Summary report, 22–23 May 2001
Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
The Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) was held from 22-23 May 2001, in Stockholm, Sweden. Ministers and senior officials adopted the Final Act of the Conference and the Stockholm Convention, as well as seven resolutions. A total of 91 countries and a regional economic integration organization (REIO) signed the Stockholm Convention, and a total of 115 countries and one REIO signed the Final Act of the Conference. The Stockholm Convention will remain open for signature at UN Headquarters in New York until 22 May 2002, and will enter into force 90 days after receipt of the 50th instrument of ratification.
On Monday, 21 May, the Preparatory Meeting for the Conference of Plenipotentiaries was held in Stockholm to complete the preparation of resolutions that had been tabled but not agreed to at the fifth session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC-5) in Johannesburg, South Africa. Delegates approved four resolutions, which were then forwarded to the Conference of Plenipotentiaries. (For a full report of the Preparatory Meeting, see Earth Negotiations Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 56.)
The Stockholm Convention sets out control measures covering the production, import, export, disposal and use of an initial list of twelve POPs grouped into three categories: 1) pesticides: aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex and toxaphene; 2) industrial chemicals: hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); and 3) unintended by-products: dioxins and furans. The control provisions call for: eliminating production and use of intentionally produced POPs; eliminating unintentionally produced POPs, where feasible; and managing and disposing of POPs wastes in an environmentally sound manner. Parties to the Convention are required to promote best available techniques and practices for replacing existing POPs while preventing the development of new POPs. The treaty calls for substitution involving the use of safer chemicals and processes to prevent unintentionally produced POPs. The Convention also outlines the procedure for and criteria to be considered in identifying new POPs to be added to the treaty. Precaution is operationalized throughout the Stockholm Convention, with specific references in the preamble, the objective and the provision on the listing of new POPs. Developed countries are required to provide new and additional financial resources, and a financial mechanism will help developing countries and countries with economies in transition meet their obligations under the Convention. The treaty also includes provisions on, inter alia: information exchange; implementation plans; public information, awareness and education; and research, development and monitoring.
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE STOCKHOLM CONVENTION
During the 1960s and 1970s, the use of certain chemicals and pesticides in industry and agriculture increased dramatically. Many of these chemicals are important to modern society, but can also pose serious threats to human health and the environment. In particular, a certain category of chemicals known as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) attracted international attention due to a growing body of scientific evidence indicating that exposure to very low doses of POPs can lead to cancer, damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems, diseases of the immune system, reproductive disorders and interference with normal infant and child development. POPs are chemical substances that persist, bioaccumulate and pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. With further evidence of the long-range transport of these substances to regions where they have never been used or produced, and the consequent threats they pose to the environment worldwide, the international community has called for urgent global action to reduce and eliminate their release into the environment.
Prior to 1992, international action on chemicals primarily involved developing tools for information exchange and risk assessment. For example, in 1985, the Food and Agriculture Organization established an International Code of Conduct for the Distribution and Use of Pesticides and, in 1987, UNEP created the London Guidelines for the Exchange of Information on Chemicals in International Trade. In 1992, the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) adopted Agenda 21. Chapter 19 of Agenda 21, "Environmentally Sound Management of Toxic Chemicals Including Prevention of Illegal International Traffic in Toxic and Dangerous Products," called for the creation of the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS). Agenda 21 also called for the establishment of the Inter-Organization Programme on the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC) to promote coordination among international organizations involved in implementing Chapter 19.
In March 1995, the UNEP Governing Council adopted Decision 18/32 inviting the IOMC, the IFCS and the International Programme on Chemical Safety to initiate an assessment process regarding an initial list of 12 POPs. In response to this invitation, the IFCS convened an Ad Hoc Working Group on POPs, which developed a workplan for assessing these substances. The assessments included available information on the chemistry, sources, toxicity, environmental dispersion and socioeconomic impacts of the 12 POPs.
In June 1996, the Ad Hoc Working Group convened a meeting of experts in Manila, the Philippines, and concluded that sufficient information existed to demonstrate the need for international action to minimize the risks from the 12 POPs, including a global legally binding instrument. The meeting forwarded a recommendation to the UNEP Governing Council and the World Health Assembly that immediate international action should be taken. In February 1997, the UNEP Governing Council adopted Decision 19/13C endorsing the conclusions and recommendations of the IFCS. The Governing Council requested that UNEP, together with relevant international organizations, prepare for and convene an intergovernmental negotiating committee (INC) with a mandate to develop, by the end of 2000, an international legally binding instrument for implementing international action, beginning with the 12 specified POPs. The first meeting of the INC was also requested to establish an expert group for the development of science-based criteria and a procedure for identifying additional POPs as candidates for future international action. Also in February 1997, the second meeting of the IFCS decided that the IFCS Ad Hoc Working Group would continue to assist in preparations for the negotiations. In May 1997, the World Health Assembly endorsed the recommendations of the IFCS and requested that the World Health Organization (WHO) participate actively in negotiations of the international instrument.
INC-1: The first session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC-1) was held from 29 June to 3 July 1998, in Montreal, Canada. INC-1 established the Implementation Aspects Group to address technical and financial assistance and requested the Secretariat to prepare a document for INC-2 containing material for possible inclusion in an international legally binding instrument. INC-1 also established the Criteria Expert Group (CEG) to elaborate proposals for science-based criteria and to develop a procedure for identifying additional POPs as candidates for future international action, to be presented to the INC at or before its fourth session. INC-1 directed the CEG to incorporate criteria pertaining to persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity and exposure in different regions, taking into account the potential for regional and global transport.
CEG-1: The first session of the Criteria Expert Group (CEG-1) was held from 26-30 October 1998, in Bangkok, Thailand, to consider the CEG's programme of work. At CEG-1, delegates considered, inter alia, the development of a procedure for identifying additional POPs, including the information required at different stages of the procedure, and who would nominate, screen and evaluate a substance as a future POPs candidate.
INC-2: INC-2 was held from 25-29 January 1999, in Nairobi, Kenya. Discussions were largely based on the Secretariat-prepared outline of an international legally binding instrument. After general discussions on this document, delegates divided into the Implementation Aspects Group (IAG) and the Negotiating Group. The Negotiating Group examined the text of the outline and completed preliminary discussions on: measures to reduce or eliminate releases of POPs into the environment; national implementation plans; information exchange; public information, awareness and education; and research, development and monitoring. The IAG held general discussions on possible capacity-building activities requiring technical and financial assistance. A contact group on annexes also met to begin placing the 12 POPs into annexes for: prohibited production and use; restricted production and use; and chemicals subject to certain release reporting and release reduction or elimination measures.
