Published by the
International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)
Vol. 21 No. 27
Wednesday, 13 November 2002
CITES COP-12 HIGHLIGHTS:
TUESDAY, 12 NOVEMBER 2002
Delegates met in Plenary to hear the President of
Chile and statements on cooperation with the International Whaling
Commission (IWC). Committee I continued deliberations on elephant
proposals and other amendments to the Appendices. Committee II
discussed, inter alia, national laws for implementation,
budget and financing, and species trade and conservation issues.
Chilean President Ricardo Lagos highlighted his
country’s biodiversity, and said environmental protection,
particularly of migratory marine species, should be addressed at the
On CITES cooperation with the IWC, IWC Chair Bo
Fernholm highlighted his note on progress towards finalizing a
revised management scheme (RMS) for commercial whaling (Inf.12).
NORWAY and JAPAN did not endorse the note and questioned progress on
the RMS. ICELAND said opposing commercial whaling under any
circumstance breaches CITES principles. ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA stressed
that cooperation with the IWC should be based on sustainable
international trade, and with DOMINICA, called for the IWC Chair to
apologize for expressing his personal views rather than the views of
IWC member states. NEW ZEALAND, the UK, AUSTRALIA and the EU opposed
the personal attacks on the IWC Chair, and, with GERMANY, MEXICO and
the NETHERLANDS highlighted progress in the IWC framework. IWC Chair
Fernholm said the debate reflects polarized views in the IWC, but
noted progress achieved at the RMS intersessional Cambridge meeting.
PROPOSALS TO AMEND THE APPENDICES: Trade in
Elephant Specimens: BOTSWANA, NAMIBIA, SOUTH AFRICA, ZAMBIA and
ZIMBABWE presented revisions to the amendment of their proposals
regarding the African Elephant (Loxodonta africana)
(Prop.12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9 and 12.10 Amendment). They highlighted
that requests for annual quotas had been removed, and that trade in
registered raw ivory would be allowed only after: verification by
the Secretariat of prospective importing countries; reporting by
MIKE on established baseline information; and agreement by the
Standing Committee that all conditions have been met. Revisions for
non-ivory products included trade allowance in live animals for "in
situ conservation programmes," rather than "re-introduction,"
and in leather goods only "for non-commercial purposes." GERMANY
indicated that it would review funding support for MIKE if the
elephant proposals were accepted. BOTSWANA’s proposal was accepted
through a secret ballot, with 59 in favor, 26 against and 21
Supporting Namibia’s proposal, CUBA underscored
sustainable management of resources by developing countries. KENYA
expressed concern regarding poaching by Angola. In a secret ballot,
Namibia’s proposal passed with 65 in favor, 28 against and 22
BOTSWANA, QATAR, CUBA, NAMIBIA, CAMEROON,
TANZANIA and ZIMBABWE supported South Africa’s proposal. IFAW
expressed concern regarding its implementation, and the FUND FOR
ANIMALS predicted that detrimental effects would outweigh economic
benefits. The proposal passed by secret ballot, with 65 in favor, 24
against and 25 abstentions.
SOUTH AFRICA, BOTSWANA, ZAMBIA, TANZANIA, ANTIGUA
AND BARBUDA and CUBA supported Zimbabwe’s proposal. KENYA and the US
raised concerns regarding its current ability to adequately enforce
laws, manage wildlife, and control the domestic ivory trade. The
proposal was rejected in a secret ballot, with 60 in favor, 45
against, and 10 abstentions.
Introducing its proposal, ZAMBIA indicated lack
of financial support and underscored the need to raise revenue from
ivory sales. MALAWI, CUBA, JAPAN, ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and others
supported the proposal. The US stated that Zambia’s elephant
population fails to meet downlisting criteria, and together with
KENYA, noted its decline. KENYA and the EU highlighted deficiencies
in monitoring of illegal poaching. The proposal was rejected by
secret ballot, with 57 in favor, 54 against and 7 abstentions.
Stating that they did not wish to target
Zimbabwe, INDIA and KENYA withdrew their joint proposal on uplisting
the African Elephants to Appendix I (Prop.12.11).
