Sustainable Developments

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16-19 JUNE 2003

The International Expert Meeting on a 10-Year Framework of Programmes for Sustainable Consumption and Production convened from 16-19 June 2003, at the Palais des Congrès, in Marrakesh, Morocco. The meeting was organized by the Division for Sustainable Development of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA/DSD), in co-operation with the UN Environment Programme (UNEP). The aim of the meeting was to work towards the development of a 10-Year Framework in support of regional and national initiatives to promote sustainable consumption and production. The need for such a framework was endorsed in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI) negotiated during the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002. The purpose of the 10-Year Framework is to promote and facilitate international cooperation in moving toward sustainable consumption and production, among countries, international organizations, the private sector, environmental and consumer groups, and other non-governmental organizations (NGOs).

Over 100 participants from 54 countries attended this expert meeting, including representatives of government agencies, intergovernmental organizations, NGOs, and business and industry groups. Delegates were assisted in their work by a Discussion Paper prepared by UN DESA/DSD, which summarized information on international and regional activities relating to sustainable consumption and production and suggested ways to strengthen international efforts on the issue. A Survey of International Activities on Consumption and Production Patterns carried out by UN DESA/DSD also served as input for the meeting.

The meeting consisted of a number of Plenary sessions, which were co-chaired by Mohamed Arrouchi (Morocco) and Viveka Bohn (Sweden). These sessions provided participants with an overview of sustainable consumption and production patterns and an opportunity to hear the reports of regional expert meetings on sustainable consumption and production held recently for the Asia-Pacific and the Latin America and Caribbean regions. Delegates also reviewed the Discussion Paper prepared by UN DESA/DSD and listened to keynote presentations on the role of public purchasing power and consumer behavior in promoting sustainable consumption and production.

In addition to the Plenary sessions, participants also convened from 17-18 June in four working groups to discuss: human settlements and sustainable consumption and production; general policy instruments and analytical tools for sustainable consumption and production; tools for promoting sustainable consumption patterns; and tools for changing production patterns. Each working group met in four parallel sessions and addressed issues relating to the Discussion Paper.

An official report of this meeting will serve as expert input to the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) for its consideration as part of its future work on sustainable consumption and production.


The CSD emerged from Agenda 21, the programme of action adopted by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Agenda 21 called for the creation of the CSD to ensure effective follow-up of UNCED, enhance international cooperation, and examine progress in implementing Agenda 21 at the local, national, regional and international levels. Chapter Four of Agenda 21 highlighted unsustainable patterns of production and consumption and focused on developing national policies and strategies to encourage changes in such patterns.

The CSD held its first substantive session in June 1993 and has met annually since. At its third session, in 1995, the CSD adopted an International Work Programme on Changing Consumption and Production Patterns, which addressed: trends in consumption and production patterns; the impacts on developing countries of changes in consumption patterns in developed countries; policy measures to change consumption and production patterns; voluntary commitments from countries; indicators for measuring changes in consumption and production patterns; and revision of the UN Guidelines for Consumer Protection.

In June 1997, five years after UNCED, the 19th UN General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS-19), also known as "Rio+5," was held to review the implementation of Agenda 21. Negotiations produced a Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21. Among the decisions adopted at UNGASS was a five-year CSD work programme, which identified sectoral, cross-sectoral and economic sector issues and established the main themes to be considered in the CSD’s four subsequent sessions. In the context of this work programme, sustainable consumption and production patterns continued to be an "overriding issue" on the CSD agenda for each year. 

WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: On 20 December 2000, the General Assembly adopted resolution 55/199 on the 10-year review of progress achieved in implementing the outcomes of UNCED. In this resolution, the General Assembly decided to organize a 10-year review of UNCED in 2002 at the summit level to reinvigorate the global commitment to sustainable development. The General Assembly accepted South Africa’s offer to host the Summit, which was called the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD). Among other things, the resolution decided that CSD-10 would serve as the open-ended preparatory committee (PrepCom) for the Summit.

