Oceans & Coasts
Healthy oceans and coastal ecosystems are vitally important for humans and the environment. Oceans regulate the climate, absorb much of the carbon dioxide emitted from human activity, and provide fish, the main source of protein for over three billion people. The ecosystem goods and services oceans provide are estimated to be worth USD 12 trillion. The biological diversity of oceans and coastal regions also provides important services including food security, feed for livestock, raw materials for medicines, building materials from coral rock and sand, and natural defenses against coastal erosion and flooding. Millions of people rely on marine and coastal biodiversity for their food security, income, and socio-cultural and economic development. Human activities put pressure on coastal and marine ecosystems, including through climate change, overfishing, and pollution. Ninety percent of the world's fisheries are either fully or over-exploited. Eight million tons of plastics enter the sea each year and contaminate a quarter of all seafood. Eighty percent of wastewater is discharged without treatment, damaging human health and biodiversity.