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Special Report on Selected Side Events at UNFCCC COP-6
published by the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)
in co-operation with the UNFCCC Secretariat
<< visit the UNFCCC Secretariat website >>

Monday 13 | Tuesday 14 | Wednesday 15 | Thursday 16 | Friday 17 | Saturday 18 |
Monday 20 | Tuesday 21 | Wednesday 22 | Thursday 23 | Friday 24 |

Events convened on Thursday 16 November 2000

Developing a renewable electricity package for domestic consumers
presented by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) with Scottish and Southern Energy (SSE)
John Lanchbery, RSPB, describes the NGO-utility partnership which is delivering a renewable energy package for domestic electricity consumers in Britain.

One of the United Kingdom's leading environmental NGOs, the RSPB, presented details of their green energy product, RSPB Energy. Electricity consumers in Britain can now switch their supply, at no extra cost, to RSPB Energy. In doing so the consumer can support renewable energy sources and generate financial contributions to the wildlife protection work undertaken by the NGO. The win-win-win scheme provides green electricity to consumers, supports the work of the NGO, contributes to a sustainable environment and provides access to a niche market for the partner utility.

John Lanchbery, RSPB, explained that the energy product has been launched in partnership with Scottish and Southern Energy (SSE). Paul C. Watson, SSE, outlined the criteria used for the accreditation of RSPB Energy. The product is delivered from non-subsidized sources, is sold at competitive local rates, and triggers contributions to the RSPB and an investment fund. For each new customer the SSE promises to make a contribution to RSPB projects and to a renewables fund. The RSPB is talking to other major NGOs in the UK with a view to further developing the idea. 

Discussion: The discussion focused on issues surrounding the multiple definitions of renewables and the role of hydro generation. Participants also discussed marketing green energy, with one speaker recalling that the most effective approach was found to be a link-up with a satellite television station's promotion.

More information:
RSPB: http://www.rspb.org.uk

Paul C. Watson <[email protected]>
John Lanchbery <[email protected]>

ClimateTech Exhibition

Thomas Becker, CTI.
The ClimateTech 2000 Pavilion opened with a welcome from Thomas Becker, the newly elected chair of the Climate Technology Initiative (CTI). The Pavilion houses exhibits featuring cutting-edge, climate-friendly technologies and provides a venue for expert presentations on themes such as sustainable transport and renewable energy technologies.

More information:

Capacity-building under the FCCC and sustainable development: 
the UNDP experience

presented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

Marco Gonzàlez, UNDP .
Arun Kashyap, UNDP, explained the UNDP’s role as the agency responsible for coordinating capacity building for sustainable development. Representatives from several countries highlighted some of their capacity building needs. 

Zeinab Farhaly Mohamed, Egypt, outlined the ongoing mitigation and adaptation activities in her country. Activities have focused on establishing a permanent GHG inventory, developing renewable energy technologies, building capacity, publishing an Arabic newsletter on climate change, and setting up a inter-ministerial national committee to coordinate climate change policy.

Sailinalo Pati Liu, Samoa, noted that Samoa's goal is to establish a network of experts, for example, through cooperation with national universities. Key to broadening the understanding of climate change is the translation of international and regional activities into concrete local actions that people can understand and respond to.

Martha Yvette de Aguilar, El Salvador, noted that much progress has been made in establishing GHG inventories in the energy sector, but much work remains to be done in other sectors. Challenges include: permanent funding for experts, training in good practices for the LULUCF sector, and establishing mitigation programmes.

Siman Saeed, Republic of Maldives, reported that national climate change strategies have focused on widening the use of solar energy and securing water supplies.

Discussion: The discussion focused on the different needs for capacity building in mitigation and adaptation programmes, how engineers can adapt to new technologies, and the importance of sharing information.