Four sessions of CSD-10 were held between April 2001 and June 2002. Chaired by Emil Salim (Indonesia), the PrepCom conducted a comprehensive review and assessment of progress achieved in the implementation of Agenda 21. At PrepCom IV, held in Bali, Indonesia, from 27 May to 7 June 2002, a draft Plan of Implementation was negotiated and was transmitted to the Summit for further negotiation. The Bali PrepCom also produced a non-negotiated document containing guidelines, known as the Bali Guiding Principles, for the development of voluntary partnerships – or "Type II" outcomes.

The WSSD convened from 26 August to 4 September 2002, in Johannesburg, South Africa, and adopted two main documents: the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI) and the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development. Over 200 non-negotiated partnerships and initiatives for sustainable development aimed at implementing Agenda 21 were launched during the WSSD, supplementing commitments made by governments through the intergovernmental process.

The JPOI is designed as a framework for action to implement the UNCED commitments, and also includes a number of new agreements. Chapter III of the JPOI on "Changing Unsustainable Patterns of Consumption and Production" contains a section endorsing action to encourage and promote the development of a 10-Year Framework in support of regional and national initiatives to accelerate the shift towards sustainable consumption and production. It calls for, inter alia: the promotion of social and economic development within the carrying capacity of ecosystems by delinking economic growth from environmental degradation through improving the sustainability of resource use; an increase in the efficiency of production processes; and the reduction of resource degradation, pollution and waste generation. It further calls for integrating the issue of production and consumption patterns into sustainable development policies, programmes and strategies.

In February 2003, the UNGA adopted resolution 57/253, endorsing the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, and adopting sustainable development as a key element of the overarching framework for UN activities, in particular for achieving internationally-agreed development goals, including those contained in the UN Millennium Declaration. The resolution requested the CSD to hold its eleventh session in April/ May 2003 and consider how it could contribute towards achieving the outcomes agreed at the WSSD. It also requested the Secretary-General to prepare a report containing proposals on the modalities of the future work of the Commission, taking into account decisions in the JPOI.

At its eleventh session, held from 28 April to 9 May 2003, in New York, the CSD adopted a Multi-Year Programme of Work for the period 2004-2017, with selected issues for detailed consideration in each two-year period. Changing unsustainable patterns of consumption and production was identified as a cross-cutting issue to be addressed in the context of other issues for all periods. In addition, the 10-Year Framework was selected for in-depth consideration in 2010/2011. Progress on the development and implementation of the 10-Year Framework, and reports on sustainable consumption and production issues as applied to the themes for each period, will be submitted to the Commission at each of the biennial Review Sessions. A detailed report covering work on all aspects of sustainable consumption and production will be submitted in 2010 for consideration as part of the Commission’s assessment of the issue.


On Monday, 16 June, Mohammed Elmorabit, Morocco’s Secretary of State of the Environment, opened the meeting by welcoming participants to Morocco and highlighting sustainable consumption and production as a key topic within the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI). Referring to the imbalance in production and consumption between developing countries and developed countries, he emphasized the need for a global strategy based on solidarity and cooperation between the North and South. He stated that the goals of this meeting were to ensure the elaboration of the 10-Year Framework, promote the sharing of information, and find ways to improve international cooperation on sustainable consumption and production. He identified globalization as an important catalyst for the transmission of technologies and hoped that the meeting would contribute to international work on sustainable consumption and production.

JoAnne DiSano, Director of the Division for Sustainable Development of UN DESA, said the meeting represented an important step towards implementing at the national level sustainable development policies that have been agreed during numerous international meetings. She emphasized that sustainable development must move from policy debate and dialogue to practice. DiSano highlighted the Johannesburg Summit’s calls for all countries to, inter alia: promote sustainable consumption and production, with developed countries taking the lead; develop a 10-Year Framework to accelerate sustainable consumption and production; and promote social and economic development taking into account the needs and capabilities of developing countries. She highlighted the importance of changing current patterns of consumption and production in order to meet the needs of future generations.

