of managing 14 MoUs.
Some worried that even instruments with funding are largely supported by voluntary contributions, rather than the core budget, resulting in uncertainty in their long-term stability. One suggested that the pledge of US$4 million from the United Arab Emirates to raptors and dugongs (effectively supporting the CMS-Abu Dhabi office and these MoUs) creates an imbalance across instruments, and opined that a pledge to the core budget of the Convention would have been better. However, citing the participation of Russia in the saiga antelope MoU and the US in the migratory sharks MoU, another delegate commented that the funding and governance structures for MoUs provide unique opportunities even for non-parties to contribute to the implementation of the Convention.
Several other delegates and observers welcomed the flexibility and non-bureaucratic nature of the MoUs. One delegate quipped that CMS is an “unconventional convention,” as it allows non-parties to support initiatives under its associated agreements and MoUs, attracts funding from parties and non-parties alike and provides opportunities for NGOs to participate directly in implementation. Some suggested that the contribution to the Sharks MoU by the US, not a party to CMS, and to raptors and dugongs by the UAE, are both positive examples of how opportunities for targeted funding can attract support for CMS activities. It could, therefore, be argued that the potential of some of the CMS instruments needs to be realized, as they are the most important mechanisms for CMS species conservation efforts.
Flock advantages: CMS in the biodiversity cluster: At the same time that the CMS is attempting to rationalize the growth of its agreements, MoUs and action plans, the CMS flock is also part of the wider set of biodiversity-related MEAs. Across the UN system, efforts are underway to strengthen synergies and cooperation across MEAs and this was particularly evident at CMS COP10. Cooperation across MEAs and CMS instruments was visible even in the organization of COP10, for example, CITES provided one of its Secretariat staff members to assist CMS with the meeting.
The CMS Secretariat has engaged in a number of initiatives, including work on harmonized reporting systems, to streamline activities across its instruments and with the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), CITES and the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. To illustrate this greater cooperation, representatives from the latter two conventions spoke during the opening plenary and were also active participants throughout the week.
Efforts towards, and the benefits of, flying together were showcased by the Secretariat during COP10, including those led by other MEAs. CITES leadership, in particular, was highlighted, including its efforts on coordination of biodiversity-related MEA priorities to be included in the sixth replenishment period of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and on the development of National Biodiversity Strategic Action Plans (NBSAPs). Beyond MEAs, synergies with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were mentioned, with reference to the IUCN Red List highlighted in the discussion of guidelines for appendix listing proposals. COP10 also noted links between CMS and the private sector, from energy company RWE’s grant of €120,000 towards an independent review and development of guidelines for mitigating and avoiding the conflict between migratory birds and electricity power grids, to Lufthansa’s sponsorship of the triennial “CMS Thesis Award” for doctoral research related to migratory species conservation, and the travel company TUI’s leadership in the Year of the Dolphin campaign 2006-2007.
In spite of these cooperative accomplishments, the potential for further synergies still remains. Some commented that since this was a small COP, with only 300 participants, it did not yet represent the critical mass needed to provide a powerful voice for species protection. Others lamented the lack of a strong CBD presence at COP10. During the deliberations in the working group on the future shape of the Convention, the newly-formed Migratory Wildlife Network emphasized the desire of the NGO community to assist with implementation of the Convention and lamented the lack of NGO involvement in the discussions between COP9 and COP10 on the future shape. One participant observed that, in the lead up to the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD or Rio+20), now may be the time to look at the benefits of bringing CITES and CMS even closer together, in line with synergies achieved in the chemicals-related cluster of MEAs. Further, one opening segment speaker warning against “preaching to the converted,” and speakers in a number of presentations underscored the need to reach out beyond conservation-focused MEAs and organizations. The need for partnerships with the private sector were raised in discussions during the week, with speakers on powerlines and bird electrocutions calling for collaboration with the energy sector, and those speaking on underwater noise pointing to the need to work with construction and infrastructure companies. Recognizing the ongoing need for broader cooperation, parties made efforts to include external agencies in their future work, with, for example, one resolution containing a request to the GEF to contribute to CMS work on ecological networks.