CEG-2: The second session of the Criteria Expert Group (CEG-2) met from 14-18 June 1999, in Vienna, Austria, to build upon the work of CEG-1 in the development of scientific criteria and a procedure for adding additional POPs to the initial list of 12. The CEG succeeded in completing its work in two rather than three sessions, and proposed a procedure that provides for the establishment of a review committee or committees to apply screening criteria and to prepare a risk profile and risk management evaluation for proposed substances. The CEG submitted its recommendations to INC-3.
INC-3: INC-3 met from 6-11 September 1999, in Geneva, Switzerland, adopted the report of the CEG, and approved the CEG's recommendations as a basis for further negotiation. In the Negotiating Group, delegates made advances on language for articles on: measures to reduce or eliminate releases; national implementation plans; the listing of substances in annexes; and information exchange. In the IAG, delegates continued discussions on technical assistance and financial resources and mechanisms, and many governments and regional groups submitted draft text for these articles.
INC-4: INC-4 met from 20-25 March 2000, in Bonn, Germany. Contentious issues revolved around measures to reduce or eliminate releases, technical assistance, and financial resources and mechanisms. While INC-4 succeeded in drafting articles on technical assistance and financial resources and mechanisms, the text remained heavily bracketed and developed and developing country positions remained divided. Delegates devoted much time to addressing control measures and made some headway on elimination language with respect to by-products. INC-4 also made progress on articles regarding: national implementation plans; listing of substances; information exchange; public information, awareness and education; and research, development and monitoring. INC-4 did not have time to discuss the preamble, objective and definitions, and left these articles for consideration at INC-5.
INC-5: INC-5 met from 4-10 December 2000, in Johannesburg, South Africa. INC-5 concluded negotiations on the POPs Convention in the early morning hours of Saturday, 10 December. Going into INC-5, countries were still divided over issues related to: financial resources and mechanisms; measures to reduce or eliminate releases; and the precautionary principle. Delegates met in various contact groups and more informally to address these issues throughout the week, and informal consultations on financial issues and the precautionary principle were held throughout the final night of the conference. In addition to the Convention, delegates agreed to resolutions on interim financial arrangements and issues related to the Basel Convention. A number of resolutions were also tabled addressing, inter alia, interim arrangements, a capacity assistance network, and liability and redress, but due to time constraints, they were forwarded to the Conference of Plenipotentiaries in Stockholm for further discussion.
REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE
On Tuesday, 22 May 2001, UNEP Executive Director Klaus Töpfer opened the Conference on Plenipotentiaries (Diplomatic Conference). He welcomed and introduced the Adolf Fredriks Music School Class Four Choir, which gave a short performance.
On behalf of UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, Töpfer said the Stockholm Convention will protect human health, help maintain biodiversity, and strengthen the international legal machinery of environmental protection. In addition, he said the Convention will generate momentum toward next year’s World Summit on Sustainable Development to be held in Johannesburg in September 2002, and called on countries to sign and ratify the treaty so it can enter into force at the earliest possible date.
Töpfer then gave his welcoming address. He noted that the provisions of the Convention were balanced and they would enable the full participation of developing countries and countries with economies in transition (CEITs). He said the provision of new and additional financial resources would help countries meet the agreed full incremental costs of implementing measures. He stressed that the Convention is part of a larger framework of legal instruments and organizations that are together trying to solve the growing toxic chemical and hazardous waste threats facing our planet.
He highlighted a Memorandum of Understanding between UNEP and the World Bank regarding cooperation on POPs. He also called attention to other intergovernmental organizations, such as the International Labor Organization (ILO), the UN Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) and the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), that play important roles in POPs elimination. Urging the implementation of interim measures through concerted action by governments and relevant international organizations, he noted that several countries have identified POPs as a priority in bilateral assistance. He stated that next year’s Global Ministerial Environmental Forum will consider the need for a strategic approach to international chemicals management. Swedish Prime Minister Göran Persson welcomed participants to Stockholm, and emphasized that the fight for ecological, economic and social development is one of the most important issues for humankind, and that it is an everyday battle that must be fought in the international political arena, and in every country, company and household. He stressed that if we fail with environmental issues, then all other political work will be pointless. He stated that we must learn to satisfy our daily needs without destroying the living environment of coming generations, emphasizing increased recycling, use of alternative energy sources, protection of biodiversity, and phase-out of the most dangerous chemicals.
Recommending that countries should prevent the release of toxic substances if repetition of current problems is to be avoided in the future, he said harmless chemicals must replace dangerous ones. He stressed that the fight against POPs is not only an environmental and health issue, but also one of global justice and socially sustainable development. Emphasizing that dangerous substances do not respect international borders, he said they can only be fought with common strategies.
Mohamed El-Ashry, Chief Executive Officer of the Global Environment Facility (GEF), lauded the signing of the Convention, yet noted that it is only a first step in addressing the threat of POPs. He said that the GEF, honored to be the designated interim financial mechanism of the treaty, is prepared to play a valuable role in its implementation in an effective, timely, and cost-effective manner. He highlighted the GEF’s experience as the financial mechanism for other conventions.
He reported on the results of the replenishment and Council meetings, which resulted in, inter alia: the provision of new and additional resources for activities addressing POPs and other chemicals; consideration of the total GEF replenishment in a range between US$2.5-4.5 billion; approval of the initial guidelines for enabling activities which are eligible for full funding of the agreed cost by the GEF, and enabling direct access of FAO and UNIDO to GEF funds for these activities; and approval of US$150 million for a work programme, with US$6 million designated for the development of national implementation plans. He also said designation of POPs and land degradation as GEF focal areas could be included as recommendations to the second GEF Assembly in October 2002 in Beijing. He also said that GEF has already begun a series of workshops on reporting requirements under the Convention. Concluding, he stressed that the GEF is "open for business" and ready to work cooperatively with developing countries and CEITs to address the POPs issue.
The Conference next turned to organizational matters. Provisionally applying the rules of procedure, the Conference elected Swedish Environment Minister Kjell Larsson as its President. President Larsson thanked delegates for their support, and hoped that the Convention would be duly ratified before the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. Delegates then elected the following Bureau members: Bozo Kovacevic (Republic of Croatia); Rejoice Mabudafhasi (South Africa); Ali Abal Hasani (Iran); and Adriana Hoffmann (Chile). Kovacevic was elected as Rapporteur.