DiSano drew attention to the fact that increases in production need to be coupled with reductions in environmental impacts in both developed and developing countries. She stated that the experience of developed countries demonstrates the difficulties in shifting to sustainable consumption and production patterns while also providing examples of where modest capital investment had successfully promoted economic growth while reducing environmental degradation. DiSano noted that participants attending this meeting possessed the necessary expertise to identify countries’ needs and determine ways to design international programmes to meet these needs. She stressed that the effectiveness of the 10-Year Framework would depend on the financial support of donor countries to ensure that resources are available to focus on the priorities identified. She explained that the meeting’s outcome will reflect various national and regional experiences and provide inputs to the CSD.

Bas de Leeuw, Coordinator of the Sustainable Consumption Programme of UNEP’s Division on Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE) , highlighted that this event would assist in identifying the next steps in developing the 10-Year Framework. He stressed that sustainable consumption and production is at the heart of sustainable development and is crucial to achieving economic growth, improving living standards and using resources efficiently. De Leeuw said this meeting of experts should focus on identifying countries’ needs and priorities regarding sustainable consumption and production, moving toward policy implementation, and raising public awareness. He expressed the hope that the two regional meetings held recently in Argentina and Indonesia would inspire other regions to host similar events. De Leeuw highlighted the importance of further cooperation among all UN agencies for the success of the 10-Year Framework. He concluded that individuals living in poverty should be assisted in becoming consumers with access to reasonably priced, high quality products and services.

Majid Boutaleb, President of the Moroccan Cleaner Production Centre (MCPC), said this meeting would seek to promote further cooperation among different countries and organizations in order to identify adequate tools to advance sustainable consumption and production. He noted that national and international programmes and initiatives can accelerate the shift to sustainable consumption and production modes. Highlighting the importance of stakeholder participation in preventing environmental degradation, he stressed the need to encourage industries to use natural resources more efficiently and to reduce pollutant emissions. Boutaleb outlined Morocco’s experience in enhancing partnerships among the public and private sectors to promote sustainable development, and said the MCPC is an example of these partnerships. He noted that the MCPC’s goals include raising public awareness and diffusing information relating to sustainable consumption and production, developing cleaner technologies, and promoting good governance.

Viveka Bohn, Ambassador, Swedish Ministry of the Environment, emphasized that individuals’ daily decisions influence production and consumption, and identified the need to explore win-win situations where consumer demands are satisfied and the environment protected. She encouraged participants to engage in concrete discussions and to identify actions, institutions and tools to promote sustainable consumption and production. In reviewing the objectives of the 10-Year Framework, Bohn emphasized the need to improve or increase: cooperation between international organizations and countries; coherence between policies; coordinated monitoring and assessment activities; education and public awareness; and stakeholder participation.


In addition to the opening speeches outlined above, delegates also heard a number of keynote presentations during the course of the meeting. These focused on a variety of relevant issues, including the use of purchasing power as a tool for changing production patterns, the Discussion Paper prepared by UN DESA, and consumer behavior and sustainable development.

PUBLIC PURCHASING POWER AS A TOOL FOR CHANGING PRODUCTION PATTERNS: On Monday afternoon, 16 June, Laura Ceneviva, Department of Environmental Planning of the City of São Paulo, Brazil, spoke about using public purchasing power as a tool for changing production patterns. She highlighted how the municipality of São Paulo is changing its pattern of production towards sustainable development and outlined her department’s experience at the local level. She said São Paulo is shifting from being a production-oriented to a service-oriented city. Ceneviva highlighted the problems that Brazil faced with decreasing energy supply and described how consumers in all sectors responded by reducing their energy consumption by 10% in a short time period. Noting that the poor in São Paulo play a crucial role in recycling paper and cans, she stressed that waste management policies must recognize their interests. Highlighting the difficulties in managing a city where individuals have different levels of income and literacy, Ceneviva said the concept of sustainable development implemented in São Paulo has economic, environmental and social dimensions. She highlighted her city’s achievements in promoting sustainable consumption and production in the sectors of civil construction, government procurement, the wood and furniture industries, waste management, and the paper industry.