More information:

Arun Kashyap <[email protected]>
Zeinab Farhaly Mohamed <[email protected]>
Sailinalo Pati Liu <[email protected]>
Martha Yvette de Aguilar <[email protected]>
Siman Saeed <[email protected]>

Nebojsa Nakicenovic, IIASA: "Natural gas will provide the bridge to a hydrogen-based 
Global natural gas perspectives and technology transfer 
presented by the International Gas Union (IGU)

Peter Storm, IGU, welcomed participants to this discussion on the role of natural gas in the 21st century and on technology transfer. He underscored the industry's confidence in the role of natural gas in reducing CO2 emissions.

Nebojsa Nakicenovic, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), explained that the gas sector is facing a challenge to reduce poverty while providing clean energy services. He advocated natural gas as a clean alternative, which is abundant and competitive in terms of capital investments. A limiting factor might be the sector’s ability to ensure the timely development of required technology. He highlighted photovoltaics, fuel cells, mini and micro CO2 cycle turbines, steam-reforming processes for natural gas, clathrates and other CO2 storage systems. He also looked towards the technological possibilities for hydrogen use although this is not yet considered cost-effective. He concluded that the increasing demand for natural gas requires an improvement in transport and supply infrastructure, and suggested considering environmentally sustainable energy delivery technologies.

Mary Rounding, Canadian Gas Association (CGA), noted that future challenges involve finding ways to translate the “promise” of natural gas into practice. She acknowledged that changes will not happen overnight and called on negotiators to adopt a framework that ensures certainty, low transaction costs, incentives for the development of new technologies, cost-effectiveness and flexibility in the design of market mechanisms.

Peter Storm, IGU, introduced successful experiences with natural gas technologies. Raul Tanco, Repsol YPF, Argentina, explained that the reason for a higher market share for natural gas in his country is the success of the state programme established in 1984. He outlined favorable conditions for the application of state-of-the-art technologies to reduce GHG emissions in developing countries. Bill Nagle, Australian Gas Association (AGA), noted projects currently involved in the transfer overseas of Australian technology. The projects include fuel conversion of energy intensive facilities to gas and landfill gas recovery. Nagle suggested that such projects might fulfill the requirments for the CDM.

Discussion: Participants raised issues such as pollutants from new technologies; the overall impact of the Kyoto Protocol on future gas demand; and the opportunities for including new technologies under the CDM.

More information: 
IGU http://www.igu.org (all presentations will be available on-line next week)

Peter Storm <[email protected]>
Nebojsa Nakicenovic <[email protected]>
Mary Rounding <[email protected]>
Bill Nagle <[email protected]>


The Climate Change Knowledge Network's climate change negotiators' project
presented by the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)

Joyeeta Gupta, Institute for Environmental Studies, IVM, summarized the outcomes of the two capacity building workshops for African and Latin American negotiators.
Papa Cham, ENDA, Senegal, opened this IISD event to herald the publication of “On behalf of my delegation,..." a surivival guide for developing country climate negotiators by Joyeeta Gupta. The guide is based on experiences at two workshops on capacity building for African and Latin American negotiators. Ambassador Raúl Estrada Oyuela, Argentina, commended the publication and the work of the Climate Change Knowledge Network. He recommended the guide for developing country negotiators and for anyone new to the process. 

Christiana Figueres, Center for Sustainable Development of the Americas, CSDA, welcomed the book as an excellent source of up-to-date information on the FCCC negotiation process. Joyeeta Gupta, Institute for Environmental Studies, IVM Amsterdam, explained that the project had developed in response to a request for assistance from African negotiators. She also explained that developing countries are sometimes hindered in the process of forming a common negotiating position by the "hollow mandate" they bring to the process. She described lessons from the workshops and suggested that new challenges include harnessing the specific skills and abilities that developing countries bring to the process. Mamadou Honadia, Burkina Faso, suggested that a big challenge for African negotiators' lies in the challenge of creating arrangements for the regular participation of country delegates. In terms of capacity building, he highlighted the need to invest in the training of trainers. Youba Sokona, ENDA Senegal, commented on the success of the workshops, and Angela Churie, the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, provided suggestions for the future, including the institutionalizion of the workshops as regional programmes.