The Conference adopted the rules of procedure of the INC mutatis mutandis, as contained in document UNEP/POPS/CONF/PM/INF/1. Delegates adopted the agenda and the organization of work (UNEP/ POPS/CONF/1), and agreed that the Bureau of the Conference would also form the Credentials Committee. The report of the Credentials Committee was presented to and approved by the Conference on Wednesday, 23 May.
ADOPTION OF THE STOCKHOLM CONVENTION
Jim Willis, Director, UNEP Chemicals, introduced the Convention (UNEP/POPS/CONF/2), noting that the Secretariat had made a few minor editorial changes. INC Chair John Buccini presented the text of the Stockholm Convention, outlining the evolution of the Convention from UNEP Governing Council Decision 18/32 in 1995 until INC-5 in Johannesburg in December 2000. He thanked the INC Bureau, governments of INC host countries, POPs Club contributors, and stakeholders. Stating that the openness, transparency, inclusiveness and accountability encouraged throughout the negotiating process had paid off, he introduced stakeholder representatives to share their views and experiences with the process.
Romeo Quijano, International POPs Elimination Network (IPEN), stated that POPs are an urgent problem requiring immediate action, and called on countries to expedite the implementation and ratification of the Stockholm Convention and related conventions. He emphasized that action against the initial 12 POPs is only a starting point, and that expansion of the list, taking into account the precautionary approach, is critical to the Convention’s success. He called on countries to provide technical and financial assistance so that developing countries and CEITs can reach their objectives. He suggested that political, economic and structural problems are the major obstacles to the success of the Convention, but said that everyone can "be creative and bold enough to overcome these constraints."
Sheila Watt-Cloutier, Inuit Circumpolar Conference, spoke on behalf of all indigenous peoples who have been part of the process leading to the Stockholm Convention. She said the Inuit represented the global early warning system for POPs. She highlighted the relationships nurtured during the process through IPEN, and with industry, and underscored the importance of dialogue in understanding all perspectives on the issues. She said that action on POPs is not only an environmental matter, but that it is also a question of public health and cultural survival. She thanked John Buccini, Klaus Töpfer and Jim Willis. She said the real work begins once the agreement is signed and urged using the World Summit on Sustainable Development to press for speedy ratification and early action on the Stockholm Convention.
Michael Walls, representing the International Council of Chemical Associations, the World Chlorine Council and the Global Crop Protection Federation (GCPF), said industry has provided scientific and technical expertise, such as through the work of the GCPF, in assisting in the disposal of obsolete pesticides. He said the Convention constituted a balanced and workable science-based approach, and urged all governments to sign and ratify the Convention as soon as possible.
John Buccini then summarized the Convention, addressing the main policy points, and noted that the Convention’s objective acknowledges precaution. He highlighted the control provisions addressing intentionally produced POPs, unintentionally produced POPs, and stockpiles and wastes, and the procedure for identifying and listing new POPs, noting that the procedure has checks and balances to ensure that every nomination will be given the opportunity to be evaluated. He also highlighted provisions with respect to financial and technical assistance.
The Conference then adopted the Stockholm Convention. President Larsson said this was the first global environmental convention of the new century and a turning point in the global quest toward sustainable development. He said that science gives a voice to nature and that an international scientific research programme should support environmental conventions. He thanked scientists, environmental NGOs, the private sector, the IFCS, the WHO, the FAO and the GEF.
Canada said the Stockholm Convention is a high-water mark for global environmental cooperation, a great start for the 21st century, and an example from which future negotiators will learn. He characterized the Convention as clear, strong, comprehensive and dynamic.
Benin emphasized the value of the Convention for the South, both in terms of the importance of the issue and in terms of challenges to be addressed. He called for rapid ratification and ensuring the availability of resources for the implementation of the Convention, and appealed to industry to participate in the process.
The US and Mexico said that teamwork between countries and other stakeholders displayed during the negotiation of the Convention is a model for negotiations in the 21st century.
ADOPTION OF RESOLUTIONS
On Tuesday, 22 May, John Buccini, Chair of the Preparatory Meeting, explained that the main rationale behind the resolutions is to translate the Convention into immediate action, and recommended that delegates adopt the package consisting of seven resolutions. Resolutions agreed at INC-4 and INC-5 (UNEP/POPS/CONF/3) relate to interim financial arrangements, the Basel Convention and the secretariat. Chair Buccini explained that on Monday, 21 May, a Preparatory Meeting for the Diplomatic Conference was held and delegates had agreed to four resolutions that had not been agreed to at INC-5 due to time constraints (UNEP/POPS/CONF/PM/3). The resolutions adopted address interim arrangements, capacity building and a capacity assistance network, liability and redress, and a tribute to the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden. Delegates adopted the full package of resolutions, as recommended.
INTERIM FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS: This resolution notes that Article 14 of the Stockholm Convention on interim financial arrangements designates the GEF, on an interim basis, to serve as the principal entity entrusted with the operations of the financial mechanism.The resolution requests:
- the GEF Assembly to consider establishing a new focal area through amendment of the Instrument for the Establishment of the Restructured GEF in order to support the implementation of the Convention;
- the GEF Council to establish and implement an operational programme for POPs;
- the GEF to report to the first Conference of the Parties (COP) on the measures it has taken to ensure the transparency of the GEF project approval process;
- GEF Trust Fund donors to contribute adequate additional financial resources through the third replenishment of the Trust Fund;
- the interim secretariat to invite relevant funding institutions to provide information on ways in which they can support the Convention; and
- the first COP to review the availability of financial resources in addition to those provided through the GEF and the ways and means for mobilizing and channeling these resources.
ISSUES RELATED TO THE BASEL CONVENTION: This resolution:
- welcomes the work undertaken by the bodies of the Basel Convention on issues related to POPs and encourages these bodies to continue to make this work a priority;
- invites the bodies to cooperate on items referred to under Article 6 on stockpiles and wastes;
- requests the INC and the interim secretariat to cooperate with the Secretariat and the bodies of the Basel Convention; and
- invites the Secretariat of the Basel Convention to report to the INC on issues related to management of POPs wastes.