DISCUSSION PAPER: Ralph Chipman, UN DESA/DSD, presented a Discussion Paper prepared by the UN DESA/DSD for this meeting. Stressing that it was not intended as a definitive work, he invited inputs from other participants. Highlighting the value of Chapter III of the JPOI in defining the meeting’s scope, he pointed out the need to avoid duplication with other major international programmes. He explained that the Discussion Paper did not address energy and chemical issues because of their complexity and broad scope. He then outlined the Discussion Paper’s structure, which includes sections on urban management and transportation, policy and analysis on general policy instruments for sustainable consumption and production, tools for changing consumer behavior, and tools for changing producer behavior. Recognizing the limited availability of resources at the international level, he urged participants to prioritize areas in which initial efforts should be concentrated under the 10-Year Framework. Highlighting the need to identify and explore linkages among the four sections listed above, Chipman said delegates should seek to encourage and promote development of the 10-Year Framework and provide inputs to the CSD.

In the ensuing discussion, a number of participants highlighted the potential impacts of sustainable consumption and production policies on trade, including trade barriers, eco-dumping, and the transition in developed countries to local production that can reduce the export market of developing countries. In response to a participant’s comment highlighting the need to consider social, economic and environmental issues in sustainable consumption and production, JoAnne DiSano emphasized that sustainable consumption and production is a cross-cutting issue under the CSD. One delegate noted the limited resources available for developing countries to implement the 10-Year Framework and stressed that these countries require assistance in making their current production patterns more sustainable.

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: On Tuesday morning, 17 June, Rajan R. Gandhi, India’s Consumer Unity and Trust Society, presented a paper on consumer behavior and sustainable development. He noted that sustainable development occurs when the elements of ecology, economy and equity intersect. He observed that consumer behavior is complex and difficult to predict and explain. He pointed out that price, quality, advertising, and packaging are all determinants of the consumers’ purchasing decisions. Gandhi said disposable income, social and cultural differences, and national icons and heroes influence consumers’ decisions to purchase goods and services. Stressing the complexity of changing consumer behavior, he noted that Agenda 21 and the JPOI aim at changing unsustainable patterns of consumption and production. Highlighting the importance of standards and government procurement in achieving sustainable consumption, he said these tools must be comprehensible, fair, transparent and feasible. Gandhi also emphasized that efforts to promote sustainable consumption must be linked to sustainable production.

Following Gandhi’s presentation, participants discussed the role of advertising in influencing the purchasing choices of poor consumers and the impact of advertisements on consumers in general. Some participants highlighted the importance of reconciling the need for increasing economic growth with the goal of reducing unsustainable consumption. Participants also discussed the role of labeling to inform consumers and its possible use as a barrier to developing countries’ access to international markets.


On Monday, 16 June, delegates heard reports from two recent regional meetings on consumption and production. Ariel Carbajal, Argentina’s Secretariat of Environment and Sustainable Development, presented the report of the Expert Meeting on Promoting Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns for the Latin American and the Caribbean Region, held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from 23-25 April 2003. He outlined the central policy elements recommended by participants, including: internalizing environmental costs; eliminating subsidies with a negative effect on the environment; promoting the supply of and demand for green products and services; informing and educating consumers; adopting social responsibility codes; and promoting investment in infrastructure and technology. Carbajal said the report identified civil society, government, the private sector, the media and research centers as key actors in promoting sustainable consumption and production. He observed that the report suggested a range of policy instruments to promote sustainable consumption and production, including regulatory, economic, social and monitoring instruments, and that it identified multiple implementation paths.

