Transport Day Bulletin
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Published by the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)
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Volume 217 Number 2 - Tuesday, 9 December 2014

Transport Day 2014 took place on 7 December 2014, alongside the twentieth session of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC COP 20), in Lima, Peru. Approximately 200 participants convened at the Sheraton Lima Hotel and Convention Center to focus on the theme “Transport Tackles Climate Change.” This was the second Transport Day event jointly organized by the SLoCaT Partnership and the Bridging the Gap initiative.

In opening the event, Cornie Huizenga, Secretary General, Partnership on Sustainable, Low Carbon Transport (SLoCaT), invited participants to consider “whether the glass is half full or half empty” with regard to the attention to transport in the development of climate change policy. An opening panel discussed the transport-related messages from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), UNFCCC, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) process and the 2014 Climate Summit, and their relevance for national and local policymaking on transport and climate issues. The morning concluded with four breakout sessions, focused on: mitigation potential of transport; Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and measurement, reporting and verification (MRV); financing; and adaptation.

During the afternoon, participants discussed the transport-related commitments from the 2014 Climate Summit and their relevance for the UNFCCC process. Transport Day 2014 concluded with a focus on how to move the transport sector forward in the lead up to the 2015 Paris Climate Change Conference, and participants were challenged to engage as partners for the next 365 days to bridge efforts to address transport and climate change.



Cornie Huizenga, Secretary General, SLoCaT, welcomed participants to Transport Day 2014 and said the transport sector is better positioned to tackle climate change today than it was even one year ago. He noted that the UNFCCC process is increasingly interested in hearing from groups outside of the Convention and encouraged participants to share ideas for advancing the transport agenda in the run-up to the twenty-first session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 21), which will take place in Paris, France, in December 2015.

Jose David Gallardo Ku, Minister of Transport and Communications, Peru, highlighted climate action as an opportunity for his country to integrate rural citizens into its urban economic centers. He said land transport accounts for 80% of all greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Peru’s transportation sector, and noted that Peru is taking action to reduce emissions from the land sector by: consolidating railways in metro Lima; aligning economic incentives to promote the use of climate-friendly energy sources; and harmonizing national and local level government policies. He offered examples of how his country is addressing emissions from air transport, including the optimization of flight paths and integration of environmental criteria into concessions for Cusco’s international airport.

Antonio Juan Sosa, Vice President of Infrastructure, CAF (Corporación Andina de Fomento) Development Bank of Latin America, on behalf of the event organizers, described COP 20 as an opportunity to advance climate action in Latin America and highlighted expert workshops and the promotion and monitoring of urban mobility as examples of how the region is advancing sustainable transport. He underscored initiatives that development banks are taking at the interface of transport, clean air and climate change, including US$175 billion in pledges to promote and monitor sustainable transport from 2013-2022. Presentations can be accessed at:


Michael Replogle, Managing Director for Policy and Founder, Institute Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP), facilitated the panel discussion on “Tackling Climate Change in Transport.” Introducing the topic, Replogle highlighted several intersecting processes that could contribute to the development of sustainable transport systems and transport-based climate solutions. In summarizing the results of the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report, he noted that the lack of comprehensive data for the transport sector holds back progress. He reviewed a number of questions under consideration by the UNFCCC’s Ad Hoc Working Group on Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP), including what the level of ambition for emission reductions should be, what means of implementation will support emission reductions, and how efforts will be measured, verified and reported, and noted that there has been growing progress on NAMAs and Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs). Replogle also called attention to: the ongoing process to develop the post-2015 development agenda, which will include the SDGs and is anticipated to be ready for adoption in September 2015; and voluntary commitments related to transport announced during the September 2014 Climate Summit, including the International Union of Railways’ (UIC) Low-Carbon Sustainable Rail Transport Challenge, the International Association of Public Transport’s (UITP) Declaration on Climate Leadership, UN-Habitat’s Urban Electric Mobility Vehicles Initiative, the Global Fuel Economy Initiative (GFEI) and the Green Freight Global Plan of Action.

