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IISD Reporting Services (IISD RS) Coverage
IISD RS is providing daily web coverage of selected side events the Lima Climate Change Conference - December 2014, from 1-12 December 2014, from Lima, Peru.
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Coverage of Selected Side Events at the
Lima Climate Change Conference - December 2014

1-12 December 2014 | Lima, Peru

Daily Web Coverage (Click on the Following Links to See our Daily Webpages)

The following side events were covered by ENBOTS on Monday, 1 December 2014.

Tree-like installation commissioned by the Government of Peru
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Side Events (ENBOTS) Coverage on Monday, 1 December 2014
Perspectives on the 2015 Paris deal: Options on the road from Lima 2014 to Paris 2015

Organized by the Third World Network (TWN) and South Centre

Meena Raman, TWN, called on parties to focus on the implimentation of existing obligations.
Seyni Nafo, Africa Group delegate for the ADP, called for “significant mitigation ambition and transparency.”

This session, moderated by Meena Raman, TWN, provided an opportunity for developing country panelists to share insights on the critical markers from COP 20 in Lima to COP 21 in Paris, in order to secure an equitable and just climate agreement. Raman warned that, although substantial, the US$9.7 billion pledged to the Green Climate Fund is inadequate to address the need for assistance to developing countries.

Seyni Nafo, African Group delegate for the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP), highlighted that party contributions should not be limited to mitigation, but should also include adaptation. He urged actions on the ground, highlighting the barriers to implementation and suggesting strategies to overcome them.

Su Wei, China, urged revisiting agreements reached at the UNFCCC COP in Bali and refocusing energies towards implementing the Kyoto Protocol.

On the critical actions necessary from Lima to Paris, Ravi Prasad, India, noted the need to cover all key elements, including adaptation, mitigation and financial commitments. He emphasized that any agreements reached in Lima should be based on equity, without which reaching any targets would be impossible. Prasad urged clear and effective leadership from developed countries, and examining current unsustainable consumption and lifestyle patterns.

Martin Khor, South Centre, said “equity should be the gateway to ambition,” and emphasized the need for a financial investment of
US$500 billion for mitigation, and US$400 billion for adaptation. He urged reaching a Paris agreement based on national circumstances.

Participants then discussed, inter alia: the effects of a 1.5 or 2˚C increase in global temperature; communicating information on the process to increase actions such as an equity reference framework; regional and sectoral barriers, and devising strategies to address them; and the legal obligations of developed countries in terms of technical assistance and capacity building to developing countries.

Martin Khor, South Centre, lamented living in a "competitive materialistic world that is based on a carbon-dioxide driven culture."
Ravi Prasad, India, stressed that the political disparity on adaptation and mitigation “would not fly.”
Su Wei, China, said “we need real actions to increase the emissions reduction targets.”
A view of the room during the side event
More Information:


Yvonne Miller, TWN
[email protected]

Climate change mitigation policies – recent trends, opportunities and compatibility
with 2°C pathways

Organized by Climate Analytics GmbH and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL)

Michiel Schaeffer, Climate Analytics, stressed the need to track progress in policies in the context of the INDCs, calculate effects and include equity considerations in addition to least-cost calculations
Hanna Fekete, NewClimate Institute, presented potential effects by 2030 of enhanced policies for China, India, Mexico and Japan
Michel den Elzen, PBL, addressed the PBL project’s objective to provide an overview of the projected GHG emissions of seven major emitting countries to 2030, taking into account the emissions trajectories based on current, planned and selected enhanced policies

This side event, moderated by Niklas Höhne, NewClimate Institute, presented new analysis by the Climate Action Tracker team on current emissions’ trends and targets, as well as work by the PBL on enhancing the ambition of major emitting countries.

Marcia Rocha, Climate Analytics, provided a brief introduction on the Climate Action Tracker project, an independent, science-based assessment, which monitors countries’ emission commitments and actions. She focused on Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) addressing assessment of current pledges and whether current activities are sufficient to meet these pledges.

Hanna Fekete, NewClimate Institute, presented findings for the US, China and South Korea. She compared US and Chinese electricity sectors, noting that emission intensity is currently higher in China, with the Chinese sector also presenting a faster trend of decarbonization. Regarding South Korea, she referred to the Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) to be launched in 2015, noting that despite the clear reduction in emissions, it will still be insufficient to meet the country’s pledge.

Fabio Sferra, Climate Analytics, reported on India, Norway and New Zealand. He noted that India could achieve their pledge despite a steep increase in emissions, while under current policy, Norway would not be able to meet their very ambitious pledge. He further noted New Zealand’s emissions are expected to increase and policies additional to the ETS will be needed.

Michiel Schaeffer, Climate Analytics, underscored uncertainty, difficulty in quantification and lack of transparency regarding pledges. He stressed the need for meaningful quantification, noting: focus on mitigation; referencing at least to 2020-2025; clearly defining a base period; and specifying the sectors involved.

Michel den Elzen, PBL, noted that the objective of the PBL project is to provide an overview of the projected GHG emissions of seven major emitting countries. He stressed the combination of a bottom-up and a top-down approach and presented results for the US and Brazil, using scenarios for current, planned and enhanced policies.