Susanto Sutoyo, Indonesia’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, presented the report on the Expert Meeting on Promoting Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns for the Asia-Pacific Region, held in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, from 21-23 May 2003. Emphasizing that the Asia-Pacific region will become the world’s main manufacturing hub in the next 10 years with increasing pressure on its natural resources, he highlighted the key role of developing countries in achieving sustainable consumption and production. He noted that the report recommends implementation of the UN Guidelines on Consumer Protection and highlighted the need to: involve all stakeholders; adopt sustainable procurement policies and services; monitor consumer behavior; and assist small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in adopting sustainable consumption and production practices. The report also suggested that activities under the 10-Year Framework for achieving sustainable consumption and production should be tailored to regional and national needs, and emphasized the importance of establishing regional information centers.

Delegates then engaged in a discussion on the regional meetings and their outcomes. One participant from a developing country highlighted the valuable experiences of developed countries in sustainable consumption and production and suggested that these countries take the lead in identifying suitable strategies for tackling the issue. Co-Chair Bohn appealed to delegates from the European region to share their experience during the meeting. Some participants noted that sustainable consumption and production is a cross-cutting issue that requires the involvement of a wide range of ministries. One delegate welcomed the idea of a round table on sustainable consumption and production for Africa and emphasized the value of identifying the specific needs of different regions regarding sustainable consumption and production.


On Tuesday, 17 June, and Wednesday, 18 June, participants met in four parallel working groups, with the aim of stimulating a free-flowing discussion on key issues relating to sustainable consumption and production. In conducting their work, the groups took into account the review of the Discussion Paper and keynote presentations made during Monday’s and Tuesday’s plenary sessions. Working Group I (WG-I) focused on human settlements and sustainable consumption and production, and was co-chaired by Alf Willis (South Africa) and Bernard Mazijn (Belgium). Working Group II (WG-II), on general policy instruments and analytical tools for sustainable consumption and production, was co-chaired by James Riordan (Canada) and Ariel Carbajal (Argentina). Working Group III (WG-III), which considered tools for promoting sustainable consumption patterns, was co-chaired by Susanto Sutoyo (Indonesia) and Aira Kalela (Finland). Working Group IV (WG-IV) examined tools for changing production patterns and was co-chaired by Cornelia Quennet-Thielen (Germany) and Young-Woo Park (Korea). The composition of each working group was designed to ensure a reasonable geographic distribution and an approximately equal number of participants.

At the start of the working group sessions, the following key issues were highlighted to help guide participants in their deliberations: effective and ineffective experiences of participants in promoting sustainable consumption and production; the main issues to be addressed for implementing sustainable consumption and production; needs and priorities at the national level for future work on sustainable consumption and production; and actions at the international level needed to support activities at the national level to promote sustainable consumption and production.

On Thursday morning, 19 June, the co-chairs of the four working groups reported to Plenary on the discussions held in each working group. The co-chairs’ reports are summarized below.

WORKING GROUP I - HUMAN SETTLEMENTS AND SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION: WG-I Co-Chair Alf Willis presented the report on human settlements and sustainable consumption and production, which focused on issues of waste, transport, construction, and water and sanitation. He noted that the potential for waste management to generate employment opportunities had been emphasized, together with the value of applying the three Rs (reuse, repair and recycle), employing eco-designs, separating hazardous wastes, and building capacity. On transport, he indicated that the group had highlighted the need to develop and apply a range of solutions, including: non-motorized transport modes; low emission technologies; public sector transport procurement; integrated transport planning; multi-modal systems; capacity building; and basic infrastructure development in least developed countries.

On the issue of construction, he drew attention to the group’s recommendation of a number of ways to improve efficiency, including: rehabilitating old buildings; applying construction codes; utilizing efficient traditional construction methods; and employing labor-intensive construction. He said proposed solutions for water and sanitation included the implementation of demand management, efficient technologies, traditional harvesting and conservation techniques, efficient pricing mechanisms, integrated management of water resources, and collaborative user-participation in infrastructure maintenance.