Replogle invited the panelists to comment on the transport-related messages from these processes and their relevance for national and local policymaking on transport and climate. Mr. Zirhaun, Coordinator, Climate Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) Facility, Ministry of Finance and Economic Development, Ethiopia, stressed the threat that climate change poses for development in Ethiopia, and highlighted that transport is one of the key sectors in the CRGE strategy. Holger Dalkmann, Director, EMBARQ, World Resources Institute (WRI), stressed the importance of ensuring that there is commitment for the Green Climate Fund (GCF) to have a transport window and for national commitments to include transport elements. He highlighted the opportunity in 2016 to make The United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat III) an “action conference,” which could include evaluating how cities could engage in the SDG and climate commitments to be approved in 2015. Antoine Feral, Public Affairs Manager for Strategic Anticipation and Sustainable Development,  Michelin Group, stressed the importance of setting a global CO2 emission reduction target in order to spur change and highlighted the need for transport solutions between metro stations and final destinations and delivery services within cities, among other actions. Alejandro Nieto, Vice-Minister of Urban Development and Housing, Government of Mexico, emphasized the importance of discussing urban design, and in this regard stressed: high density zoning; polycentrical cities, in which inhabitants work in more than a single city center; and dynamic interchange of housing, to facilitate moving in order to reduce the number and length of daily trips individuals must take.

Ryan Schuchard, Associate Director, Climate Change, Businesses for Social Responsibility, expressed optimism for mitigating emissions from the transport sector, citing: encouraging IPCC and the International Energy Agency (IEA) GHG emission reduction cost-curve estimates; co-benefits such as reduced urban air pollution and improved health and mobility; and strengthened industry participation through partnerships like SLoCaT. Pierre Serne, Co-Chair of Region Ile de France (Paris) and Co-Chair of the Transport Authority in Ile de France, presented the Paris Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan and other steps being taken to reduce transport emissions in the metro area by 75% by 2050. The city aims to, inter alia, decrease the number and length of trips by passenger cars while promoting cycling and walking, augmenting bus, metro and rail lines, and accelerating the use of alternative fuels, including a 100% switch to electric and biogas buses in the next decade. John Christensen, UN Environment Programme (UNEP), cautioned that the cost of filling the adaptation gap would become “mind boggling” if the mitigation gap were not closed in the near term. To that end, he called for aligning local and national initiatives in the transport sector with global mitigation goals, including through: low-carbon mobility planning; sectoral-based NAMAs; and partnerships like the GFEI and Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative, noting UNEP’s role as the SE4ALL Energy Efficiency Hub.

During the subsequent discussion, participants inquired about implications for land use, stressed the need to address gender issues in transport policy, and asked how the transport community should address the fossil fuel subsidy issue. One panelist noted the importance of human scale urban landscapes and neighborhood lifestyles, and suggested encouraging Habitat III to address the need to design cities that will generate fewer emissions. Security for women using public transport at night was highlighted as a key issue, with a call for recognizing that transport policy should focus on mobility for all. Fossil fuel subsidies were acknowledged as an important, but sensitive, issue, with one panelist suggesting that the question includes what should not be subsidized as well as what should be supported and suggesting that better analytics are needed to evaluate the performance potential of policy options. The role of lobbies in fighting against change, such as the diesel lobby working against a proposal to switch bus fuel from diesel, was highlighted as a challenge to be addressed. In closing the session, Replogle highlighted the need to develop linkages between the processes, linkages between closing the ambition gap and capabilities, and linkages between land-use planning and transportation needs.


Heather Allen, Program Director Sustainable Transport, Transport Research Laboratory (Spokesperson Bridging the Gap Initiative), introduced the topics that would be discussed in four parallel sessions during the final ninety minutes of the morning session: mitigation potential of transport; NAMAs and MRV; financing; and adaptation. The reports from each session back to the full plenary focused on the fit between the topic and the UNFCCC, SDGs and transport initiatives announced at the 2014 Climate Summit.

ADAPTATION SESSION: This session was moderated by Alfred Grunwaldt, Climate Change Specialist, Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). Presenters included: Aage Jorgensen, Country Program Manager, Nordic Development Fund; Néstor Roa, Department Chief, Infrastructure and Environment, IDB; Till Below, Climate Change Adaptation Expert, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH; and Hernán Carlino, independent environmental economist.

