This event focused on ways to effectively scaling up JCM collaborations, with discussions relating to how the JCM can contribute to implementation of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). Presenters discussed the status of collaborations and progress in scaling up the JCM, which was spearheaded by Japan in 2013 and is implemented with 17 partners to promote mitigation actions. Currently, more than 150 projects have been implemented.
Makato Kato, General Manager, OECC, moderated the event. Maiko Uga, Office of Market Mechanisms, Ministry of Environment, Japan, spoke about scaling up the JCM through collaboration with relevant organizations. She introduced the JCM as a bilateral cooperation carbon market mechanism, which facilitates the diffusion of low carbon technologies in partner countries. Noting that low carbon technologies are costly, she highlighted Japan’s financial support to enable the deployment and upscaling of these technologies. She pointed to partnerships with the Asian Development Bank, the World Bank and others, and drew attention to ongoing partnership projects, including the JCM Global Match (a business matching platform), the Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR), the Innovate4Climate platform, and the Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition (CPLC).
Venkata Ramana Putti, World Bank, discussed collaboration with Japan for scaling-up the JCM, highlighting the PMR, a fund that provides capacity building to developing countries, and expertise for scaling up the JCM. He reported that the PMR has facilitated carbon pricing in 23 countries and discussed a Memorandum of Cooperation (MoC) between the World Bank and MOEJ to scale up JCM projects, which will be implemented through the CPLC and the PMR.
Nguyen Van Minh, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Viet Nam, said that his country’s NDC includes both mitigation and adaptation components. He outlined Viet Nam’s market mechanism, which receives financial contributions from international funding sources, and highlighted bilateral agreements for JCM project support. He also highlighted Viet Nam’s bilateral cooperation with Japan, which has led to 14 mitigation projects that have, in turn, led to the issuance of 4415 carbon credits, shared between Viet Nam and Japan.
Paweena Panichayapichet, Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization, discussed the role of market mechanisms and scaling up of the JCM to promote NDC implementation in her country. She highlighted Thailand’s mitigation goal, which includes a reduction of emissions by 7-20% by 2030, underlining the importance of the JCM for providing financial support for mitigation activities to achieve this goal. She described the carbon credit distribution in three JCM projects related to biomass, solar, and energy conservation in factories and buildings.
Wakana Eriguchi, OECC, presented findings from JCM project development, including a case study on promoting large-scale emission reductions through biomass generation from pineapple fruit waste from Dole Island in the Philippines. She noted that the success of this project was based on ensuring that locally developed technologies can be applied to emissions, while replacing fossil fuel energy with renewable energy. She listed benefits of the JCM in contributing to NDC achievement, reducing initial investment and operation costs and promoting business though job creation and collaborations. She presented qualifications for a JCM project, including the ability to reduce GHG emissions from the energy sector, and to secure an adequate supply of biomass to sustain biogas production.
In the discussion, panelists focused on how the JCM can be effectively scaled up and how countries can use it to implement their NDCs. Panelists and participants considered: the methodology for scaling up and replicating JCM projects; the potential for linking the JCM to the carbon market in Japan and/or regional carbon markets; and links between the JCM and multilateral development banks, with panelists stressing the need for country-driven programmes to meet national goals and targets.
Panelists also addressed how to best scale-up JCM projects together with partner countries and other stakeholders, noting that the JCM: is helpful for capacity building in partner countries; assists in implementing feasibility studies for new projects such as those dealing with fluorinated gases; and should begin to consider artificial intelligence or the Internet of Things to promote more robust, efficient carbon accounting. They also considered the ways in which countries can strategically use the JCM to implement NDCs and realize low-carbon societies, with several noting the need to distinguish between project replication and project scale-up.
At this event, speakers showcased innovative low-carbon technologies in various industries, from sports to food to aviation to construction, discussing how the further deployment of these technologies could contribute to a climate-friendly future.
Mohammed Omar Al-Bader, Climate Change Department, MME, moderated the event, highlighting Qatar’s national planning that balances environmental protection with development goals.
Reminding participants that the country is set to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, Shashi Prakash, Supreme Committee for Delivery and Legacy, 2022 Qatar World Cup, spoke on sustainable cooling technology in Qatar’s 2022 stadiums. He stressed that Qatar is committed to hosting a sustainable, secure event, and described the distances between the stadium sites as well as the transportation infrastructure in place to host the event. He said all stadiums would be repurposed after the event to host schools and other public spaces. He drew attention to the Committee’s sustainability plan, including a gender support network to promote the football skills of girls, a worker welfare programme, and an innovation and entrepreneurship for economic and human development platform, among others. He highlighted that 2022 will see a carbon-neutral World Cup to be achieved in part through raising awareness in companies, schools, and at the local level, and through rolling out a greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory. Stating that the design of the stadiums will reduce energy demand, Prakash noted that cooling technologies will be targeted to individual seats and at the pitch, and not the entire space.