Hanna Fekete, NewClimate Institute, presented additional results for China, India, Mexico and Japan. She underlined options that will reduce emissions by 2030, including: using enhanced policies such as car standards, replacement of coal-fired plants by renewable energy, and energy efficiency in buildings and industry.

Andries Hof, PBL, presented on long-term climate policy targets and implications for 2030. He stressed, inter alia, that: projected global GHG emissions for 2020 are around 10% above the 2010 level, which is considerably higher than the least-cost pathway to achieve the 2°C target; and delay to 2030 will increase the difficulty of achieving given targets, which ultimately depends on well-organized international policies in the short term.

Kentaro Tamura, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), Japan, focused on standard-setting for nuclear and coal-fired power plants in Japan, which is critical for the finalization of mitigation targets.

During discussions participants addressed inter alia: data trustworthiness; inclusion of specific sectors, like agriculture; sufficiency of the 2°C target; and required elements to be included in the new climate agreement.

L-R: Marcia Rocha, Climate Analytics; Niklas Höhne, NewClimate Institute; Andries Hof, PBL; and Kentaro Tamura, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Japan.
Engaging the public in climate decision-making: learning from local
and national experiences

Organized by University of Lapland, Earth Justice, GEM Initiative and Centre for International Sustainable Development Law
Sébastien Duyck, University of Lapland, noted little progress so far in promoting UNFCCC Article 4 on engagement of stakeholders and Article 6 on public access to information at the national level
Karen Holm Olsen, Technical University of Denmark, said the CDM rules of procedure should be more explicit about how to address the principles of equity, non discrimination, participation,accountability and redress
Maximo Ba Tiul, Consejo de Pueblos de Tezulutlán, Guatemala, cautioned against continuing to treat indigenous peoples as second class citizens

Moderator Sébastien Jodoin, McGill University, noted this is the first in a series of events at COP 20 touching on the implementation of UNFCC Article 6 (education, training and public awareness).

Maximo Ba Tiul, Consejo de Pueblos de Tezulutlán, Guatemala, emphasized the close interlinkages between the struggle against climate change and the struggle for recognition of indigenous rights.

Sam Leiva, Climate Action Network (CAN), Latin America, described good practices in Chile, noting the government’s early engagement of civil society in the formulation of the national climate change action plan and inclusion of civil society representatives in official COP delegations.

Sébastien Duyck, University of Lapland, discussed the international framework for procedural rights in climate policies. He said that following the Rio Declaration of 1992 and the subsequent development of UNEP’s Bali non-binding guidelines, most progress has taken place at the regional level. He noted the recent decision by 13 Latin American countries to negotiate a regional instrument modelled on the compliance mechanism of Europe’s Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters.

Karen Holm Olsen, Technical University of Denmark, discussed how to promote procedural rights in mitigation mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism. She highlighted some examples of good practice as incorporating environmental and social safeguards and minimizing risks to investments in REDD+, and the inclusion of NGOs on the board of the Green Climate Fund.

Cathering Gauthier, ENvironnement JEUnesse, spoke on youth participation in local policy processes. She emphasized the need to convene informal spaces for dialogue and report the results of participatory processes to enhance public ownership and engagement.

Participants then convened in three breakout sessions to discuss ways of enhancing public engagement. On the minimum requirements for meaningful participation in decision making, participants highlighted the need for inclusive, non-discriminatory, timely and accessible information and communication processes.

On the benefits of ensuring meaningful participation in climate-related decision making, participants noted the need to address power imbalances by reaching out “beyond the usual suspects,” strengthening youth involvement and sharing good practices across regions.

With regard to how to promote public participation at the domestic level through the UNFCCC, participants noted the need to, inter alia: strengthen communication between civil society organizations and delegations; avoid “siloing” of Article 6 issues; translate technical concepts into accessible language; and explore the role of CSOs in supporting governments’ translation role and holding them to account.


Participants in the break out group on minimum requirements for meaningful participation in decision making discussed the importance of making information accessible in local languages and using appropriate communication channels

More Information:


Sébastien Duyck, University of Lapland, Finland
[email protected]

Adaptation Finance: Global to Local Perspectives

Organized by the Trustees of Tufts College
Anju Sharma, Oxford Climate Policy, proposed a change in the direction of “accountability flows,” so that communities are empowered to question the failure of donor-funded projects.
Saleemul Huq, Director, International Centre for Climate Change and Development (ICCCAD), stressed that climate change is a pollution problem that requires payment from those responsible for it.”

Moderated by Rishikesh Bhandary, The Fletcher School at Tufts University, this event addressed approaches to adaptation finance, including mainstreaming funds from the global to the national level and the importance of direct access.

Underscoring that adaptation to climate change cannot be “projectized,” Saleemul Huq, Director, ICCCAD, shared the experience of Bangladesh in financing adaptation. He drew attention to the country’s Climate Change Trust Fund and the Climate Resilience Fund as well as multilateral climate change funds, and called for generating critical evaluation of these funds and assessing their strengths and weaknesses in order to establish a more robust financing system. He stressed capacity building as the most important step towards mainstreaming financing adaptation at all levels of governance.

