The Global Conference on Oceans and Coasts at Rio+10: Assessing Progress, Addressing Continuing and New Challenges

Paris, France; 3 - 7 December 2001

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Highlights for Wednesday, 5 December 2001

Conference participants met throughout the day on Wednesday, hearing panel presentations and generating discussion on: national and local perspectives on integrated coastal management (ICM); national ocean policy and planning and management of exclusive economic zones (EEZs); sustainable use of fisheries and aquaculture; and present status and future directions in marine protected areas (MPAs). Left photo and below: Drafting group of Working Group 4.

The Working Groups and Drafting Committee continued to make progress during morning, afternoon and evening sessions. A draft Co-Chairs Report and an annex containing preliminary reports from the Working Groups were distributed to participants for review.


Indumathie Hewawasam (right),
World Bank, reported on the proceedings of the second day, outlining the panels and touching on points raised including the need for an ecosystem approach, the idea of a “triage” conservation approach for coral reefs, regional commonalities in ICM, the debate on ocean sequestration and its effects on ocean biodiversity and the idea of a private sector network on ocean sustainability.


This panel presented specific national and local cases of ICM, analyzing major outcomes, lessons learned, replication of programs, and institutional change. Panel Chair Yves Hénocque, IFREMER, introduced the panel.

Stephen Olsen (left), Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island, US, presented a breakdown of ICM based on four stages of action: establishing machinery for sustainable development; reducing and mitigating behavior; improving environmental and resource quality; and ensuring the sustainability of achievements.

Jeremiah Daffa, National Environment Managing Council, Tanzania, outlined the Tanzanian context for ICM and offered a perspective on local ICM programs, including marine parks and coastal management.

Chandrica Sharma, International Collective in Support of Fishworkers, drew on the outcomes of two multi-stakeholder workshops to address threats to coastal ecosystems and impacts of the fisheries sector in South Asia.

Camille Mageau, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada, explained that Canada’s approach to ICM is based on a geographic framework of regional and local management areas, comprising multiple economic zones and recognizing continuity between land- and marine-based ecosystems.

Diane James, Victorian Coastal Council, offered an Australian perspective of ICM, contrasting planning and management policies at the state and national levels.

Bambang Wahyudi (left), on behalf of the Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Indonesia, discussed decentralization of management and financial authorities in Indonesia and highlighted recognition of the need to integrate coastal governance.


This panel addressed national planning for ocean conservation and development, including policies, projects and planning for use and conservation of Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs). Panel Chair Evelyne Meltzer (right), Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada, introduced the speakers.

Veronica Sakell (right), National Oceans Office, Australia, discussed the implementation of Australia’s Oceans Policy, launched in 1998, outlining responsibilities for coordinating institutional arrangements and principles of regional marine planning. She highlighted the southeast marine region as an example and stressed the importance of nesting spatial frameworks.

Matthew King (right), Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada, discussed the Oceans Act and the policy process and frameworks developed to implement three key programs on MPAs, integrated management and marine environmental quality.

Martin Tsamenyi, University of Wollongong, Australia, focused on actions taken by island nations toward EEZ management.

Kwang Youl Park (right),
Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, Korea, discussed the new ministry’s approach to oceans governance, including sustainable development of marine resources through Ocean Korea 21, Chapter 17 and EEZ planning programmes, and noted the need for harmonizing ministries, achieving progress toward ecosystem-based and precautionary approaches and encouraging development and application of sustainable indicators.

Alf Håkon Hoel (right), University of Tromsoe, Norway, said Norway is a major beneficiary of extended jurisdiction through EEZs and outlined measures for EEZ management through international agreements and domestic responses.

Mao Bin, Representative of the People’s Republic of China to the International Seabed Authority, gave a brief history of China’s coastal zone management and highlighted government efforts to increase awareness of the marine environment, including formation of a national network for marine environment monitoring and creation of a national ocean development plan and national marine policy.

Chair Meltzer presented key points and recommendations compiled by the panel. They emphasized, inter alia, that: EEZs should be managed seamlessly with coastal zones; lack of institutional understanding in this new area requires a high threshold of caution in decision-making; and harmonization between countries is needed to manage overlapping zones and transboundary effects.


This panel addressed major issues related to marine fishing activities and the development of coastal and oceanic aquaculture around the world, including activities and interaction of industrial and small-scale fisheries, risks and benefits of marine aquaculture, fishery and aquaculture impacts on marine ecosystems, and fishing activities in areas of national jurisdiction and in the high seas. Panel Chair Moritaka Hayashi, Waseda University School of Law, Japan, introduced the speakers.

Serge Garcia (right), Fisheries Resources and Environmental Division, FAO, presented a status report on central issues in global fisheries, including overfishing, overcapacity, the harmful role of subsidies and poor statistics and monitoring, and listed new initiatives to address these problems.

Moritaka Hayashi, Waseda University School of Law, Japan, reviewed his work on progress achieved on sustainable use and conservation of high seas living resources, noting the concept of sustainable use has been adopted by several conventions and become the objective of management regimes of migratory and straddling fish stocks.

Anamarija Frankic,
Virginia Institute of Marine Science, USA, defined sustainable aquaculture as a fast-growing industry with increasing consumer demand for its environmentally sustainable product, and presented three examples.

Matthew Gianni (right), Greenpeace International, discussed the threat to world oceans and seas of overfishing, highlighting emerging problems such as lack of fishing regulation of high seas seamounts, deep sea ridges and plateaus.

Pietro Parravano (right), World Forum of Fish Harvesters and Fish Workers, outlined problems in fisheries and described means to address them including improved science and enforcement measures, integrated management and professional development among fishermen.

J�han Sigurj�nsson, Marine Research Institute, Iceland, reported on the Reykjavik Conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem.

Daniel Pauly, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Canada, presented problems in fisheries that are hidden by common statistics.


This panel addressed scientific and political aspects of creating, implementing, managing and evaluating MPAs, as well as integration of MPAs in coastal management programs and establishment of MPAs in the high seas.

Panel Chair Richard Kenchington, Marine and Maritime Policy Centre, University of Wollongong, Australia, provided an overview of MPA category designations, noting the characteristics of each in terms of environmental protection and usage characteristics. He described factors in MPA category designation and problems in MPA management.

Charles Ehler (right), IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas, discussed the global status of MPAs. He noted that only 1% of ocean areas are currently designated as MPAs, their current management is mixed and many are still �paper parks.�

Charlotte de Fontaubert presented a paper by Tundi Agardy, Sound Seas, on making MPAs work for people and nature. Raising the question of whether MPAs are created for pure conservation objectives or to also serve people, she noted the potential of MPAs to integrate management across landscapes, provide numerous benefits and meet different needs.

David Souter, International Coral Reef Initiative Secretariat, reminded participants of the value of coral reefs, including their function as fish hatcheries and as diverse marine ecosystems.




Oceans and Coasts at Rio+10 Website
General Conference Information  and Accomodation/Local Information
GPA Website 
CBD: Jakarta Manadate on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity


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