Color Morphs: SWITZERLAND introduced
amendments to its proposal to exclude certain captive-bred color
morphs from CITES provisions (Prop.12.2 Amendment). Delegates
rejected the proposal with 21 in favor and 31 against.
Yellow-Naped Parrot: COSTA RICA introduced
its proposal to transfer Amazona auropalliata from Appendix
II to I (Prop.12.16). Following assurance that proper identification
material for juveniles would be provided, the Committee accepted the
Blue-Headed Macaw: The EU introduced its
proposal to transfer Ara couloni from Appendix II to I
(Prop.12.18), indicating that the species has a low reproductive
rate and faces increased legal and illegal trade. Delegates approved
the proposal by consensus.
Cape Parrot: SOUTH AFRICA withdrew its
proposal to transfer its population of Poicephalus robustus
from Appendix II to I (Prop.12.19).
Heosemys Turtles: The EU presented its
joint proposal with CHINA to include four species of Heosemys
in Appendix II (Arakan forest turtle H. depressa, Giant Asian
pond turtle H. grandis, Philippine pond turtle H.
leytensis, and Spiny turtle H. spinosa) (Prop.12.22).
Delegates approved the proposal.
Roofed Turtles: INDIA presented its joint
proposal with the US to include six species of Kachuga in
Appendix II (Prop.12.24). Delegates approved the proposal.
New Zealand Geckos: NEW ZEALAND presented its
proposal to include Hoplodactylus spp. and
Naultinus spp. in Appendix II (Prop.12.33). SWITZERLAND,
the EU and JAPAN supported Appendix III listing, while NEW ZEALAND
stated that this would not provide comparable monitoring. Delegates
rejected the proposal, with 30 in favor, 59 against and 26
Whale Shark: The PHILIPPINES introduced its
joint proposal with INDIA on including Rhincodon typus in
Appendix II (Prop.12.35). The EU, ROMANIA, HONDURAS, the BAHAMAS,
TUNISIA, MEXICO, IUCN, TRAFFIC and the SHARK RESEARCH INSTITUTE
supported the proposal, while GREENLAND, CHINA and ICELAND opposed.
In a secret ballot, the proposal was rejected, with 62 in favor, 34
against and 9 abstentions.
Sri Lankan Rose Butterfly: The EU introduced
its proposal to include Atropphaneura jophon and A.
pandiyana in Appendix II (Prop.12.40). Delegates approved the
proposal with 58 in favor, 14 against and 28 abstentions.
Other Amendments to the Appendices: Committee
I agreed by consensus to transfer the Yellow-headed parrot
(Prop.12.17) from Appendix II to I; and Santa Barbara Island dudleya
(Prop.12.48) and Thorncraft’s aloe (Prop.12.49) from Appendix I to
II. Deletions from Appendix II included: the Orange-throated
whiptail lizard (Prop.12.34) and Maguire’s bitter root (Prop.12.53).
Delegates also agreed to include the following
species in Appendix II: Big-headed turtle (Prop.12.20); Annam
pond turtle (Prop.12.21); Yellow-headed temple turtle (Prop.12.23);
Sulawesi forest turtle (Prop.12.25); Yellow pond turtle
(Prop.12.26); Malayan giant turtle (Prop.12.27); Keeled box turtle
Pyxidea mouhotii (Prop.12.28); Black marsh turtle
(Prop.12.29); Narrow-headed softshell turtle Chitra spp.
(Prop.12.31); Giant softshell turtle Pelochelys spp.
(Prop.12.32); and certain palm species endemic to Madagascar
PLANTS COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS: The
Secretariat introduced, and delegates accepted, the Plants
Committee’s recommendations (Doc.10.2), including: regional reports;
its members’ duties; work on Aquilaria spp.; links with the
CBD on alien species; periodic review of the Appendices; and
NATIONAL LAWS FOR IMPLEMENTATION: The
Secretariat presented the document and draft decisions (Doc.28 and
Doc.28 Annex 3 (Rev.1)), recommending, inter alia: regional
workshops; analysis of new legislation; and assessment of the
effectiveness of legislation of Parties in Category 1. SAINT LUCIA
highlighted the benefits of the Secretariat’s technical assistance.