Underlining the need to change the debate on financing from what projects donors would like, to what suits individual developing country situations, Anju Sharma, Oxford Climate Policy, highlighted the importance of direct access to enhance adaptation and mitigation measures at the community level. She noted that community-based activities should be integrated into the national development plans and budgets to ensure maximum success. Sharma described the devolution process in India, stressing that civil society organizations should have access to adaptation funds.

Sanjay Vashist, Climate Action Network South Asia, spoke on the establishment of national implementing entities (NIEs) to manage climate change funds, noting that due to lack of capacity of NIEs, not all funds have been accessed. He drew attention to disparate capacities to deal with climate change within governments and called for: enhanced political will to ensure inter-ministerial cooperation; a readiness programme as part of creating NIEs; and a feedback mechanism to monitor NIEs.

Participants then discussed, inter alia, the need to rethink criteria for measuring project success; the importance of capacity building; community buy-in; barriers to achieving scale; and NIE requirements beyond fiduciary standards.

Rishikesh Bhandary, Tufts University, moderated the session
Sanjay Vashist, Climate Action Network South Asia, highlighted the minimum requirements to enhance credibility of NIEs as: project management capacity; accountability and transparency; and strong monitoring and evaluation capacities

Participants at the side event

More Information:


Rishikesh Bhandary, Tufts University
[email protected]

Innovation and Collaboration for Transforming Knowledge into Climate Action

Organized by the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) and Institute of Development Studies (IDS)
Martin Hiller, REEEP, said that sector-change would happen when emissions reductions coincide with increasing prosperity
Geoff Barnard, CDKN, compared knowledge brokers to 21st century librarians, tasked with splitting information that is useful from information that is not

Geoff Barnard, Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN), introduced and moderated the event. Barnard explained that knowledge brokers are needed to help users find, filter, discuss and make sense of the overwhelming amount of climate information in existence. He said the Climate Knowledge Brokers (CKB) Group was addressing these needs by creating a “Climate Knowledge Grid,” which aims to understand user needs, point users to best available sources, and connect existing knowledge platforms.

Martin Hiller, REEEP, stressed the value of open access information to accelerate markets for green growth by helping to identify successful, sector-specific technologies and business models. He noted the CKB Group was coordinating its work on a Climate Knowledge Grid by connecting knowledge brokers, fostering communities of practice, and enabling funding. He also underscored the need for innovative tools such as weADAPT, a website that maps current adaptation projects against predicted climate change, and the newly-launched ‘Climate Tagger,’ a tool to help knowledge-driven organizations streamline, sort and connect their own information resources.

Karina Larsen, Climate Technology Centre & Network (CTCN), described her organization’s efforts to disseminate outputs and facilitate knowledge sharing by working closely with CTCN national focal points to identify users’ information needs and enabling interoperable data sharing. She underscored that the “mathematics of sharing” multiplied the utility of shared information and noted the unique contribution the CKB Group has made to this end.

Kiran Pandey, Centre for Science and Environment, presented the India Environment Portal, saying it is the world’s largest open access data platform dedicated to environmental issues in the global South. She outlined the portal’s 500,000 manually tagged records across 9000 subjects, covering a diversity of actors, thematic areas and data sources. Pandey emphasized the portal’s ability to link data sources to geographical locations, and provided examples of how it used photo essays, infographics, cartoons and other tools to engage users.

In the ensuing discussion, panelists highlighted the difficulty of persuading donors to fund knowledge management initiatives but noted that forthcoming evaluation frameworks are starting to address this challenge. They also underscored the proliferation of websites and portals, and said that knowledge management should be seen as a long-term infrastructural investment.


Kiran Pandey, Centre for Science and Environment, and Karina Larsen, Climate Technology Centre and Network, underscored participation as key to making information user-relevant

More Information:


Florian Bauer, REEEP
[email protected]

Specific funding for coverage of side events through ENBOTS has been provided by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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The Earth Negotiations Bulletin on the side (ENBOTS) © <[email protected]> is a special publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD). This issue has been written by Tallash Kantai, Suzi Malan, Wangu Mwangi, and Asterios Tsioumanis, Ph.D. The Digital Editor is Francis Dejon. The Photographer is Hernan Aguilar. The Editors are Dan Birchall <[email protected]> and Liz Willetts <[email protected]>. The Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James “Kimo” Goree VI <[email protected]>. Specific funding for coverage of side events through ENBOTS has been provided by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The opinions expressed in ENBOTS are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and funders. Excerpts from ENBOTS may be used in non-commercial publications only with appropriate academic citation. For permission to use this material in commercial publications, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at <[email protected]>. Electronic versions of issues of ENBOTS from the Lima Climate Change Conference - December 2014 can be found on the Linkages website at The ENBOTS Team at the Lima Climate Change Conference - December 2014 can be contacted by e-mail at <[email protected]>.
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