RESOLUTION CONCERNING THE SECRETARIAT: The resolution concerning the secretariat welcomes the offers received from Germany and Switzerland to host the secretariat; notes that the Convention provides for the UNEP Executive Director to perform the secretariat functions; and calls on the UNEP Executive Director to provide a comparative analysis of offers received regarding the physical location for consideration by the first COP.
INTERIM ARRANGEMENTS: The preambular section of this resolution states that the Conference considers that interim arrangements are required in order to expeditiously implement international action to protect human health and the environment from certain POPs pending the Convention’s entry into force and to prepare for its effective operation once it enters into force.
- calls on States and REIOs to consider signing, ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to the Convention with a view to bringing it into force as soon as possible;
- calls on States and REIOs with more advanced programmes to provide financial and technical assistance with the aim of eliminating, where feasible, the uses and releases of POPs throughout their life cycle;
- invites the UNEP Executive Director to convene future INCs during the interim period and to prepare for and service the COP until the end of the fiscal year in which the first meeting of the COP takes place;
- invites the INC to recommend draft rules of procedure, composition and operational guidelines for the functioning of the subsidiary body to be established under paragraph 6 of Article 19 (Conference of the Parties) for consideration by the first COP;
- decides that the INC shall develop provisional guidance on the evaluation of current and projected releases of unintentionally produced POPs in order to facilitate interim work;
- decides that the INC shall develop provisional guidance on best environmental practices;
- encourages States and REIOs to do preparatory work for the listing of chemicals after the entry into force of the Convention;
- requests the interim secretariat to prepare a scoping document on the items referred to in the sub-paragraph on the handling, collecting, transporting and storing of wastes in an environmentally sound manner;
- invites the INC to focus its efforts during the interim period on those activities required or encouraged by the Convention that will facilitate the rapid entry into force and effective implementation of the Convention, including the development of guidance on the preparation of implementation plans, guidance for the financial mechanism and technical assistance, rules of procedure and financial rules, guidelines on best available techniques, and work on DDT;
- invites the INC to consider establishing any subsidiary body that may be required to assist in its work; and
- appeals to States and REIOs to make voluntary contributions to the trust fund established by UNEP in order to support the interim activities, and to ensure full and effective participation of developing countries and CEITs in the INC’s further work.
CAPACITY BUILDING AND CAPACITY ASSISTANCE NETWORK: The preambular paragraphs of this resolution state that the Conference: is convinced of the need for technical assistance for capacity building related to the implementation of the obligations of the Convention; recognizes that further guidance on technical assistance for capacity building is to be provided by the COP; and recognizes the value of a mechanism to facilitate and coordinate access to technical and financial assistance to be provided to assist signatories in implementing the Convention. The operative paragraphs of the resolution:
- invite the INC to focus its efforts in the interim period on arrangements for capacity building for the implementation of the Convention in developing signatory countries and signatory CEITs, for the consideration of and adoption by the first meeting of the COP; and
- request the UNEP Executive Director, as the interim secretariat for the Convention, and the Chief Executive Officer of the GEF, acting in cooperation, to develop the modalities for a capacity assistance network that will perform the following functions, and report thereon to INC-6.
The functions of a capacity assistance network include:
- identifying and maintaining an inventory of sources of assistance outside of those to be provided by the principal entity of the Convention’s financial mechanism that are available for the implementation of the Convention;
- assisting signatories, upon request, to identify and access the sources referred to in the previous paragraph;
- providing signatories with information on categories, sources and requirements for accessing assistance; and
- encouraging the involvement of the private sector and NGOs in providing assistance.
The resolution also urges other entities providing multilateral, bilateral, regional, and financial and technical assistance for the implementation of the Convention to contribute actively to this effort, and invites the GEF, as the principal entity entrusted with the operation of the financial mechanism, to take into account the capacity building needs for the implementation of the Convention by developing countries and CEITs, in the further development of its capacity-building strategy, and to report thereon to INC-6.
LIABILITY AND REDRESS CONCERNING THE USE AND INTENTIONAL INTRODUCTION INTO THE ENVIRONMENT OF POPS: The preambular paragraphs of this resolution state that the Conference:
- is conscious of the risk posed by POPs to human health and the environment;
- acknowledges that POPs are transported across international boundaries and deposited far from their place of release;
- recognizes that the time is appropriate for further discussions on the need for elaboration of international rules in the field of liability and redress resulting from the production, use and intentional release into the environment of POPs; and
- welcomes the willingness of Austria to host a workshop on liability and redress.
The operative paragraphs: invite governments and relevant international organizations to provide the secretariat with information on national, regional and international measures and agreements on liability and redress, especially on POPs; request the secretariat, in cooperation with one or more States, to organize a workshop on liability and redress in the context of the Stockholm Convention; and decide to consider at its first COP the report of the workshop with a view to deciding what further action should be taken.
TRIBUTE TO THE GOVERNMENT OF THE KINGDOM OF SWEDEN: The resolution states that the Conference, deeply appreciative of the courtesy and hospitality extended by the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden and the city of Stockholm to the members of the delegations, observers and the secretariat of UNEP attending the Conference, expresses its sincere gratitude to the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden, to the authorities of the city of Stockholm and, through them, to the people of Sweden, for the cordial welcome that they accorded to the Conference and to those associated with its work and for their contribution to the success of the Conference.
ADOPTION OF THE FINAL ACT OF THE CONFERENCE
On Tuesday, 22 May, Jim Willis described the Final Act of the Conference (UNEP/POPS/CONF/L.1), stating that the adopted resolutions and the Stockholm Convention will be attached to the Final Act, and will be certified by signature of the country representatives, President of the Conference Kjell Larsson, Klaus Töpfer, and himself. Delegates then adopted the Final Act.
SIGNATURE OF THE FINAL ACT AND THE CONVENTION
At 10:15 am on Wednesday, 23 May, both the Final Act and the Convention were opened for signature, and remained open for signature throughout the day. The following 91 countries and the European Commission signed both the Final Act and the Convention: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Côte d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Finland, France, the Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Haiti, Hungary, Iceland, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Samoa, Senegal, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
The following 24 signed only the Final Act: Algeria, Angola, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, India, Israel, Japan, Malaysia, Mauritania, Mongolia, Oman, Paraguay, Republic of Korea, Republic of Congo, Russian Federation, Saint Lucia, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Syrian Arab Republic and the United Kingdom.