Ambassador Raúl Estrada Oyuela, Argentina (left), commended the publication and stressed that it would be of great use to developing country negotiators and those who are new to the process. ENDA Director, Youba Sokona (right) looks on.
Discussion: Participants discussed the regional differences in skill sets and the outcomes of the workshops. The issue of how to tackle language barriers and the legal skills required for understanding the negotiations were discussed at length.

More information: 
Climate Change Knowledge Network http://www.cckn.net
Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM) http://www.vu.nl/ivm
Center for Sustainable Development of the Americas (CSDA) http://www.csdanet.org

Victoria Kellett, IISD, <[email protected]
Christiana Figueres, CSDA, <[email protected]>
Dr. Joyeeta Gupta, IVM, <[email protected]>
Papa A. Cham, ENDA, <[email protected]>
Youba Sokona, ENDA,<[email protected]>
Angela Churie, KTH <[email protected]>

Mamadou Honadia, Burkina Faso, <[email protected]>

Fossil fuels in a changing climate: impact of the Kyoto Protocol and developing country participation
presented by the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies (OIES)

Ulrich Bartsch and Benito Müller from the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies (OIES) presented findings from their study on the likely impact of the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol on world oil production, prices and the revenues of oil-producing countries and on the two main competing fuels - natural gas and coal. They also looked beyond the Protocol to a "global compromise scenario" involving all the FCCC Parties.

Convinced that developing countries must be enticed to join a wider climate change regime if policies are to be effective, the researchers have outlined a "global compromise scenario." Taking into account a perceived requirement for equity they have outlined a hybrid method for the allocation of targets based on a global cap (550ppm) and combining elements of the per capita approach and grand fathering (i.e. based on historical emission trends). Müller said he was not keen on the convergence approach because it deprives the least developed countries of surplus permits they could proceed to trade. Their hybrid approach could cut US emission allowances to approximately 9% of the global “cake” from a current 23%, an improvement of 4% if a per capita system was to be introduced. India would see its allowances rise to 13% from a current 4%, providing opportunities to trade a generous surplus.

The research suggests that the Kyoto Protocol's emissions trading system will not inflict particular harm on the oil industry. Bartsch and Müller project that carbon dioxide emissions will be cut by approximately 8% by 2020 and the market share for non-carbon alternative fuels will only increase from 5-9%. An emissions trading system might reduce global oil producing countries' revenues by 12-16% by 2020. Only major technical changes in car engine propulsion are expected to bring about a major impact on the oil industry. Bartsch believes that it is in OPEC's interest to support an emissions trading regime.

More information:

[email protected]

Contraction and convergence 
presented by Counterpart Europe, GLOBE, Centre for Science and Environment, Delhi, Climate Action Network Africa, and the Global Commons Institute
Kenny Anthony, Prime Minister of St. Lucia: "St. Lucia has embarked on a path of sustainable energy use."

Tom Spencer, Counterpart Europe, moderated a panel discussion on equity and the Kyoto Protocol. Ilona Graenitz, GLOBE Europe, called for public involvement in the climate change debate. 

Grace Akumu, Climate Network Africa, questioned the ethics of failing to compensate developing countries for adaptation measures. Aubrey Meyer, Global Commons Institute, outlined the modalities of the contraction and convergence approach. He argued for a global cap on emissions, an equitable distribution of per capita shares, and an international convergence of emissions trajectories. 

The Prime Minister of St. Lucia, Kenny Anthony, outlined his country's approach to climate change, arguing that small island states are least responsible for climate change but are most vulnerable. St. Lucia is introducing a range of initiatives, including the construction of a 13.5 MW wind farm and the removal of all taxes on renewable energy. It is St. Lucia's goal to become the first nation to embark on a path to a sustainable energy future. The Honorable Tom Roper, Climate Institute, concluded with an expression of hope that other island nations will follow the example of St. Lucia.

