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Bonn Climate Change Conference - June 2015

1-11 June 2015 | Bonn, Germany

Coverage of Selected Side Events at SBI 42, SBSTA 42 and ADP2-9

Highlights for Wednesday, 3 June 2015

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ENBOTS CoverageAbout | 1 Jun | 2 Jun | 3 Jun | 4 Jun | 5 Jun | 6 Jun | 8 Jun | 9 Jun | 10 Jun | 11 Jun

'L’Allumé', a steel sculpture by Mark di Suvero at the World Conference Center Bonn

The following side events were covered by ENBOTS on Wednesday, 3 June 2015.

IISD Reporting Services, through its Earth Negotiations Bulletin on the Side (ENBOTS) Meeting Coverage, is providing daily digital coverage from selected side events at the Bonn Climate Change Conference - June 2015.

Tapping the Potential of Local and Subnational Climate Action to Raise Pre-2020 Ambition and Beyond

Organized by ICLEI-Local Governments for Sustainability (ICLEI)

From L-R: Jürgen Nimptsch, Mayor, Bonn; Gino Van Begin, Secretary-General, ICLEI;
and Carlos Castillo, Basque Country

Jürgen Nimptsch, Mayor, Bonn, drew attention to the carbonn Climate Registry, describing it as a reporting platform which enhances transparency, accountability and credibility of climate actions at the local
and subnational level.

Gino Van Begin, Secretary-General, ICLEI, called on local and subregional governments to ramp up climate actions in order to promote an inclusive and ambitious climate regime beyond Paris.

Yunus Arikan, ICLEI, stressed that although there are different negotiations ongoing in 2015, their ultimate goal is to chart a path towards a sustainable, low carbon future.

This session was facilitated by Yunus Arikan, ICLEI. In a video message, Ban Ki-moon, UN Secretary-General, called on participants to strengthen cities' networks, promote a successful agreement in Paris, and support a meaningful agenda at the Habitat III conference in 2016.

In his opening remarks, Jürgen Nimptsch, Mayor, Bonn, highlighted 10 proposals to raise ambition in Paris including, among others, involving local governments in climate change planning; enhancing local cooperation and financial support; creating a work programme for local and regional actions; taking into account the multiple synergies that cut across climate change, sustainable development goals and financing for development; and inviting cities to join the Compact of Mayors.

Arikan then gave an overview of the work of ICLEI towards COP 21, and highlighted proposed language on cities and local and sub-regional governments for inclusion in the Paris agreement. He noted that with or without progress at COP 21, the momentum of local and regional governments would still continue to grow under the banner of the Transformative Actions Programme (TAP). He described TAP as a tool to mobilize actors and educate them on relevant climate actions in order to promote ambitious, creative and inclusive projects in the lead up to and after 2020.

Carlos Castillo, Basque Country and member of the Network for Regional Governments for Sustainable Development (nrg4SD), presented on the Basque Country Climate change strategy 2050, noting efforts at the local level to promote climate action through the implementation of both adaptation and mitigation measures.

Dorah Nteo, Chief Sustainability Officer, Tshwane, South Africa, highlighted the scaling up of climate efforts in her local government, and commended various cities' networks for sharing best practices to enhance action in other cities. She stressed that for sustainability to take root, there is a need for private sector engagement.

Antoine Faye, Chief Resiliency Officer, Dakar, Senegal, underlined that discussions on resilience cannot be had without including adaptation. He highlighted energy efficiency practices in his city, and drew attention to territorial energy and climate plans for every sector that promote energy efficiency and reductions in energy costs.

Gino Van Begin, Secretary-General, ICLEI, underscored the need to mobilize cities to ensure the world maintains global temperatures below the predicted 2ºC in temperature rise. He highlighted ICLEI's Local Government Climate Roadmap, which: outlines progress in the climate regime and other negotiations pertaining to cities and local governments; suggests ways to close the ambition gap; and recommends 10 proposals to raise ambition in Paris.

During the discussion, participants considered: methods to vertically integrate local actions with global ones; means to monitor and track progress in meeting commitments; and the implications of diversity across cities.

View of the room during the side event

+ More Information:

+ Contacts:

Yunus Arikan (Facilitator) -

Marie-Sophie Beier (Project Coordinator) -

Green Climate Fund: How Can it Support Transformational Change?

Organized by Institute for Policy Studies (IPS) and 
Asociación Interamericana para la Defensa del Ambiente

Brandon Wu, ActionAid, said there is real tension between getting the GCF running and designing robust projects.