CLOSURE OF THE CONFERENCE
President Larsson then invited representatives to address the Conference. President Larsson presided over the Conference in the morning session, while Vice-President Adriana Hoffman presided over the Conference during the afternoon session. President Larsson announced that Canada was prepared to deposit the first instrument of ratification, and David Anderson, Minister of the Environment for Canada, submitted the instrument to the secretariat. President Larsson then opened the floor for statements.
Many delegates thanked John Buccini for his dedication and commitment throughout the process, the secretariat for their work, and the Swedish government for hosting the Conference.
IRAN: Massoumeh Ebtekar, Vice-President and Head of the Department of the Environment, stated that the formal adoption of the Stockholm Convention is a manifestation of the determination of the world to cherish the value of life and nature. Emphasizing the need to promote an ethical and non-material approach that requires sacrifices, she highlighted environmental management and sustainable development policies in her country.
CANADA: David Anderson, Minister of the Environment, lauded the shared recognition of the threat of POPs, the shared commitment to take action, and the shared conviction that technical and financial assistance is needed. Describing the threat to wildlife, the environment and human health in the Canadian Arctic ecosystem, he called for entry into force of the Stockholm Convention by the September 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg.
EUROPEAN UNION: Kjell Larsson, Swedish Environment Minister, spoke on behalf of the EU, the Central and Eastern European countries, Malta and Turkey. He called on countries to act forcefully to counteract past negligence, and said future use of chemicals must be guided by principles of precaution, prevention and substitution. He urged for efforts to eliminate malaria and to reduce the reliance on DDT for vector control, and emphasized the full involvement and support of industry, the scientific community and NGOs.
GERMANY: Jürgen Trittin, Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, said that cooperation between governments and NGOs was critical to the successful outcome of the negotiations. In particular, he thanked Greenpeace and WWF for their efforts. Addressing producers, he called for no new POPs, and urged the chemicals industry to assist in developing alternatives to DDT, and in the disposal of obsolete POPs stocks. He said developing countries needed technical and financial assistance from industrialized countries. He restated Germany’s offer to house the future secretariat and underscored Germany’s commitment to ratifying the Convention before the World Summit on Sustainable Development.
CHINA: Zhu Guangyao, Minister of the State Environmental Protection Administration, said developing countries face grave challenges in order to carry out obligations, and emphasized the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. He called for stable, sufficient and predictable finances, and practical technology transfer.
SOUTH AFRICA: Rejoice Mabudafhasi, Deputy Minister of the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, highlighted health problems related to POPs, and expressed hope that the Convention would assist in addressing the problems of the poor and bettering the lives of citizens. She hoped that projects related to the Convention would be showcased during the World Summit on Sustainable Development. She said South Africa would initiate a programme on POPs to showcase at the Summit.
UNITED STATES: Christine Todd Whitman, Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, highlighted endorsement of the treaty by US President George W. Bush and said that the US is already on its way to implementing the Convention. She underscored US commitment to technical and financial assistance for the developing countries, stating that over US$22 million had been allocated for POPs-related activities within the last five years, and US$3.5 million allocated in 2001. She underlined the intent of the US to cooperate with the GEF in implementation of the Convention and to continue work on capacity building in developing countries in the interim.
ICELAND: Siv Fridleifsdottir, Minister for the Environment, said the Convention is the first global agreement focusing on pollution prevention instead of "end-of-pipe" solutions. She said that implementation in all countries can begin immediately, and welcomed the GEF’s work on technical and financial assistance, as well as future INC work on listing additional chemicals and preventing new POPs from entering the market. Underlying the importance of cooperation between the Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions, she proposed co-locating the secretariats.
BANGLADESH: Syeda Sajeda Chowdhury, Minister of Environment and Forests, said Bangladesh expects concrete actions under the Convention, including: building national capabilities; controlling POPs disposal in developing countries; promoting integrated pest management (IPM); addressing the need for international assistance; and exploiting the potential of relevant multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs).
CHILE: Adriana Hoffmann, Minister of the Environment, emphasized reconciling the interests of countries with different levels of social and economic development and highlighted the urgent need for developing countries and CEITs to have the resources to enable implementation of the Convention’s obligations.
SPAIN: Maria Jesus Fraile, Deputy Minister of the Environment, stressed the importance of the UNEP initiative on a global chemical management strategy and of other agreements, such as those related to protection of the marine environment and Mediterranean coasts.
SAMOA: Tagaloa Sale Tagaloa, Minister of the Department of Lands, Surveys and Environment, stated that building global commitment and local capacity is necessary for implementation of the Convention, and emphasized problems with the disposal of stockpiles.
CZECH REPUBLIC: Milos Kuzvart, Minister of the Environment, noted his country’s responsibility for the European coordination of a UNEP project aimed at producing an inventory of POPs and potential POPs candidates, and plans to join the UNIDO project aimed at facilitating the development of national implementation plans.
SWEDEN: Maj-Inger Klingvall, Minister of Development Cooperation, Migration and Asylum Policy, said that sustainable and responsible management of chemicals should be self-financing in the long run, and that public, private, domestic and international sources have complementary roles to play. She underscored the need for continuing official development assistance (ODA), and expressed Sweden’s commitment to reaching the ODA target of 0.7% of GNP. She said Sweden will increase its ODA to 0.87% by 2004, and indicated a contribution of an additional SEK 8 million for POPs.
OMAN: Khamis bin Mubarak Al-Alawi, Minister of Regional Municipalities and Environment and Water Resources, said that Oman has enacted laws on the distribution and trade of chemicals, and has used these laws for assessing the dangers of these chemicals.
GHANA: Dominic Fobih, Minister of Environment, Science and Technology, said he expected the following from the Convention: assistance in building human and institutional capacity in order to identify chemicals and test their presence in human tissue; awareness-raising programmes on the health implications associated with POPs use; provision of alternative environmentally friendly chemicals, particularly for use as pesticides; and adequate mechanisms in developed countries to prevent improper labeling of chemicals that are imported by developing countries. He hoped that requests for assistance would not face technical or administrative impediments and would receive urgent consideration.
INDIA: T.R. Baalu, Minister of Environment and Forests, underlined the success of IPM that allowed India to ban use of all but one of the 12 POPs. He thanked Canada for its assistance in setting up a regional center catering to the requirements of the Basel, Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions, and informed delegates of a series of awareness-raising workshops on POPs in India.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Nerowa Agiwa, Minister of Environment and Conservation, called for renewed efforts for research and technical innovations, until safer and cheaper alternatives to POPs become available. He underscored constraints facing small island developing States (SIDS) and less developed countries. He supported joint efforts by the GEF, UNEP and the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme on the management of obsolete stockpiles of POPs.