CHILE, CHINA and the DOMINICAN REPUBLIC called for flexible
deadlines for submitting national legislation. NAMIBIA said that
enhancing national legislation to comply with CITES is costly.
Delegates adopted the text by consensus, and agreed to a decision
suggested by Chair Delahunt that the Standing Committee should
adjust the deadlines for Parties making progress on completing the
BUDGET: Budget for 2003-2005: CANADA
presented the recommendations of the budget working group (Com.II.5)
on: budget guidelines; future budget strategies; and budget options
based on a 0% or 6% increase. Delegates adopted the proposed
guidelines. MEXICO, the EU and others, opposed cutting costs through
working in one language at intersessional meetings. Delegates agreed
on a 6% increase. The US proposed, and Parties agreed, to include
non-identified budgetary resources and insufficient funding as
budget items. Delegates adopted future budget strategies, with minor
changes. Regarding the scale of contributions for the triennium
2003-2005 (Doc.9.1 (Rev.1)), ARGENTINA suggested, and delegates
agreed, to take note of serious economic difficulties experienced by
individual Parties and of the need for flexibility regarding the UN
Externally Funded Projects: The Secretariat
introduced a new procedure for approval of externally funded
projects (Doc.9.2), and the Committee approved the draft with two
amendments suggested by SAINT LUCIA.
VERIFICATION OF CITES PERMITS: CHILE
presented its proposal (Doc.29), requesting: a study on the false
use of CITES permits and certificates; and proposals to minimize
such acts. The Committee accepted the draft resolution as amended by
Fiji and the EU.
CITES IMPLEMENTATION IN THE EUREOPEAN COMMUNITY:
The EU noted adoption of appropriate legislation to implement CITES
at the EU level and the national levels. He proposed a draft
decision (Doc.30), urging Parties to accept before COP-13 the
Gaborone Amendment, which allows accession by regional economic
integration organizations. Delegates agreed by consensus.
BEARS: The Secretariat introduced the
document on trade in bear specimens (Doc.31), encouraged Partiesï¿½
actions to conserve bears populations and combat illegal trade of
species, its parts and derivatives, and proposed deletion of
numerous COP-11 decisions on the issue. GEORGIA suggested a new
draft decision and a small drafting group was formed to discuss the
LEOPARDS: INDIA presented amendments to its
proposal on leopard, snow leopard and clouded leopard (Doc.32). The
issue will be revisited.
TIGERS: The Secretariat introduced the
document (Doc.33) and delegates discussed the annexed report of the
CITES Tiger Mission Technical Team. THAILAND expressed willingness
to follow the recommendations and report on improvement. The
Committee accepted the report and will resume discussion on the
RHINOCEROSES: The Secretariat presented the
document on the conservation of and trade in rhinoceroses (Doc.35)
and withdrew the recommendation to repeal Resolution Conf. 9.14 on
Partiesï¿½ submitting reports on the issue.
MUSK DEER: The Secretariat introduced, and
the Committee approved, the report and its recommendations on musk
TIBETAN ANTELOPE: The Secretariat introduced
the document (Doc.37) and withdrew a recommendation urging the State
of Jammu and Kashmir in India to halt the processing of Tibetan
Antelope wool. CHINA introduced various textual amendments and
discussion was postponed.
IN THE CORRIDORS
There was mixed reaction following the long, and
often emotional discussion on elephants. Some delegates expressed
disappointment with the outcome of several range States being
allowed one-off sales of their ivory stockpiles, saying it may send
the wrong message that ivory trade has been re-opened. Others noted
that the ivory sales are not automatic and that the measures
included in the proposals had been one of the most precautionary
approaches ever taken by CITES on ivory trade. Meanwhile, others
expressed some relief that the elephant debate was behind them for
the time being and could now get back to the numerous agenda items
and other species proposals still on the table.
THINGS TO LOOK FOR TODAY
COMMITTEES: Committee I will meet to further
consider amendments to the Appendices, while Committee II
will meet to consider trade control and marking issues, and
exemptions and special trade provisions.