Caitlyn Hughes, Executive Director, Solar Cookers International (SCI), and Alan Bigelow, SCI, presented on solar cookers, stressing that they do not manufacture these cookers, but provide support services to solar cooker manufacturers. Bigelow described how solar cooking converts light to heat using a box oven, which harnesses energy from the sun, noting that the most common cookers use parabolic reflectors. He reported large-scale use of the cookers in India, using solar-to-steam cooking systems to make food for up to 50,000 people per day. Hughes highlighted the benefits of solar cooking including no GHG emissions, a reduction in respiratory illnesses that are caused by smoke inhalation, and a reduction in deforestation for household use. Hughes described the work of SCI, noting that it manages the world’s largest online database on solar cooking, and stated that solar cookers have reduced carbon emissions by 27 million tons. She also called on parties to include solar cookers in their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). Bigelow then discussed a research performance evaluation process for solar cookers, being tested in the US, Nepal, and Kenya.
Mohammed Ibrahim Al-Marzooqi, Qatar Civil Aviation Authority (QCAA), spoke on mitigating climate change in the aviation industry in Qatar, noting that the industry supports over 65 million jobs worldwide. He stated that Qatar’s aviation industry is set to grow, noting that it is the second most competitive economy in the region. He underlined the need for the Civil Aviation Authority to continue in its mitigation efforts, noting, however, that the global aviation industry and, in turn, carbon emissions, are expected to gro. Marzooqi also discussed climate friendly technologies to decrease emissions including the use of newer aircrafts, and pointed to even more fuel-efficient aircraft designs in the pipeline. He outlined the roadmap for zero carbon growth in aviation, including through retrofitting aircrafts and improving airports, and informed participants that the QCAA has an action plan for reducing CO2 emissions.
Kolja Kuse, Clean Carbon Technology, spoke on environmentally friendly solutions to carbon fibres. He noted that these fibres can be made using algal oil mixed with granite, and described a new material called CarbonFiberStone (CFS), a combination of carbon and granite, which could replace steel, aluminium, and concrete. He highlighted that this material is already being used to make, among other things, cooking hobs, pillars and beams, which have proven to be lighter and more durable than those made of concrete. He noted that CFS could also be used in solar panels to replace aluminium, which is less durable. He said that the “answer to climate change” could be in using these disruptive technologies in the construction industry, noting that CFS can be deconstructed through carbon capture and storage.
In the ensuing discussion, participants considered: the “sun quality” during the FIFA World Cup in Qatar in 2022; the type of renewable energy used in the FIFA World Cup stadia; the potential to use solar cookers to further lower carbon emissions; and the suitability of various solar cookers for different cooking needs.
This event considered how integrated actions on air quality and inclusion of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), such as methane and black carbon, in climate plans benefit near-term climate, air quality, and health. It showcased activities of national and nongovernmental actors that tackle both climate and air quality challenges.
Kathleen Anne Mar, IASS, moderated the event. Yerima Peter Tarfa, Director, Department of Climate Change, Nigeria, spoke on behalf of Muhammed Mahmood Abubakar, Minister, Federal Ministry of Environment, Nigeria. He reported that his country joined the CCAC in 2014 and has since identified 22 SLCP mitigation measures that would result in multiple benefits including improvement of health, reduction of crop loss, protection of water, and food security.
Mark Lawrence, Director, IASS, discussed his organization’s views on the potential for Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) for climate risk reduction, highlighted in a peer-reviewed 2019 publication, “Promises and Perils of the Paris Agreement.” He emphasized the importance of solidarity as offered by transnational partnerships such as the CCAC. He drew attention to a “Co-Creative Reflection & Dialogue Space” hosted by IASS at COP 25, which provides an alternative setting for meaningful discussions around the issues addressed at the COP.
Dan McDougall, CCAC, presented on the link between reducing air pollution and improving human health, noting that all organs of the body are affected by air pollution. He highlighted that black carbon is among the main contributors to cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and lower tract infections.
Shareen Yawanarajah, International Policy Manager, Energy Program, EDF, discussed methane reduction measures for enhancing climate ambition and supporting air quality. She said dealing with methane requires engagement with the major producers, namely the oil and gas industry, and a paradigm shift in the energy sector towards investments in natural gas. Presenting positive actions by oil and gas industry, she reported that Jonah Energy in Wyoming has reduced methane by leak detection and repair in gas fields.
María Amparo Martínez Arroyo, Director General, INECC, Mexico, discussed co-benefits derived from air quality policies in her country. She highlighted the findings of a recently published study, “Atmospheric Black Carbon Concentrations in Mexico,” which compares black carbon concentrations in urban, suburban and high-altitude sites. She reported that urban centers showed higher concentrations of black carbon, and reported the benefits of the study for policy goals, and actions to achieve low carbon cities. She said the Supporting National Action & Planning on SLCPs (SNAP) initiative for Mexico was developed in 2019, with the aim of achieving a 51% reduction of methane and 22% of other GHGs by 2030.
Bala Bappa, Federal Ministry of Environment, Nigeria, presented on the development of Nigeria’s National Action Plan (NAP). He reported on a highly collaborative process among government agencies and peer review processes with stakeholders, leading to the finalization of the draft. He noted that the draft, presented to the federal government, shifts discussions towards implementation, and said the priority sectors for action in their SNAP include cookstoves, agriculture, transport, brick kilns, and the oil and gas industry.