JAMAICA: Seymour Mullings, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Land and Environment, said technical assistance is the highest priority for SIDS for, inter alia, inventories of POPs, national implementation plans, new technologies for dioxins and furans, control devices for incineration facilities, cleaner production methods, IPM, and preparation of technical guidelines on POPs wastes under the Basel Convention. He also stressed the importance of public awareness and the public right-to-know.
TANZANIA: Arcado Ntagazwa, Minister of State, said the Stockholm Convention will bring international unity in tackling the POPs problem and highlighted initiatives his country has taken regarding POPs management. He stressed developing national strategies, disposing of stockpiles, researching alternatives and capacity building of relevant institutions.
KENYA: Francis Nyenze, Minister of Environment and Natural Resources, outlined national legislation regarding POPs, and emphasized that successful implementation of the Convention will require regional cooperation, including forums to review and evaluate measures to examine POPs regulation.
BELGIUM: Magde Aelvoet, Minister of Consumer Protection, Public Health and Environment, commended the exclusion of a savings clause that would subordinate the Convention to World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements. She said that as the next EU President, Belgium would prioritize ratification by the EU of the Stockholm and Rotterdam Conventions.
MEXICO: Raúl Enrique Arriaga Becerra, Deputy Minister of Environment and Natural Resources, supported the establishment of mechanisms to ensure full participation by civil society in implementation of the Stockholm Convention, and said international support was required to match efforts with resources. He highlighted as critical to the Convention’s success, inter alia, effective monitoring systems and data on production, determination of income associated with jobs related to POPs, and cost-benefit analyses to support decision making processes related to POPs.
ZAMBIA: Bothwall Edward Chembe Nyangu, Minister of Environment and Natural Resources, emphasized common but differentiated responsibilities, said problems related to POPs continue to create havoc on socioeconomic and poverty eradication programmes, and underscored the importance of provisions related to technical and financial assistance. He said regional and international cooperation must be developed, and encouraged integration of national implementation plans.
REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA: Gheorghe Duca, Minister of Environment, highlighted Moldova’s national programmes and said Moldova was ready to cooperate on implementing the Stockholm Convention and other international agreements.
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Frank Moya Pons, State Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources, underscored the Convention’s relevance in the Caribbean region, where both food chains and drinking water are contaminated with POPs. He informed delegates of his country’s readiness to promptly ratify the Convention.
PHILIPPINES: Heherson Alvarez, Minister of Environment and Natural Resources, said the full disclosure of the health and environmental impacts of POPs is imperative to enable countries, especially less developed countries, to make judicious decisions on POPs. He also called for clear guidance for GEF operations.
MALTA: Francis Zammit Dimech, Minister of Environment, said that the Convention is the most ambitious global agreement on toxic chemicals, and that Malta has already banned importation and use of most of the 12 POPs. He advocated broader application of the precautionary and polluter pays principles.
NIGERIA: Alhaji Mohammed Kabir Sáid, Minister of Environment, called for capacity building, technology transfer and a mechanism for compliance as top priorities for the successful implementation of the Convention, and signaled the intent of Nigeria to seek the full benefits of the GEF as the main financial mechanism.
CÔTE D’IVOIRE: Gilbert Bleu-Lainé, Ministère de l’Environnement et du Cadre de Vie, emphasized collective commitment to the precautionary principle. He called for prompt implementation of financial and technical mechanisms, and described a PCB pilot project in his country.
POLAND: Maciej Rudnicki, Secretary of State, Ministry of the Environment, said that the Convention will bring common solutions to global issues related to POPs, and become legally binding guidance for all countries beyond political and geographic differences. He commended the idea of early financial support to CEITs for implementation of commitments.
LUXEMBOURG: Eugène Berger, State Secretary of the Environment, said that although the precautionary principle is well established it has not always been operationalized. He stressed the need to develop and make available technologies to enable substitution of POPs and the environmentally sound destruction of wastes.
VENEZUELA: Alejandro Hitcher, Vice Minister of Environment and Natural Resources, said that because of the characteristics of POPs and the risks involved, related efforts cannot be isolated. He urged dissemination of technology and resources.
SWITZERLAND: Amb. Beat Nobs, Head of International Affairs Division, Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape, said the successful conclusion of the Stockholm Convention must be seen in a broader context, and noted: strengthening of the international environmental regime; trade measures in multilateral environmental agreements as desirable and necessary; and increasing acceptance and implementation of the precautionary approach at the international level. He emphasized synergies with other institutions, and said such thematic and institutional clustering reflects the wish to strengthen international environmental governance.
AUSTRALIA: Amb. Ian Forsyth, Embassy of Australia in Turkey, said that Australia will allocate AUS$5 million over the next four years for activities related to the Convention, and will continue substantial assistance to developing countries and CEITs. Acknowledging the benefits of chemicals, he called for a consistent, objective and science-based approach to the listing of new chemicals.
NEW ZEALAND: Amb. Christopher Butler, Embassy of New Zealand in the Netherlands, expressed his country’s readiness to contribute significant scientific information, as well as methodologies and research on POPs impacts. Noting that his country has already begun implementation of the Convention through, for example, new policies on dioxins and organochlorides, he said that New Zealand would meet its obligations as soon as practicable.
JAPAN: Amb. Tomio Uchida, Embassy of Japan in Sweden, noted Japanese efforts to prevent POPs threats through various laws and regulations, including those on dioxins and disposal of PCBs, and said that Japan would become a party to the Convention as soon as possible.
AUSTRIA: Amb. Nikolaus Scherk, Embassy of Austria in Sweden, reiterated his country’s offer to host a workshop on liability and redress, and described the implication of POPs on the mountain ecosystem in Austria.
UNITED KINGDOM: Amb. John Grant, Embassy of the United Kingdom in Sweden, explained that his country is not in a position to sign the Convention due to the upcoming election, yet, if re-elected, the government plans to sign as soon as possible.
SRI LANKA: Amb. Sarala Fernando, Embassy of Sri Lanka in Sweden, announced that cabinet approval has been obtained for Sri Lanka to sign the Convention. She described current POPs regulations in her country, and emphasized the importance of raising awareness of POPs impacts.
TURKEY: Amb. Selim Kuneralp, Embassy of Turkey in Sweden, expressed his hope and belief that all necessary support for implementation of the Convention would be received for one of the most important environmental agreements adopted thus far.