Rutger de Witt Wijnen, GCF Secretariat, said the Fund would be more ambitious
if it gained the trust of countries
with good projects.

Andrea Rodgriguez Osuna, AIDA, said stakeholder participation is needed to meet interests of beneficiaries and respond to national and legal obligations.

Moderated by Oscar Reyes, Institute for Policy Studies, this side event organized by IPS and AIDA discussed the various opportunities and challenges for the Green Climate Fund (GCF) to play a transformational role.

Highlighting the mandate of the GCF, Brandon Wu, ActionAid, identified various opportunities for the Fund to achieve transformational change such as direct access, promoting broad-based change, and gender sensitivity. He also identified risks that may undermine the transformational potential of the GCF, including: most of the money passing through traditional channels as opposed to direct access procedures; non-mandatory guidelines on stakeholder participation and engagement; and hesitation to devolve decision-making authority on how funds are used to national and local levels.

Drawing attention to the untested waters that the Fund would have to operate in, Rutger de Witt Wijnen, GCF Secretariat, said the Fund would need to constantly learn from its projects. He stressed the need to improve cohesion across the numerous climate funds and emphasized the importance of funding high quality projects to ensure that all parties concerned can trust the fund as an effective institution.

Noting that the GCF would be disbursing funds in the near future, Andrea Rodriguez Osuna, AIDA, stressed the importance of stakeholder participation. She underlined, inter alia: country coordination and multistakeholder engagement as critical for effective preparation of funding proposals; and active, free and meaningful participation by individuals in decisions that affect their rights. She identified, among others: enhanced country ownership; promoting environment, social, economic and development co-benefits; taking a gender-sensitive approach; and respecting human rights as critical for promoting the interests of stakeholders.

Stressing the importance of direct access in building country-level capacity, Zaheer Fakir, GCF Board member, highlighted the spillover benefits of direct access. He also emphasized the need for quality over quantity of projects for the Fund. Providing adaptation projects as an example, Fakir also noted many procedural details that are yet to be worked out such as the precise nature of funding instruments for there to be enough clarity and certainty in GCF procedures to inspire better projects and programmes.

During discussions, participants discussed, inter alia: safeguards and standards applied by the GCF; issues regarding the types of technologies that can be financed by the Fund; gender balance on the board of the Fund; and the importance of clarity and certainty in GCF procedures for better programming.

+ More Information:

+ Contacts:

Andrea Rodriguez Osuna (Coordinator) -

Opportunities to Strengthen Public Participation in the New Climate Governance Framework

Organized by the Centre for International Sustainable Development Law (CISDL),
University of Lapland, and the Centre for International Governance and Innovation (CIGI)

From L-R: Katherine Lofts, CISDL; Niklas Höhne, NewClimate Institute; Andrea Rodgriguez Osuna, AIDA;
Oonagh Fitzgerald, CIGI; Yamide Dagnet, World Resources Institute (WRI)

Katherine Lofts, CISDL, said that climate change was a complex, cross-cutting issue requiring consultation with global constituencies.

Niklas Höhne, NewClimate Institute, said stakeholder engagement is an important part of the INDCs process in strengthening public support for policies.

Sébastien Duyck, University of Lapland, discussed three types of compliance mechanisms, distinguishing between “carrot”, “stick” and “sunshine” approaches.

In the discussions on MRV, Oonagh Fitzgerald, CIGI, said the issue of public participation is “where the rubber hits the road”.

This event, chaired by Oonagh Fitzgerald, CIGI, discussed ways in which public participation can play a role in strengthening the Paris agreement, in relation to Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) and measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) in particular.

Introducing the session, Katherine Lofts, CISDL, noted that public participation can play a useful role in measuring unquantifiable criteria such as cultural values, and highlighted the integral role of such participation in upholding procedural and environmental rights, making reference to several examples within existing multilateral agreements, including: the Rio/Rio+20 Declarations; the Aarhus Convention; the Almaty Guidelines; and the UNFCCC.

On INDCs, Niklas Höhne, Founding Partner, NewClimate Institute, presented findings from a survey of 120 countries preparing their INDCs, showing that 80% are involving a broad range of stakeholders in the process. He underscored the important role of public participation in engendering support for policies coming from INDCs, and noted country-specific studies showing further benefits of public consultations, such as discovering new ideas and skill sets not previously available to governments.

Andrea Rodgriguez Osuna, Asociación Interamericana para la Defensa del Ambiente, also discussed INDCs, revealing public participation initiatives in Chile and Mexico, including public dialogue, workshops, and online consultations. She observed challenges encountered such as: a limited timescale; narrow inclusion of stakeholders selected by government; and the need to raise awareness of the meaning of INDCs to enable meaningful public participation.

