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This lengthy chapter addresses the essential requirements for the implementation of the Programme of Action. As expected, this chapter was the most difficult to negotiate and delegates spent considerable time on it, both during the two sessions of the PrepCom and at the Conference itself. The most contentious paragraphs were those on finance. The Chair eventually had to put together an extended bureau, which met over the mid-Conference weekend and during the evenings to work out the necessary compromises. Agreement was finally reached at 3:30 am on Wednesday, 4 May -- less than 10 hours before the Main Committee was scheduled to come to a close.

While recognizing that Governments will be primarily responsible for the implementation of the Programme of Action, international cooperation will be essential to support and complement such efforts. With this in mind, the chapter is divided into four sections -- national implementation, regional implementation, international implementation, and institutional arrangements, monitoring and review.