FUTURE FLYWAYS AND FLIGHT PATHS
The inevitable practical and financial challenges of parenting an expanding family, along with ongoing questions about the most effective role for CMS within the MEA biodiversity cluster were not new to the COP. These same questions, on how to best structure CMS to achieve its aims and benefit the entire flock, led parties, at COP9, to launch an introspective process to consider the future shape of the Convention and its instruments, and the results of this intersessional process were taken up in Bergen.
Some delegates wondered at the beginning of the week, whether they could meet the high expectations from COP9 to mark a turning point in the Convention’s ability to address current and future challenges. Given that many of the activities identified for the next phase of the future shape process involve gap analyses and resource assessment, a number of delegates worried about the amount of resources being spent purely on understanding the current state of play, and that a great deal of work remains before any real changes can be made.
In spite of these concerns, however, the future shape of the Convention took a central position in COP10 discussions, and this close association between institutional design and the budget continued as a joint working group addressed both issues throughout the week. The working group made real progress through a time-consuming meticulous process of matching the prioritized activities outlined by the intersessional working group against the resources available for the next triennium, providing guidance to the Secretariat work programme and highlighting what is needed in voluntary contributions. The value of tapping the institutional memory of elder statesmen like the CMS Ambassadors was shown in their engagement in the working group discussions as they proposed establishment of a secondary budget for voluntary contributions, similar to budgets set up by the Ramsar Convention and CITES.
As with the geese formations, delegates looked at synergies as a way to further CMS efforts while conserving resources. Possibilities included reshaping the Scientific Council (ScC) to combine its work across the CMS family, and harmonize with other MEAs. Such initiatives with the potential for cost-savings were particularly welcomed by some delegations concerned about this era of financial austerity where budget discussions already struggled with how to fund existing activities. Others, however, questioned whether such initiatives would work in reality given the scientific work under each instrument is species-specific. It remains to be seen where these discussions will lead in the next triennium.
While major transformations were not realized at COP10, many were encouraged by agreement that the ongoing future plan process would inform the next strategic plan, for 2015-2023, and hoped this would improve the effectiveness of the Convention and allow it to address the increasing threats to many species. Others hoped that direction to the Scientific Council to identify the potential future use of ecological networks, contained in the resolution on the role of ecological networks in the conservation of migratory species, would create connectivity between species and ecosystem-based conservation approaches. A number of welcome MoU signings, Appendix I and II listings and the announcement by Norway of the lifting of reservations on a number of cetaceans and two species of sharks on the appendices, also buoyed participants’ spirits.
COP10 represented a stop-over site on the CMS migration towards its new shape. As a result of the painstaking work of the budget/future shape working group to match future shape activities with budget lines, delegates set a clear, costed route in the next triennium for the more detailed analysis of the gaps and needs for the CMS family, with the objective of strengthening the Convention’s contribution to the conservation, management and sustainable use of migratory species. As some delegates began meetings for MOP2 of the Gorilla MoU, while others took a last wander through the cobbled streets before heading home, the end of COP10 left clear the continued commitment of parties and organizations to fly together.
CBD Regional Workshop for Mesoamerica on Updating NBSAPs: This workshop aims to: strengthen national capacities for the development, implementation, review, updating and communication of national biodiversity strategies and action plans (NBSAPs); help facilitate national implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020; and translate it into national targets and commitments. dates: 28 November - 2 December 2011 location: San Jose, Costa Rica contact: CBD Secretariat phone: +1-514-288-2220 fax: +1-514-288-6588 email: email@example.com www: http://www.cbd.int/doc/?meeting=CBWNBSAP-MA-02