In relation to the fit of transport with the UNFCCC process, participants highlighted a need to understand better the incremental cost of climate change impacts on transport infrastructure, and they indicated that climate finance should provide resources to leverage knowledge and local capacities as well as to improve infrastructure.

On linkages with the SDGs, participants said adaption should be seen as an innovative and dynamic process, and sustainable transport needs to be connected to the SDGs.

On the five transport initiatives announced at the 2014 Climate Summit, participants noted the IDB’s pledge of 25% of its lending to support climate change initiatives, renewable energy and environmental sustainability by 2015. Participants also discussed priorities for infrastructure and food security.

FINANCING SESSION: This session was moderated by Benoit Lefevre, Director, Energy and Climate, WRI Ross Center for Sustainable Cities. The session addressed status of climate finance in the transport sector and experiences in accessing and leveraging climate finance. Panelists and discussants included: Adnan Rahman, Cambridge Systematics; Nathaly Torregroza Vargas, Director, Climate Change, Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, Colombia; Carlos Paredes, Head of Infrastructure and Environment Financing Department, COFIDE (La Corporación Financiera de Desarrollo S.A.), Peru; Fernando Farias, Inventory and Mitigation Officer, Ministry of Environment, Chile; Lynée Bradley, Director, Export and Agency Finance Group, Citi; Xiaomei Tan, Climate Change Specialist, Global Environment Facility (GEF); and Tao Wang, Green Climate Fund. 

On the fit of transport with the UNFCCC process, participants noted the need to: increase capacities of countries and local governments to plan for, access, report on, and use climate finance as well as to implement and monitor resulting projects; enhance the quality of project preparation and feasibility studies; establish strong legal and regulatory frameworks to provide an enabling investing environment; and analyze the potential to reduce GHG emissions at the local level.

On linkages with the SDGs, participants emphasized that transport projects have multiple benefits, including poverty alleviation. They also suggested monetizing the social and environmental benefits of transport projects and incorporating them into cost-benefit analyses.

On the five transport initiatives announced at the 2014 Climate Summit, participants noted that a US$210 million grant is available for transport projects in developing countries through the GEF, with one of the two priorities being green freight and logistics services.

MITIGATION POTENTIAL OF TRANSPORT SESSION: Michael Replogle, ITDP, moderated this session, which included panel discussions on understanding INDCs, measuring and evaluating mitigation potential for INDCs and NAMAs, and ensuring progress on the road to Paris. Panelists included: Claudio Forner, UNFCCC Secretariat; Frauke Röser, Founding Director, New Climate Institute; Jean-François Gagné, Head of Energy, Technology, Policy Division, IEA; Aimee Jaiber, Economist, International Transport Forum; Cynthia Menendez, Coordinator, Economy, Environment and Climate Change, EMBARQ; Mattias Goldmann, Managing Director, Fores; Aurelio Menendez, Practice Manager for Transport and Information and Communication Technology for the Latin America and Caribbean Region, World Bank; and John Christensen, UNEP, representative of GFEI.

On the fit of transport with the UNFCCC process, participants noted a need to: adapt current global modeling efforts of the mitigation potential of the transport sector in order to gain more relevance within the UNFCCC process and its funding mechanisms; and invest in data gathering to improve the MRV of transport sector projects in order to build momentum towards NAMAs and INDCs.

On linkages with the SDGs, participants suggested ensuring that indicators for sustainable transport are developed to support all aspects of sustainable development, and to increase the access of cities and local governments to national sources of funding to ensure rapid implementation.

On the five transport initiatives announced at the 2014 Climate Summit, participants called for building stronger partnerships to link institutional capacity efforts, sources of finance and means of implementation from global and national levels down to local initiatives.

NAMAS AND MRV SESSION: This session was moderated by Sudhir Surma, UNEP DTU Partnership. Panelists included Andre Eckermann, Head of Project, TRANSfer, GIZ GmbH; Djarot Tri Wardhono, Head of Transportation Service, Study on Land Transport and Railway Sub Division, Ministry of Transportation, Indonesia; Telma de la Cruz, Statistics Director, Ministry of Transport and Communications, Peru; Axel Michealowa, Managing Director, Perspectives GmbH; Jan-Willem van de Ven, Head of Carbon Market Development and Climate Finance MRV, European Bank of Reconstruction and Development; and Martina Jägerhorn, Country Program Manager, Nordic Development Fund.