The event concluded with a panel discussion chaired by Anil Agarwal, from the Center for Science and Environment in India.

More information:

Tom Spencer <[email protected]>
Aubrey Meyer <[email protected]>
Alberto di Fazio <[email protected]>
Lelei LeLaulu <[email protected]>

The Kyoto Protocol: a needs assessment
presented by Counterpart Europe, GLOBE, Centre for Science and Environment, Delhi, Climate Action Network Africa, and the Global Commons Institute

Janos Pasztor, FCCC, introduced participants to the report, A country-driven assessment of capacity-building needs related to climate change and the Kyoto Protocol in developing countries. Jukka Uosukainen, delegation of Finland, highlighted the working groups' progress on capacity building. Papa Cham, ENDA, Senegal, outlined the elements of the project and commended the survey work of Annie Roncerel. Youba Sokona, ENDA, explained that the assessment aims to identify principal needs and country-specific criteria for capacity building. He stated that a key component of the assessment is the establishment of specific techniques or technologies to help advance national priorities while simultaneously reducing GHG emissions. Ogunlade Davidson, University of Cape Town, South Africa, noted that the CDM is a priority for the African region and highlighted the need for capacity building workshops directed at policy makers and researchers. Thomas Black-Arbelaez, Andean Institute, Colombia, noted that capacity building initiatives in Latin America should reflect the different needs within the region. Luiz Pinguelli, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, suggested comparing priorities and needs across regions, noting differences in areas such as forests. Abdel Aziz Weshah, Al Shamil Engineering, Jordan, noted limited awareness of climate change issues in the Middle East. Mohan Munasinghe, LIFE, Sri Lanka, highlighted the need to explore synergies with other Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs). Concluding, Saleemul Huq, Centre for Advanced Studies, Bangladesh, said that there is a need to compare commonalities and levels of development across regions, commit national and international resources to capacity building, enhance south-south cooperation and share information on the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol.

Discussion: Participants raised the lack of involvement by the financial sector and academic institutions in tackling climate change in Brazil, issues of community project development, the challenges of including additional countries in the assessment, and transforming the assessment outcomes into action.

More information:
UNITAR http://www.unitar.org

Annie Roncerel-Bonnin <[email protected]>
Prof. Ogunlade Davidson <[email protected]>
Thomas Black-Arbelaez <[email protected]>
Abdel Aziz Weshah <[email protected]>

Options for implementing Article 3.4 (Kyoto Protocol): 
an economic and environmental analysis of 
policy options for US agricultur
presented by the World Resources Institute (WRI) and Environmental Defense (ED)
Robert Bonnie, ED.

Panelists presented economic and environmental analyses of policy options for US agriculture. Paul Faeth, WRI, presented the report, A climate and environmental strategy for US agriculture, which disputes findings in studies suggesting that American farmers will suffer dire economic consequences if the US ratifies the Kyoto Protocol. He argued that the magnitude of price changes expected under the Kyoto Protocol would reduce net cash returns by less than one percent because energy costs are a small share of production expenses. He predicted that, with the right policy setting, net cash returns could be positive.

Alden Meyer, Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), presenting on “Renewable Energy and Agriculture: opportunities for rural economic development,” argued that American farmers can reduce GHG emissions while using renewable energy such as biomass, wind, solar and geothermal sources. He stressed the need for fair and market-oriented state and federal policies.

Robert Bonnie, Environmental Defense, believes there is an important role for land-use activities in the Kyoto Protocol. He supported the adoption, under Article 3.4 of the Protocol, of a comprehensive accounting system that provides incentives for better land stewardship in industrialized countries while prohibiting credits for business-as-usual activities. He also supported the inclusion of land-use activities, particularly forest conservation, as part of the CDM.

More Information:
World Resources Institute http://www.wri.org

Paul Faeth <[email protected]>


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