Eighth Regular Session of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission: The premier issue for the WCPFC this year is adoption of a replacement measure for Conservation and Management Measure (CMM) 2008-01, CMM for Bigeye and Yellowfin Tuna in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean. dates: 5-9 December 2011 location: Koror, Palau contact: WCPFC Secretariat phone: +691-320-1992/1993 fax: +691-320-1108 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www: http://wcpfc.int/meetings/2011/8th-regular-session-commission
CBD Regional Workshop on Updating NBSAPs (Central and Eastern Europe): The purpose of this workshop is to strengthen national capacities for the development, implementation, review, updating and communication of national biodiversity strategies and action plans (NBSAPs); help facilitate national implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020; and translate the Strategic Plan into national targets and commitments. dates: 5-8 December 2011 location: Minsk, Belarus contact: CBD Secretariat phone: +1-514-288-2220 fax: +1-514-288-6588 email: email@example.com www: http://www.cbd.int/nbsap/workshops2/cee/
CBD Second Workshop on Updating NBSAPs (South, East, and South-East Asia): The purpose of this follow-up workshop is to address various issues that countries in the region may have encountered or will encounter while updating their national biodiversity strategies and action plans (NBSAPs), with a focus on target setting, stakeholder engagement and the development of country-specific plans for mobilizing financial resources for the implementation of NBSAPs. dates: 6-10 December 2011 location: Dehradun, India contact: CBD Secretariat phone: +1-514-288-2220 fax: +1-514-288-6588 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www: http://www.cbd.int/doc/?meeting=CBWNBSAP-SEASI-03
CBD Joint Expert Meeting on Addressing Biodiversity Concerns in Sustainable Fisheries: This meeting will review the extent to which biodiversity concerns are addressed in existing assessments; review the impacts on marine and coastal biodiversity of pelagic fisheries of lower trophic levels; and propose options to address biodiversity concerns in sustainable fisheries management and related assessments. dates: 7-9 December 2011 location: Bergen, Norway contact: CBD Secretariat phone: +1-514-288-2220 fax: +1-514-288-6588 email: email@example.com www: http://www.cbd.int/doc/?meeting=JEM-BCSF-01
Sixth Meeting of the IOSEA Signatory States: This meeting was to take place in December 2011, but has been postponed due to flooding in Bangkok. New dates in January 2012 are expected to be selected. The Sixth Meeting of the Indian Ocean-South-East Asian Memorandum of Understanding (IOSEA MOU) under the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS) will mark the tenth anniversary of IOSEA. date: 3 January 2012 (tentative) location: Bangkok, Thailand contact: IOSEA Secretariat phone: +662-288-1471 fax: +662-280-3829 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www: http://www.cms.int/species/iosea/IOSEAturtle_bkgd.htm
International Symposium on Water and Wetlands in the Mediterranean “From Grado to Agadir: The Next 20 Years”: This symposium aims to review the current situation of water and wetlands in the Mediterranean, assess the new challenges and plan for the next 20 years. dates: 6-8 February 2012 location: Agadir, Morocco contact: Agadir 2012 International Symposium Secretariat phone: +30-210-808-9270 fax: +30-210-808-9274 email: email@example.com www: http://agadir2012.medwet.org/
Head of Police and Customs Seminar on Tiger Crime: This meeting of senior police and customs officials from tiger range countries will identify and implement a plan of action. dates: 13-14 February 2012 location: Bangkok, Thailand contact: Interpol Environmental Crime fax: +33-4-72-44-71-63 www: http://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Environmental-crime/
Twelfth Special Session of the UNEP Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum: The Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) will focus on the UNCSD themes of the green economy and the institutional framework for sustainable development. dates: 20-22 February 2012 location: Nairobi, Kenya contact: Secretary, Governing Bodies, UNEP phone: +254-20-762-3431 fax: +254-20-762-3929 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www: http://www.unep.org/resources/gov/
CBD Expert Meeting on Compliance under the Nagoya Protocol: This meeting will address cases of non-compliance will be organized by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), pending confirmation of the availability of funds. dates: 28 February - 1 March 2012 location: Montreal, Canada contact: CBD Secretariat phone: +1-514-288-2220 fax: +1-514-288-6588 email: email@example.com www: http://www.cbd.int/doc/?meeting=ABSEM-COMP-01
CITES Animals Committee 26: This meeting will address a number of agenda items, including: sharks, snakes, sturgeons, corals, and listing criteria for commercially exploited aquatic species. dates: 15-20 March 2012 location: Geneva, Switzerland contact: CITES Secretariat phone: +41-22-917-8139/40 fax: +41-22-797-3417 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www: http://www.cites.org/eng/com/AC/index.php