On the fit of transport with the UNFCCC process, participants noted the need to create and improve MRV methodologies, given that transport faces challenges related to sources, complexity and the risk of double-counting. Participants also discussed financing for MRV methodologies and institutional frameworks, support to NAMA preparedness, design and implementation, and the need to integrate NAMA ideas into Africa and enhance work in Asia.

On linkages with the SDGs, participants suggested that NAMAs should incorporate sustainable development benefits, integrate activities with a wider domestic framework, and that co-benefits should be the main drivers of NAMA development and mitigation actions.

In addition, participants heard about the following projects: NAMA SUTRI (Indonesia), which involves bus rapid transit (BRT); TRANSPeru (Peru), which has a fuel economy component; and Bangladesh rail NAMA, which supports a rail commitment. Participants also discussed the challenges of incorporating non-motorized transport into NAMAs.


Heather Allen moderated this panel. Mohammad Reza Salamat, Senior Sustainable Development Officer, Small Island Developing States, Oceans and Climate, and Sustainable Development Division, UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), reviewed the five initiatives announced during the 2014 Climate Summit aimed at scaling-up low-carbon transport. He noted that three of the initiatives fall under the Transport Action Area and appear in a Joint Statement by governments, the private sector and civil society: UIC’s Low-Carbon Sustainable Rail Transport Challenge; UITP’s Declaration on Climate Leadership; and UN-Habitat’s Urban Electric Mobility Vehicles Initiative. He said the other two initiatives, the GFEI and Green Freight Global Plan of Action, target energy and industry.

Pradeep Monga, Director General on Energy, UN Industrial and Development Organization (UNIDO), presented his organization’s efforts to work with industry to advance sustainable transport through technical assistance, country-level projects and programmes, regional sustainable energy centers, and smart cities. Monga described how UNIDO is pursuing partnerships with organizations like DESA and the GEF to remove technological, policy and financial barriers. He described how UNIDO is working with automobile manufacturers to green the supply chain in small and medium enterprises in South Africa, while also advancing regional centers to pool expertise, including the Economic Community of West African States Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency. He further stated that the future belongs to smart cities, which will become global drivers of products and services and forge links between mobility and clean energy systems.

Giles Dickson, Vice President, Global Public Affairs, Alstom, and representing UNIFE – The European Rail Industry, highlighted two of the objectives of the UIC’s Low Carbon Rail Challenge, which was announced during the 2014 Climate Summit: to reduce CO2 emissions by the rail sector by 75% by 2050 relative to a 1990 baseline; and to double the share of rail transport in passenger transport by 2050 compared to 2010 levels. He emphasized the need for stakeholder support to drive changes related to the second objective in particular, and called on the transport community to support all five of the initiatives announced during the Climate Summit to encourage governments, including at the regional and municipal levels, to become engaged and for national commitments to support the initiatives. 

Lake Sagaris, Adjunct Associate Professor, Pontifyca Catholic University of Chile, Board Member World Cycling Alliance, said, inter alia: the role of cycling and walking needs to be fully integrated into sustainable transport theories; trunk roads in 21st century will be for bikes and buses, not cars; alliances with the health community should be built; cycling is a strategic element of urban mobility planning; and grassroots advocacy is necessary.

Mr. Bueno, on behalf of Luis Tagle Pizarro, Director General Policy and Regulation in Housing and Urban Development Housing, Construction and Sanitation, Republic of Peru, stressed the need to align the objectives and instruments for urban mobility. He also called for attention to the transport needs of tourism and urban sustainable development.

In the ensuring discussion, participants remarked that the cycling sector has made voluntary commitments to the UN, while also creating jobs and delivering co-benefits to health and urban mobility. When asked for a summary phrase illustrating the way forward, speakers offered: “the power of words,” “multi-dimensional, multi-modal approaches for common goals,” and “jobs, growth, development.”