SINGAPORE: Amb. Walter Woon, Embassy of Singapore in Germany, highlighted the following activities as necessary for implementation in developing countries: development of guidelines on policies, strategies and priority programmes necessary to facilitate technical and financial assistance; development of best available technologies and practices; and development and harmonization of data acquisition and evaluation.
BRAZIL: Amb. Elim Dutra, Embassy of Brazil in Sweden, said the Convention is well-balanced and realistic. He stated that certain POPs are still needed for agriculture, industry and health. He said action plans must reflect nationally defined priorities, and noted that Brazil is establishing internal conditions by adopting measures to ensure full implementation in the short term. He said provisions on technical and financial assistance must be implemented.
COLOMBIA: Amb. Francisco José Sanclemente Molina, Embassy of Colombia in Sweden, said that Colombia is proud to be a part of the Convention, and emphasized its importance as a cornerstone of environmental protection in 21st century.
REPUBLIC OF KOREA: Amb. Keum Jung-Ho, Embassy of the Republic of Korea in Sweden, called for establishing practical interim institutions, and for the immediate start of establishing reporting requirements, distributing technology, providing public information, education, and research. He said that after completing necessary domestic procedures, his country will sign the Convention as soon as possible.
ITALY: Amb. Alessandro Quaroni, Embassy of Italy in Sweden, stressed the importance of training and public participation activities, and encouraged the establishment of technical groups on implementing the relevant activities under the Convention. He offered further scientific, technical and financial support, noting that Italy is one of the six biggest contributors to the GEF.
CAMBODIA: Khieu Muth, Director-General, Ministry of Environment, stated that Cambodia is committed to environmental protection and recognizes the importance of natural resources to its economy and culture. He welcomed steps taken by the GEF to provide developing countries and CEITs with financial assistance to enable them to fulfill their commitments.
VIETNAM: Amb. Nguyen Van Nam, Embassy of Vietnam in Sweden, emphasized that his country has suffered greatly from the health and environmental effects of dioxins, and said that the Convention is an important instrument in the development of an appropriate strategy to create a healthier environment for future generations.
MALI: Makan Fily Dabo, Conseiller Technique, Ministère de l’Equipement, de l’Aménagement du Territoire de l’Environnement et de l’Urbanisme, outlined activities in Mali to counter the threat of POPs, and asked the donor community to provide technical and financial assistance to eliminate obsolete pesticides.
MOROCCO: Amb. Farida Jaidi, Embassy of Morocco in Sweden, said it was essential to give developing countries the assistance they require to enable them to implement the Convention. She advocated converting developing country debt into environmental investments.
FRANCE: Philippe Zeller, Ambassador for the Environment, said the recent GEF replenishment decision will help meet the challenge of providing additional resources and will enable UNIDO and UNDP to establish technical assistance programmes. He urged the production and dissemination of new chemical substances that are not dangerous, and supported use of the precautionary principle in the face of uncertainty.
ECUADOR: Amb. Diego Stacey, Embassy of Ecuador in Sweden, said Ecuador had been selected to participate in a pilot project for POPs management under the GEF. He said the international community must make new efforts to find sufficient finances and supply new technologies to find substitutes for POPs.
INDONESIA: Amb. Tjahjono, Embassy of Indonesia in Sweden, noted his country has taken concrete steps on POPs, including bans and controls on certain POPs. He reassured delegates of Indonesia’s readiness to cooperate for the successful implementation of the Convention.
URUGUAY: José Luis Remedi, Environmental Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, stressed the need to act proactively, and emphasized the importance of international cooperation in helping developing countries. He stressed that assistance efforts have to be linked to national conditions and capacities.
PORTUGAL: Isabel Margarida Bela Ferreira, Deputy Head, Portuguese Mission in Stockholm, reaffirmed her country’s commitment to an integrated approach to POPs-related problems. She endorsed provisions on addressing new chemicals and on financial and technical assistance for developing countries and CEITs, and called for a global strategy based on precautionary and preventative principles in order protect the environment.
ROMANIA: Ioan Jelev, Secretary of State, Department of Environmental Protection, highlighted priorities for future action including, inter alia, best available technologies, financial and technical assistance and recommendations for chemicals strategies.
RUSSIAN FEDERATION: Rustem Mamim, Director, Department of International Cooperation, Ministry of Natural Resources, described problems with PCBs in his country, stating that remediation costs have been estimated to be US$180 million. He said national procedures had prevented signature of the Convention, but that efforts will be to sign in the near future.
EUROPEAN COMMISSION: Robert Donkers, Deputy Head, Chemicals Department, Environment Directorate-General, emphasized that MEAs and the WTO agreements should be mutually supportive with a view to achieving sustainable development, and called for preparatory work on additional POPs in the interim period.
BASEL CONVENTION: Sachiko Kuwabara-Yamamoto, Executive Secretary, said the Stockholm Convention opens a new era of cooperation between chemicals and hazardous waste conventions. She said experience gained by Parties to the Basel Convention can offer tangible support for the effective implementation of the Stockholm Convention. She stated that partnerships are essential to achieve goals of the two conventions, and to respond constructively to the call for strengthening international environmental governance.
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION: Alemayehu Wodageneh, Coordinator and Chief Technical Advisor, Prevention and Disposal of Obsolete Stocks, said the FAO plays a major role in eliminating POPs by supporting and promoting IPM. He highlighted FAO cooperation with UNEP and other relevant agencies in preventing the accumulation of obsolete pesticide stocks. He said now that the FAO has become an implementing agency of the GEF, it is prepared and committed to playing an effective role in addressing issues and problems related to POPs and pesticide waste.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION: Douglas W. Bettcher, Coordinator, said the WHO has already taken steps since INC-5 to support the treatyï¿½s intent, and highlighted: the call for a common policy on DDT that focuses on its gradual and conditional reduction, and on efforts to switch to alternatives; meetings of the WHOï¿½s Rollback Malaria Project to develop a methodology and guidelines to assess the technical, financial and human resource needs for malaria vector control in countries relying on DDT; and activities initiated by the Regional Offices for the Americas and for Africa to reduce reliance on DDT. He hoped that the current negotiations for the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control could be completed with the same efficiency and speed as those for the Stockholm Convention.