Co-Chair Willis noted that WG-I had identified various national priorities for improving sustainable consumption and production relating to human settlements, including: encouraging private-public partnerships; stimulating employment generation; supporting technology transfer; applying an optimal mix of instruments; creating a sound institutional context; adopting integrated planning; supporting programmes for education, awareness and training; and promoting cultural and natural heritage.

Regarding plans for international cooperation, he said WG-I had proposed the establishment of an inter-agency task force to report on activities needed at the international level and recommended the following areas for action: developing tools for information management and dissemination; maintaining the momentum generated at this meeting; developing education and awareness materials; and mobilizing partnerships. Co-Chair Willis concluded by emphasizing that the shift to sustainable consumption and production patterns in human settlements is an ongoing process that extends beyond the two-year cycle of the CSD, and called on donor countries to support these initiatives.

WORKING GROUP II - GENERAL POLICY INSTRUMENTS AND ANALYTICAL TOOLS FOR SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION: James Riordan, Co-Chair of WG-II, said the group had reached consensus on various issues relating to implementing policies on sustainable consumption and production. This included agreement on the need for a combination of different instruments, social and economic institutions for implementing policies at the national level, the incorporation of sustainable consumption and production strategies into governments’ priorities and needs, the application of traditional knowledge, and the promotion of capacity building, technology transfer and financial assistance.

Co-Chair Riordan informed delegates that WG-II had developed a list of elements for designing a public policy framework, including: promoting sustainable consumption and production patterns; ensuring stakeholder participation; internalizing environmental and social costs; promoting enforcement and compliance; enhancing research and development programmes; further developing corporate social responsibility and accountability; eliminating harmful substances and materials; and elaborating integrated product policy.

Regarding international cooperation to support national and regional strategies for sustainable consumption and production, WG-II Co-Chair Ariel Carbajal said the group had recommended improving the coherence of international cooperation and the number of partnerships, and promoting the further exchange of information between UN agencies and other international organizations. It had also supported the establishment of co-finance mechanisms, improved international finance initiatives, and the identification of the means of implementation for technology transfer.

WORKING GROUP III - TOOLS FOR CHANGING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR: WG-III Co-Chair Aira Kalela identified various means to promote sustainable consumption patterns that were identified by the group. These included the use of sustainable procurement and environmental management, information tools such as eco-labeling, formal and informal education, the media, UN Guidelines for Consumer Protection, and the enforcement of existing standards and regulations.

She informed delegates that WG-III had also highlighted the need for: stakeholder participation; adequate institutional capacity; public-private partnerships; recognition of the needs and priorities of developing countries, especially in relation to capacity building, training and technology transfer; and consideration of WTO issues relating to eco-labeling and sustainable consumption. She observed that WG-III had also emphasized the importance of integrating consumption and production strategies into sustainable development policies and poverty reduction strategies.

Co-Chair Kalela indicated that participants in the group had identified energy-efficiency labeling as a crucial tool for informing consumers of cost-saving opportunities. They also highlighted the need to expand the survey of activities on sustainable consumption prepared by UN DESA/DSD, and suggested that UNEP and UN DESA could serve as facilitators in generating a compendium of such activities. She also noted a suggestion by some participants that future work at the national level should focus on assessing the impacts of eco-labeled products on ecosystems and market access.

WORKING GROUP IV - TOOLS FOR CHANGING PRODUCTION PATTERNS: WG-IV Co-Chair Cornelia Quennet-Thielen reported on the group’s discussions on tools for changing production patterns, emphasizing that cleaner production should improve business competitiveness, provide social, economic and environmental benefits, and take the long-term sustainable management of resources into account. She said WG-IV had found that changing production patterns requires a mix of regulatory, economic and voluntary instruments tailored to reflect the priorities of the specific country, and emphasized the need to integrate sustainable production into high-level decision making. She identified a number of additional mechanisms for the promotion of cleaner production highlighted by the group, including capacity building, technology transfer, increased access to finance, institutional frameworks and government programmes, partnerships, and the promotion of research and development.

