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ENB on the side
published by IISD, the International Institute for Sustainable Development
in cooperation with the Climate Change Secretariat.
Special Report on Selected Side Events at UNFCCC COP-9
01 - 12 December 2003, Milan, Italy
Summary of the Side Events from COP-9
Mon 01 Dec
Tues 02 Dec
Wed 03 Dec
Thu 04 Dec
Fri 05 Dec
Sat 06 Dec
Mon 08 Dec
Tue 09 Dec
Wed 10 Dec
Thu 11 Dec
Fri 12 Dec

Events convened on Friday, 12 December 2003

South-North Dialogue: Equity in the greenhouse

Presented by the Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy

Holger Liptow, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), said the South-North Dialogue is a process that aims to explore alternatives for negotiations of future commitments, and noted that a report will be published in 2004.

Bernd Brouns, Wuppertal Institute, said the South-North Dialogue project brings together researchers from developing and developed countries to exchange views on the further development of the climate change regime, and build trust among developing and developed countries. He announced a workshop on the issue that will be held in Cape Town, South Africa, in January 2004 to finalize the report and policy recommendations.

Hermann Ott, Wuppertal Institute, observed that the EU has exercised structural, instrumental and directional leadership in the climate change negotiations so far. He highlighted the importance of coalitions between key developed and developing countries to move the issue of future commitments forward. He suggested a special meeting of the friends of the Kyoto Protocol to reaffirm countries' commitments and ensure the Protocol's ratification.

Harald Winkler, University of Cape Town, highlighted the need to differentiate among developing countries in order to identify those countries that should make commitments due to their responsibility and capability. He noted that the Cape Town workshop will attempt to develop a matrix grouping countries according to their different characteristics.

Atiq Rahman, Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies, said that the climate change regime must be based on equity. He highlighted the need to translate policy into action, and increase stakeholder participation at all levels. Rahman noted the need to evolve from data to information, knowledge and hopefully wisdom.

M. J. Mace, Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development, underscored the importance of linking mitigation to adaptation commitments, and noted that developed countries must take the lead not only on mitigating climate change but also on addressing adaptation activities in developing countries.

Yasuko Kameyama, National Institute for Environmental Studies, noted that Japan is collaborating with other Asia-Pacific countries on climate change issues, and highlighted the importance of discussing equity issues in order to progress in the climate change negotiations.

Sivan Kartha, Equity and Diversity Resource Center, noted that equity and sustainable development can be seen as co-benefits of addressing climate change, including pollution reduction and economic benefits, or as preconditions for addressing climate change, including political acceptability.

Agus Sari, Pelangi, noted that the South-North Dialogue focuses its discussions on principles, processes, institutions and markets to assist countries in negotiating their future commitments. He underscored the need to engage stakeholders to discuss alternatives for moving forward in the climate change negotiations.

Hermann Ott, Wuppertal Institute, suggestes a special meeting of the friends of the Kyoto Protocol.
Atiq Rahman, Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies, notes the need to evolve from data to information, knowledge and hopefully wisdom.


Holger Liptow <>
Hermann Ott <>
Sivan Kartha <>
M. J. Mace <>
Harald Winkler <>
Atiq Rahamn <>
Agus Sari <>
Bernd Brouns <>
Yasuko Kameyama <>

Linking Article 2 and Article 6 of the Convention: Experiments in Belgium using the Java Climate Model

Presented by the Delegation of Samoa and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM)

Jean-Pascal van Ypersele, Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), presented experiences from a role-play of future climate change negotiations with students from UCL using the interactive Java Climate Model.

He noted that 60 university students were grouped into 17 delegations and had the task of agreeing by consensus to a quantitative interpretation of UNFCCC Article 2 and an equitable formula for funding adaptation. Van Ypersele explained that such experiments can help to implement Article 6 on education, training and public awareness, and highlight science and policy questions for future negotiations.

Ben Matthews, UCL, explained that in preparing for the role-play, the students used the Java Climate Model to explore options and uncertainties. He noted that by selecting parameters and indicators, the model can clarify diverse positions.

Matthews noted that the model is interactive and demonstrates cause and effect links from greenhouse gas emissions to impacts. He underscored that the model allows for parameters to be adjusted to explore uncertainties, and illustrates flexible scenarios and regional distributions of both historical responsibility and climate change.

Explaining that the model is available on the Internet, Matthews noted that it operates with an open-source code and has extensive documentation with a graphical interface that is translated into 10 languages.

Jean-Pascal van Ypersele, UCL, demonstrates the role-play of future climate negotiations with the participation of six UCL students representing different delegations.
Ben Matthews, UCL, says that we can build on the experiences from the role-play of future climate change negotiations and better understand how to negotiate and involve groups from around the world.


Jean-Pascal van Ypersele <>
Ben Matthews <>

Dispute resolution in the climate change regime

Presented by the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)

Noting that the PCA is the longest-running intergovernmental organization for the peaceful settlement of disputes, Dane Ratliff, PCA, explains that the PCA offers procedures for, and facilitates, fact-finding, conciliation, and arbitration. He noted that the PCA's environmental rules provide a "unified forum" for dispute resolution relating to environmental and natural resources, and are especially important in the context of the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, as there may be multiple claimant and respondent Parties to a dispute.

Regarding the applicability of the PCA rules to the climate change regime, Ratliff said PCA rules could serve as the arbitration procedures contemplated under UNFCCC Article 14(2), or by agreement of Parties under 14(1), on dispute settlement. In particular, he said the PCA could administer arbitration, conciliation or fact-finding in cases of disputes between UNFCCC or Kyoto Protocol Parties, and the PCA could be called on to address disputes between Parties and non-State entities, or two or more non-State entities involved in the Kyoto Protocol's flexible mechanisms.

Ratliff identified potential areas of dispute under the Kyoto Protocol, highlighting those related to emissions trading, the clean development mechanism (CDM) and joint implementation, including: host-country agreements; lack of procedures for apportioning risk and assigning liability; project design; bilateral agreements; non-State actors involved in CDM brokering; private contracts requiring enforcement where estimated reductions are not actually attained by the project; and delivery issues. Underscoring the benefits of arbitration, he noted that the mere existence of an arbitration clause in agreements can often serve to prevent disputes before they arise, and that an arbitral tribunal composed of Party-appointed neutrals offers assurance of impartiality.

Dane Ratliff, PCA, explains that the Court is available to States and non-State entities.

More information:

Dane Ratliff <>

The Earth Negotiations Bulletin (ENB) on the side is a special publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) in cooperation with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Secretariat. This issue has been written by Fiona Koza <>, Karen Alvarenga de Oliveira <>, Kaori Kawarabayashi <>, Catherine Ganzleben <> and Lauren Flejzor <>. The Digital Editor is David Fernau <> the photographers are David Fernau and Leila Mead <> and the online assistant is Diego Noguera <>. The Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James "Kimo" Goree VI <>. Funding for publication of ENB on the side at UNFCCC COP-9 is provided by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The opinions expressed in ENB on the side are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and funders. Excerpts from ENB on the side may be used in non-commercial publications only and only with appropriate academic citation. For permission to use this material in commercial publications, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at <>. Electronic versions of issues of ENB on the side from COP-9 can be found on the Linkages website at:

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