Cornie Huizenga, SLoCaT, moderated this session and opened with a review of the commitments that Transport Day 2014 participants had written on papers that had been taped around the conference room. He noted that the words “integral” and “investment” appeared most frequently, and one participant proposed declaring a year of connecting transport with climate change, from Lima to Paris. Huizenga asked the panelists for their advice on activities for such a year.

Nestor Roa, Manager, Infrastructure and Environment Department, IDB, stressed the need to bridge the gap between those focused on climate and transport policy. Tomas Anker Christensen, Senior Advisor for Partnerships, Office of the Assistant Secretary-General for Strategic Planning, UN, highlighted the need to create a surge of action that will help boost the ambition of negotiators in the UNFCCC process. He said transport is one of the most difficult areas to get a grip on, because there is no global transport organization or piece that brings transport policy together. He encouraged participants to consider how to push governments to scale up their commitments and to be more ambitious for pushing for commitments in Paris.

Susana Muhamad, Bogota Secretary of Environment, discussed three initiatives in Bogota and their possibilities for integration into the proposed year of connecting transport with climate change. She said Bogota has organized a day without cars, and suggested that cities around the world could hold a day without cars on the same day. She said Bogota closes some streets on Sundays to allow only bike and pedestrian access. And she highlighted work in the Cities Climate Leadership Group to negotiate collectively with bus manufacturers, in order to accelerate the transition.

Yann Françoise, Head of Climate and Energy Strategies, Parks and Environment Directorate, Urban Ecology Agency, City of Paris, stressed the importance of leadership from mayors, as well as for delivering low-carbon transport solutions for “the last miles” and for global support for such solutions. Laura Merrill, Senior Researcher, Global Subsidies Initiative of the International Institute for Sustainable Development, stressed the role of phasing out fossil fuel subsidies in freeing up government spending for infrastructure investment and in changing incentives for choices on transportation modes.

Sylvie Lemmet, Director of European and International Affairs, Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy, France, stressed the need to deliver on commitments made at the 2014 Climate Summit to demonstrate progress. She underscored the importance of the scale of ambition in existing initiatives and urged the adoption of further commitments to ensure a successful follow-up to COP 21.

Norbert Gorißen, Head of Division, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety, Germany, stressed the importance of tracking INDCs and highlighted NAMAs as important instruments of change. He expressed concern over the relative lack of discussion on mitigation opportunities in the transport sector compared with the electricity sector. Despite difficulties slowing progress on sustainable transport, he urged parties to take “bold and brave actions” up to and beyond the Paris COP. He said that he was encouraged by the growing popularity of cycling in European cities, citing it as an example of how local co-benefits can lead mitigation actions.

During the discussion, speakers highlighted opportunities for cities to share success stories; draw further connections between climate change and energy, and the transport sector in particular; involve automobile manufacturers in future COP discussions; use urban areas as laboratories to experiment with mitigation and adaptation actions; and envision car-free cities. One long-time negotiator participating in the session pointed to the event as the kind needed to overcome vested interests, while another participant suggested using arts and media to create the change in consciousness needed for real action. The session concluded with the observation that the contours for the coming year’s work programme are now emerging, which must merge awareness-raising and substantive action in preparation for the Paris. Huizenga emphasized the need to engage with the UNFCCC process through following up on INDCs and pre-2020 ambition. He also highlighted the recommendations for engaging in outreach, large-scale campaign activities, building better bridges with climate community, not losing contact with the larger transport community, and looking for leapfrog opportunities for technology, among others.


Heather Allen introduced the closing speaker, Tanya Müller García, Secretary of Environment of Mexico City, Vice-President of the World Green Infrastructure Network, and Member, Secretary-General’s High Level Advisory Group on Sustainable Transport. Müller García noted that cities are going to continue to grow and that they need the involvement of local and national governments to address their challenges. She highlighted the importance of compatibility between national and local transport policies, and stressed the need to undertake projects at the local level and to build on their results. She looked forward to the possibilities presented by the coming year and the Paris Climate Change Conference.