Co-Chair Quennet-Thielen noted that WG-IV had highlighted several challenges for achieving cleaner production, including the need for: awareness raising on the benefits of cleaner production; promoting sustainable production in SMEs; integrating cleaner production into education systems; promoting sustainable consumer behavior; galvanizing political commitment; strengthening cooperation at the international level; and improving product design. As priorities for action at the international level, she observed that the group had advocated mainstreaming sustainable consumption and production in international organizations, increasing stakeholder involvement and partnerships, disseminating information and practical tools, and promoting capacity building and education.

She informed delegates that WG-IV had called for UN DESA and UNEP to expand the survey of international activities on sustainable consumption and production and to create an interactive website for information sharing. The group had also supported UN DESA and UNEP taking action to coordinate UN work on sustainable consumption and production, and to create an informal mechanism to promote progress on the 10-Year Framework.

DISCUSSION: Following the presentation of reports from the working groups, participants were given the opportunity to comment. Delegates highlighted several issues they felt should be included in the final report of the meeting, including: income generation in poor communities from waste recycling; the integration of consumption aspects into the activities of cleaner production centers; the implementation of stakeholder participation as one of the elements of sustainable development; elaboration of sustainable consumption and production policies that could also assist in poverty reduction; and the replication of successful experiences taking into account countries’ specific needs, priorities and capabilities. Participants also advocated forwarding the results of the meeting to the CSD, to be taken into consideration as a cross-cutting issue in its programme of work.


On Thursday afternoon, 19 June, Co-Chair Bohn presented the draft summary of the meeting developed by the co-chairs. She said this meeting was the first step towards the development of a 10-Year Framework, an ongoing process to be known henceforth as the "Marrakesh Process on Sustainable Consumption and Production." Co-Chair Bohn stated that future work on the 10-Year Framework should consist of, inter alia: UN DESA and UNEP expanding the survey on sustainable consumption and production patterns that was prepared by UN DESA/ DSD and making it available to all countries; disseminating best practice via interactive websites and expert meetings on specific issues relating to sustainable consumption and production; establishing concrete partnerships involving stakeholder participation; strengthening regional cooperation by organizing workshops to identify countries’ actions and priorities relating to sustainable consumption and production; and promoting further in-depth discussion on the issue to provide input to the CSD.

Co-Chair Bohn suggested that UN DESA, together with UN HABITAT and UNEP, prepare a report based on the working groups’ identification of priorities for sustainable consumption and production and that their suggestions be incorporated into government policies at the national level. She explained that the report of this meeting would be submitted to the UN by the host country so that the meeting’s findings are taken into account during CSD-12.

Delegates then discussed these suggestions regarding next steps, with some participants expressing reservations about the introduction of the term "Marrakesh Process," while others welcomed it as reflecting the need for ongoing efforts to develop the 10-Year Framework. One participant requested clarification regarding the legal implications of launching this process, questioning the existence of a mandate for doing so. In response, Co-Chair Bohn explained that the 10-Year Framework was called for in Chapter III of the JPOI, and that this provided a mandate for initiating the process. Some developing country participants asked for equitable geographic participation to be observed in future expert meetings. A developing country participant said the final report should emphasize the importance of financial support and technology transfer for implementing new production patterns. Bohn said the concerns raised by participants would be taken into account by the co-chairs when finalizing the summary of the meeting.


Participants heard closing statements on Thursday afternoon, 19 June. Co-Chair Bohn indicated that the Marrakesh Process would be continuous and said it would provide an efficient way for promoting sustainable consumption and production and contributing to environmental protection. Ralph Chipman, UN DESA/DSD, lauded the meeting as an important step in international cooperation on sustainable consumption and production. He emphasized that the report will make an important contribution to the next CSD, which will address water, sanitation and human settlements. Bas de Leeuw, UNEP/DTIE, praised the Marrakesh Process as a promising beginning to the 10-Year Framework.