ORGANIZATION FOR THE PROHIBITION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS (OPSW): Huang Yu, Director of External Relations, described functions of the OPSW as an implementation body of the Convention on Chemical Weapons and proposed integration of capacity building and assistance activities of the OPSW and the Stockholm Convention in countries with limited resources.
UNDP-GEF: Andrew Hudson, Principal Technical Advisor, said that UNDP focuses much of its GEF portfolio in the areas of capacity building and technical assistance, and, recognizing the strong health, environmental and socioeconomic linkages between UNDP and the Stockholm Convention mandates, offered support to the UNDP client countries in fulfilling their obligations.
ARCTIC COUNCIL: Peter Stenlund, Chair of the Senior Arctic Officials, said the Member States of the Arctic Council are contributing to effective implementation of the Convention, and noted an action plan on eliminating pollution in the Arctic, as well as multilateral projects on POPs in the Russian Federation. Moreover, he suggested, capacities of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme could lead to developing a global monitoring network on POPs. He also stressed the importance of preventing production and use of new POPs.
Conference Vice-President Adriana Hoffmann thanked delegates for their statements and closed the Conference of the Plenipotentiaries at 7:00 pm.
THINGS TO LOOK FOR
FAO PANEL OF EXPERTS ON PESTICIDE SPECIFICATIONS, REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS, APPLICATION STANDARDS AND PRIOR INFORMED CONSENT: The 18th session of the Panel is expected to meet in Bangkok, Thailand, from 17-19 June 2001. Participants will consider new provisions of the Code of Conduct and update various guidelines in support of the Code. The 19th session is scheduled for 27-29 October 2002 in Rome. For more information, contact: Gero Vaagt, FAO; tel: +39-6-5705-5757; fax: +39-6-5705-6347; e-mail: Gero.Vaagt@fao.org; Internet: http://www.fao.org/waicent/FaoInfo/Agricult/AGP/AGPP/Pesticid/Events/c.htm
FIFTH CONSULTATION ON THE PREVENTION AND DISPOSAL OF OBSOLETE AND UNWANTED STOCKS OF PESTICIDES: This meeting is scheduled for 2001 in Rome. Participants will consider new provisions for the prevention and disposal of obsolete stocks and update/prepare various technical guidelines in support of the FAO Code of Conduct. For more information, contact: Ale Wodageneh, FAO; tel: +39-6-5705-5192; fax: +39-6-5705-6347; e-mail: A.Wodageneh@fao.org; Internet: http://www.fao.org/waicent/FaoInfo/Agricult/AGP/AGPP/Pesticid/Events/c.htm
JOINT FAO-WHO MEETING ON PESTICIDE RESIDUES: The 26th session of the Joint Meeting of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues in Food and the Environment and the WHO Expert Group on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) will take place from 10-28 September 2001, in Geneva. The 27th session is scheduled for 20-29 September 2002 in Rome. For more information, contact: Amelia Tejada, FAO; tel: +39-6-5705-4010; fax: +39-6-5705-6347; e-mail: Amelia.Tejada@fao.org; Internet: http://www.fao.org/waicent/FaoInfo/Agricult/AGP/AGPP/Pesticid/Events/c.htm
GOVERNMENT CONSULTATION ON UPDATING THE FAO CODE OF CONDUCT ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF PESTICIDES: This consultation is tentatively scheduled for October 2001 in Rome. It will consider the draft revised FAO International Code of Conduct on Distribution and Use of Pesticides. For more information, contact: Niek Van der Graaff, FAO; tel: +39-6-5705-3441; fax: fax: +39-6-5705-6347; e-mail: Niek.VanderGraaff@fao.org; Internet: http://www.fao.org/waicent/FaoInfo/Agricult/AGP/AGPP/Pesticid/Events/c.htm
EIGHTH PIC-INC MEETING: The eighth session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC) for the Preparation of the Conference of Parties of the Rotterdam Convention for the Application of the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade (INC-8) will be held from 8-12 October 2001, in Rome. For more information, contact: Niek van der Graaff, FAO; tel: +39-6-5705-3441; fax: +39-6-5705-6347; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; or Jim Willis, UNEP Chemicals; tel: +41-22-917-8111; fax: +41-22-797-3460; e-mail: email@example.com; Internet: http://www.pic.int/
17TH ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONTAMINATED SOILS, SEDIMENTS AND WATER: This conference will be held on 22-25 October 2001, in Amherst, Massachusetts, USA. Topics to be covered include, inter alia, bioremediation, chemical analysis, cleanup standard setting, environmental fate and modeling, hazard exposure and risk assessment, hydrocarbon identification and innovative technologies. For more information, contact: Denise Leonard, University of Massachusetts; tel: +1-413-545-1239; fax: +1-413-545-4692; e-mail: info@UMassSoils.com; Internet: http://www.umasssoils.com/papers.htm
INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF PESTICIDES AND INTEGRATED PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: This workshop will take place from 6-9 November 2001, in Katmandu, Nepal. The workshop will cover all aspects of pesticides and their agricultural use, such as: pesticide application practices; sampling of crops, soil and water; residue analysis; and socioeconomic aspects of pesticide use. For more information, contact: Dr. A. Herrmann, Technical University Braunschweig, Germany; tel: +49-531-391-5607; fax: +49-531-391-8170; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Internet: http://www.tu-bs.de/institute/igg/physhyd/workshop.html
GEF COUNCIL: The next meeting of the GEF Council will take place from 6-7 December 2001 in Washington, DC. The meeting will be proceeded by an NGO consultation on 5 December 2001. For more information, contact the GEF Secretariat, tel: +1-202-473-0508; fax:
+1-202- 522-3240/3245; e-mail: email@example.com; Internet: http://www.gefweb.org. A complete list of meetings can be found at: http://www.gefweb.org/participants/Council/Meeting_Schedule/meeting_schedule.html
GEF ASSEMBLY: The second meeting of the GEF Assembly is scheduled for 16-18 October 2002 in Beijing, China. For more information, contact the GEF Secretariat, tel: +1-202-473-0508; fax: +1-202- 522-3240/3245; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Internet: http://www.gefweb.org
FOURTH SESSION OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL FORUM ON CHEMICAL SAFETY (IFCS): FORUM IV is scheduled to be held in Thailand in 2003, with FORUM V taking place in Hungary in late 2005 or 2006. For more information, contact: the IFCS Executive Secretary; tel: +41-22-791-3650; fax: +41-22-791-4875; e-mail: email@example.com; Internet: http://www.who.int/ifcs