Joint meeting of the CITES Animals and Plants Committees: The joint meeting of the CITES Animals and Plants Committees will address agenda items common to the two scientific committees, including: cooperation with other conventions; guidelines on non-detriment findings; transport of live specimens; and the evaluation of the Review of Significant Trade. dates: 22-24 March 2012 location: Dublin, Ireland contact: CITES Secretariat phone: +41-22-917-8139/40 fax: +41-22-797-3417 email: email@example.com www: http://www.cites.org/eng/news/calendar.shtml
CITES Plants Committee 20: This meeting will address agenda items, including: orchids; aloes and Euphorbia; and application of the definition of “artificial propagation” to cultivated material in plant nurseries dates: 26-30 March 2012 location: Dublin, Ireland contact: CITES Secretariat phone: +41-22-917-8139/40 fax: +41-22-797-3417 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www: http://www.cites.org/eng/com/PC/index.php
CBD SBSTTA 16: The 16th meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is organized by the CBD Secretariat. dates: 30 April - 4 May 2012 location: Montreal, Canada contact: CBD Secretariat phone: +1-514-288-2220 fax: +1-514-288-6588 email: email@example.com www: http://www.cbd.int/meetings/
The Fourth East Asian Seas Congress 2012: This meeting will convene from May to August. date: 1 May 2012 location: in Yeosu, Republic of Korea contact: PEMSEA Secretariat phone: 632-929-2992 fax: 632-926-9712 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www: http://eascongress.pemsea.org/international-conference
AEWA MOP 5: The fifth session of the Meeting of the Parties (MOP 5) to African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA) will be organized by the UNEP/AEWA Secretariat and will convene in La Rochelle, France. dates: 14-18 May 2012 location: La Rochelle, France contact: UNEP/AEWA Secretariat phone: +49-228-815-2414 fax: +49-228-815-2450 email: email@example.com www: http://www.unep-aewa.org/meetings/en/mop/mop5_docs/mop5.htm
UN Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD: This meeting is also referred to as Rio+20 will mark the 20th anniversary of the UN Conference on Environment and Development, which convened in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. dates: 20-22 June 2012 location: Rio De Janeiro, Brazil contact: UNCSD Secretariat email: firstname.lastname@example.org www: http://www.uncsd2012.org/
Ramsar COP 11: This is the 11th meeting of the contracting parties (COP 11) to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat. dates: 6-13 July 2012 location: Bucharest, Romania contact: Ramsar Secretariat phone: +41-22-999-0170 fax: +41-22-999-0169 email: email@example.com www: http://www.ramsar.org
30th Session of the FAO Committee on Fisheries: The 30th session of COFI will review activities of the COFI Sub-Committees on Aquaculture and Fish Trade, progress on the implementation of the CCRF and associated IPOAs, and the priorities for the FAO work programme on these issues. dates: 9-13 July 2012 location: Rome, Italy contact: Hiromoto Watanabe, FAO phone: +39-06-5705-6500 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www: http://www.fao.org/fishery/about/cofi/meetings/en
IUCN World Conservation Congress 2012: The Congress theme will be Nature+, a slogan that captures the fundamental importance of nature and its inherent link to every aspect of people’s lives. including Nature+climate, nature+livelihoods, nature+energy and nature+economics. dates: 6-15 September 2012 venue: International Convention Center location: Jeju, Republic of Korea contact: Secretariat phone: +41-22-999 0336 fax: +41-22-999-0002 email: email@example.com www: http://www.iucnworldconservationcongress.org/
CBD COP 11: The agenda includes consideration of, inter alia: the status of the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits arising from their Utilization; implementation of the Strategic Plan 2011-2020 and progress towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets; issues related to financial resources and the financial mechanism; and biodiversity and climate change. dates: 8-19 October 2012 location: Hyderabad, India contact: CBD Secretariat phone: +1-514-288-2220 fax: +1-514-288-6588 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www: http://www.cbd.int/
CITES COP 16: The 16th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention in International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is expected to convene in March 2013. dates: 3-15 March 2013 location: Thailand contact: CITES Secretariat phone: +41-22-917-81-39/40 fax: +41-22-797-34-17 email: email@example.com www: http://www.cites.org/
CMS COP 11: The next meeting of the CMS Conference of the Parties will be in the period October - December 2014. dates: tbc location: Paraguay contact: UNEP/CMS Secretariat phone: +49-228-815-2426 fax: +49-228-815-2449 email: firstname.lastname@example.org www: http://www.cms.int/