Allen expressed thanks to the organizers, especially the SLoCaT and Bridging the Gap teams, as well as the Transport Day sponsors. She encouraged all participants to be partners for the next 365 days, to ensure that the linkages between transport and climate change are addressed in the lead up to Paris. Allen closed the meeting at 6:15 pm.


Transforming Transportation 2015: The annual conference co-organized by EMBARQ and the World Bank will address the theme of Smart Cities for Shared Prosperity, and will examine how smart, connected urban mobility can improve quality of life in cities. dates: 15-16 January 2015 location: Washington, DC, US www:

Second International Workshop on Urbanisation and the SDGs: The international expert workshop held by the Project on Sustainability Transformation beyond 2015 (the POST2015 project)  and University of Surabaya (UBAYA) will continue discussions of sustainable development challenges in cities, including matters of household sanitation, resilient shelters, sustainable management of rainwater, and public transport. Dates: 16-17 December 2014 location: Surabaya, Indonesia contact: Naoyo Abe email: www:

CODATU XVI Conference: The meeting organized by Cooperation for Urban Mobility in the Developing World (CODATU) will focus on “Energy, climate and air quality challenges: the role of urban transport policies in developing countries and emerging economies.” dates: 2-5 February 2015 location: Istanbul, Turkey contact: CODATU Secretariat  phone: +90 212 347-6300  fax: +90 212 347-6363  email: www:

Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP 3-1): The first part of the third session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP 3) of the UNFCCC will convene from 8-13 February 2015, in Geneva, Switzerland. dates: 8-13 February 2015 location: Geneva, Switzerland contact: UNFCCC Secretariat e-mail:  www:

Transportation for Sustainability: An International Conference: The meeting is supported by the Transportation Research Board of the US National Academies. It will explore the research and institutionalization of sustainable practices globally. dates: 7-8 May 2015 location: Washington, DC, US contact: Monica Starnes email: www:

Third International Conference on Financing for Development (FfD): The Third International Conference on Financing for Development (FfD) will result in an intergovernmentally negotiated and agreed outcome on financing for development. dates: 13-16 July 2015 location: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  contact: FfD Secretariat www:

UN Summit for Adoption of the Post-2015 Development Agenda: The UN Summit for the adoption of the post-2015 development agenda was mandated by the UN General Assembly. dates: (tentative) 25-27 September 2015 location: New York, NY, US contact: Office of the President of the UN General Assembly www:

Paris Climate Change Conference: The 21st session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 21) to the UNFCCC and 11th session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties (CMP) to the Kyoto Protocol will take place in Paris, France. dates: 30 November-11 December 2015  location: Paris, France  contact: UNFCCC Secretariat  phone: +49-228-815-1000  fax: +49-228-815-1999  email: www:


Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Green Climate Fund
Global Environment Facility
Global Fuel Economy Initiative
greenhouse gas
Inter-American Development Bank
International Energy Agency
Intended Nationally Determined Contributions
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Institute Transportation and Development Policy
Measurement, Reporting, and Verification
Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions
Sustainable Development Goals
Sustainable Energy for All
Partnership on Sustainable, Low Carbon Transport
International Union of Railways
International Association of Public Transport
UN Environment Programme
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
UN Industrial and Development Organization
World Resources Institute
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The Transport Day Bulletin is a publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) <>, publishers of the Earth Negotiations Bulletin © <>. This issue was written and edited by Chad Monfreda and Lynn Wagner, Ph.D. The Editor is Brett Wertz <>. The Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James “Kimo” Goree VI <>. Funding for coverage of this meeting has been provided by the Partnership on Sustainable, Low Carbon Transport (SLoCaT). Photos courtesy of SLoCaT. IISD can be contacted at 161 Portage Avenue East, 6th Floor, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 0Y4, Canada; tel: +1-204-958-7700; fax: +1-204-958-7710. The opinions expressed in the Bulletin are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD. Excerpts from the Bulletin may be used in other publications with appropriate academic citation. Electronic versions of the Bulletin are sent to e-mail distribution lists (in HTML and PDF format) and can be found on the Linkages WWW-server at <>. For information on the Bulletin, including requests to provide reporting services, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at <>, +1-646-536-7556 or 300 East 56th St., 11D, New York, New York 10022, USA.
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