Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals – CMS
Migratory species are vulnerable to a wide range of threats, including habitat shrinkage in breeding areas, excessive hunting along migration routes, and degradation of their feeding grounds. As a result of international concern over these threats, governments adopted the 1979 Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS).
The treaty recognizes states must be the protectors of migratory species that live within or pass through their national jurisdictions and aims to conserve terrestrial, marine, and avian migratory species throughout their ranges. Migratory species threatened with extinction are listed in Appendix I of the Convention. Migratory species that need or would significantly benefit from international cooperation are listed in Appendix II. To date, seven specialized regional agreements and 19 memoranda of understanding have been concluded for Appendix II species under the CMS. The development of models tailored according to conservation needs throughout migratory ranges is a unique feature of the CMS.