Charlotte Unger, IASS, moderated the panel discussion. Presenting the project, Mara Gomez, IASS COBENEFITS project, highlighted support to its partners in assessing co-benefits of climate actions including energy sector needs to realize the renewable energy transition. She presented the success story of South Africa, where a correlation was made between the location of coal power plants, air quality, and human health. She reported that successes achieved through multilateral dialogues have resulted in clean energy pathways.
Shareen discussed capacity building interactions through ODCI and UN Development Programme (UNDP) to raise awareness on including methane into the next round of NDCs.
McDougall said few countries have references to black carbon in their NDCs, and said there is a need for greater understanding on the economic burden of black carbon on countries due to deteriorating health.
In ensuing discussions, participants and panelists considered, inter alia: how to mobilize financial resources to tackle air pollution; the role of oil and gas sector, as partners for solutions; and the need to consider air pollution as a global emergency.
Providing closing remarks, Asmau Jibril, Federal Ministry of Environment, Nigeria, said clean technologies are available and should be deployed to tackle air pollution.
Kathleen Anne Mar, Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) | email@example.com
Tim Dixon, General Manager, IEAGHG, event moderator, defined CCS as the capture of large amounts of carbon from the atmosphere that are injected into deep geological formations for storage. Presenting the context and history of CCS in UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations, Dixon reported that the IPCC Special Report on CCS focused on how CCS can be mobilized, including detailing costs and economic potential. He further reported progress, including: approved sets of rules for its application in the Clean Development Mechanism; an analysis on technologies for reducing mitigation costs; and CCS inclusion as part of climate actions necessary for avoiding more than 1.5°C warming in 2100. He also highlighted a recent success through the London Protocol for marine environment protection, which will allow the export of carbon dioxide (CO2) for CCS.
Carol Turley, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK, presented the IPCC Special Report on Oceans and the Cryosphere (SROCC), stressing that, “every molecule of CO2 matters.” She highlighted that the report identifies the role of the ocean as the largest carbon sink and that a warmer ocean will result in increased storms and heat waves. Turley stated that at the current trajectory, based on the ambition level of current Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), the Earth is heading to global warming levels of over 3°C, which will have severe consequences for both the cryosphere and the ocean, and called for climate action now to mitigate the impacts on the world’s ecosystems.
Presenting via video link, Jennifer Wilcox, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, reported more interest in direct air capture due to less incentives for injecting carbon in the ground, noting increasing interest in the use of captured carbon in beverage bottling industry. She noted that modern technologies for direct air capture are based on liquids and solid material containing CO2-grabbing chemicals.
Katherine Romanak, Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas at Austin, discussed monitoring, safety and technology transfer of CCS, addressing some of the frequently asked questions related to this issue. Stressing that CCS is a recognized technology in discussions under the UNFCCC, she underlined that the next step is upscaling CCS technologies to meet countries’ NDCs. She described how CO2 is injected 800m below ground underneath a buffer to ensure it is permanently trapped beneath the surface, stressing that no adverse outcomes have been detected to date.
Andrew Jupiter, University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago, provided updates on the development of his country’s CCS programme. He reported the commitment of the Ministry of Planning and Development to support CCS, highlighting benefits that would be accrued for CO2 mitigation, given the large heavy petrochemical sector. He highlighted funding from the World Bank and the Green Climate Fund for conducting research and development of a storage atlas.
Beth Hardy, International CCS Knowledge Centre, spoke about CCS to decarbonize cement, highlighting a CCS project on the Boundary Dam coal-fired power plant in Canada. Informing delegates that cement manufacture represents 8% of global carbon emissions, she noted that industrial process emissions can only be reduced through CCS. Hardy stressed that in order ensure keeping global warming below 2°C, CCS will be essential. She drew attention to a recent partnership between International CCS Knowledge Centre and Lehigh Cement, with an allocation of CAD1.4 million for a feasibility study of a facility that could capture 600,000 tons of CO2 per year.
Piera Patrizio, IIASA, Austria, discussed bioenergy with CCS (BECCS), noting its potential for achieving multiple Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including those on climate action, life on land, clean water, and affordable clean energy. She presented the MONET-JEDI Integrated approach, which enables calculation of the gross value added, and employment creation and earnings of different sectors of BECCS. The tool, she said, can enable optimization of BECCS.
Keith Whiriskey, Bellona, underscored the need for flexible low-carbon infrastructure for CCS in industry, stressing that CO2 removal is not a substitute for mitigation and reducing carbon emissions. Reiterating that emissions from industry are often forgotten, he stressed that activating climate action requires investment in infrastructure for CO2 transport and storage networks. He highlighted his organization’s focus areas including a shared CO2 shipping network for Norway and Scandinavia, and a shared CO2 pipeline in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, to bring CO2 into North Sea storage facilities.
During the discussion, participants considered: whether BECCS can be applied in sugarcane production; whether injecting CO2 in the ground and offshore can cause acidification of water; and the feasibility of CCS in tectonically active areas.