Mohammed Elmorabit, Morocco’s Secretary of State of the Environment, emphasized the role of the private sector in sustainable consumption and production and the need for the reduction and eradication of poverty to achieve sustainable development. Co-Chair Arrouchi noted that he was looking forward to the positive influence of the meeting’s outcome in the CSD.

Co-Chair Bohn expressed her appreciation to the host country, thanked all participants for their efforts, particularly the co-chairs of the working groups and UN DESA and UNEP staff, and closed the meeting at 4:50 pm.


SEVENTH SESSION OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL NEGOTIATING COMMITTEE (INC) OF THE STOCKHOLM CONVENTION ON PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS: This session of the INC is scheduled for 14-18 July 2003, in Geneva, Switzerland. For more information, contact: Interim Secretariat for the Stockholm Convention, UNEP Chemicals Unit; tel: +41-22-917-8191; fax: +41-22-797-3460; e-mail:; Internet:

2003 UNEP-FI GLOBAL ROUNDTABLE: SUSTAINING VALUE – A MEETING ON FINANCE AND SUSTAINABILITY: Scheduled for 20-21 October 2003, in Tokyo, Japan, this meeting will focus on the emergence of new governance frameworks and the resulting opportunities to enhance sustainable finance and is expected to include representatives from finance, government, business and civil society. For more information, contact: Trevor Bowden, UNEP Finance Initiatives; tel: +44-20-7249-2154; e-mail:; Internet:

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EDUCATION FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE: SHAPING THE PRACTICAL ROLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: This conference will be held from 10-11 September 2003, in Prague, Czech Republic. For more information, contact: Yvette Saunders, International Association of Universities; tel: +33-1-45-684-800; fax: +33-1-47-347-605;
e-mail:; Internet: 

CONFERENCE ON WATER FOR THE POOREST: This conference will be held from 4-5 November 2003, in Stavanger, Norway. Organized by the International Water Academy (IWA) and sponsored by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, this conference aims to produce a programme of actions for consideration by governments, donor and relief organizations on sustainable water supply and sanitation for the poorest. For more information, contact: IWA; tel: +47-22-42-81-00; fax: +47-22-42-81-06; e-mail:; Internet:

PIC INC-10: The tenth session of the Prior Informed Consent Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for the Rotterdam Convention will be held from 17-21 November 2003, in Geneva, Switzerland. For more information, contact: Interim Secretariat for the Rotterdam Convention, UNEP Chemicals Unit; tel: +41-22-917-8183; fax: +41-22-797-3460; e-mail:; Internet:

UNFCCC COP-9: The ninth Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change will take place from 1-12 December 2003, in Milan, Italy. For more information, contact: UNFCCC Secretariat; tel: +49-228-815-1000; fax: +49-228-815-1999; e-mail:; Internet:

CSD-12: The twelfth session of the Commission on Sustainable Development is scheduled to take place in April/May 2004, at UN headquarters in New York. This will be the first CSD meeting using the programme of work adopted at CSD-11. Issues on the agenda for the first work cycle include water, sanitation and human settlements. For more information, contact: DESA/DSD; tel: +1-212-963-3170; e-mail:; Internet:  

Sustainable Developments is a publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), publishers of the Earth Negotiations Bulletin �. This issue is written and edited by Karen Alvarenga and Catherine Ganzleben. The Team Leader is Karen Alvarenga The Editor is Chris Spence The Director of IISD Reporting Services (including Sustainable Developments) is Langston James "Kimo" Goree VI The authors can be contacted at their electronic mail addresses and at tel: +1-212-644-0204. IISD can be contacted at 161 Portage Avenue East, 6th Floor, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 0Y4, Canada; tel: +1-204-958-7700; fax: +1-204-958-7710. The opinions expressed in Sustainable Developments are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD. Excerpts from Sustainable Developments may be used in other publications with appropriate academic citation. Electronic versions of Sustainable Developments are sent to e-mail distribution lists (ASCII and PDF format) and can be found on the Linkages WWW-server at For further information on Sustainable Developments, including requests to provide reporting services, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at .