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As well as emphasizing the important role of science and technology in building SIDS' capacity for sustainable development, this chapter examines the need to increase the use and availability of environmentally-friendly technologies. Recommendations for national action include: promote greater emphasis on research, development and training in science and technology; encourage the use of endogenous environmentally-friendly technologies; develop or ensure access to databases on environmentally-sound technologies; and promote and strengthen the role of women in science and technology. Regional and international action should: assist SIDS in accomplishing the national action, policies and measures listed above; develop and strengthen regional ocean sciences networks; facilitate access to and the development of environmentally-sound technologies; take into account the needs of SIDS for training in integrated coastal zone management; facilitate the full involvement of scientists and other experts from SIDS in marine scientific research; and accelerate development of the coastal module of the Global Ocean Observing System.