On MRV, Sébastien Duyck, University of Lapland, discussed the role of public participation in MRV processes, stating that civil society input is currently not integrated into the UNFCCC process. He suggested a new approach based on the Universal Periodic Review of the Human Rights Council, stating that this would bring further transparency to the process by allowing stakeholders' views to be included in official, compiled reports.

Yamide Dagnet, World Resources Institute (WRI), noted the central role of civil society organizations (CSOs) in MRV, as collectors and users of the data recorded. She noted the importance of MRV in building trust. Among others, she suggested CSOs could play an important role in: the independent technical analysis of mitigation goals; expanding the pool of non-governmental experts; and capacity building.

Discussions followed, considering: how to overcome financial and cultural challenges to greater public participation in developing countries; the role of CSOs in encouraging governments to achieve mitigation goals; and procedural equity.

Concluding the session, Niranjali Amerasinghe, Center for International Environmental Law, said the conversation about public participation was moving in the right direction. She suggested that internationally, there was a need to improve the negotiating text to further incorporate public participation, and that nationally there was a need for education and capacity building so that citizens are aware of the process and their rights within it.

Andrea Rodgriguez Osuna, AIDA, presented case studies on public participation in the INDCs from Mexico and Chile, and stated that Brazil, Costa Rica and Peru may follow similar approaches.

Yamide Dagnet, WRI, discussed the importance of MRV, stating "if you can't measure it, you can't manage it."

+ More Information:

+ Contacts:

Oonagh Fitzgerald (Coordinator)  -

Sébastien Duyck -

Update on the work of the Standing Committee on Finance (SCF) in 2015

Organized by UNFCCC Secretariat

From L-R: Richard Sherman, SCF (South Africa); Outi Honkatukia, Co-Chair, SCF, Finland;
Roger Dungan
, SCF, (New Zealand); and Stefan Agne, Member, SCF, EU

Richard Sherman, SCF (South Africa), said the upcoming SCF meeting would discuss institutional linkage issues between the Adaptation Fund and the various bodies of the Convention.

Roger Dungan, SCF (New Zealand), discussed ongoing work on measurement, reporting, and verification of support outside of the biennial assessment.

Co-Chair of the Standing Committee on Finance Outi Honkatukia opened the session, highlighting the mandate of the SCF and providing an overview of work undertaken thus far. She discussed the work of the SCF, inter alia: preparation of the arrangements between the Conference of the Parties (COP) and the Green Climate Fund (GCF); preparation of the 2014 biennial assessment and overview of climate finance flows; and organization of two SCF forums on mobilizing finance and investments for climate action now, and mobilizing adaptation finance.

Introducing financing for forests as the theme for this year's SCF Forum that will be taking place in conjunction with the World Agroforestry Congress in South Africa in September, Stefan Agne, SCF, said the Forum would take a broad approach to forest finance and engage with the private sector as well. He noted that a working paper on coherence and coordination for financing for forests was under preparation and that the paper, in part, would consider examples of existing forest financing activities. He said this paper, along with inputs received at the Forum, would serve as SCF's input to COP 21.

Noting that measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of support outside of the biennial assessment was an important part of SCF's work, Roger Dungan, SCF, informed the participants of an upcoming in-session workshop organized jointly with the SBI and SBSTA. He said this workshop would work on identifying options for improvement of current methodologies for reporting financial information, including concrete actions. He also noted that a draft work plan on MRV beyond the biennial assessment by the SCF was under preparation and would be considered by the SCF at its 11th session.

Discussing the work of the SCF regarding the Adaptation Fund, Richard Sherman, SCF, noted ongoing work to analyze: the relations between the Adaptation Fund and other bodies of the Convention such as the Adaptation Committee; formal institutional linkage issues between the Adaptation Fund and the Convention such as the possibility of designating the Fund an operating entity of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention; and future relations of the Adaptation Fund in the post-2020 context.

During the discussions, participants discussed: application of UNFCCC principles in financial reporting by the SCF; legal and institutional issues surrounding the integration of the Adaptation Fund and the GCF; the first biennial assessment; and overview of climate finance flows.

Introducing this year's forum on forest financing, Stefan Agne, SCF (EU), said the role of the private sector is important to consider.

Outi Honkatukia, Co-Chair, SCF (Finland), said the SCF was gearing towards the next biennial assessment already.

+ More Information:

+ Contacts:

Yolando Velasco (Coordinator) -

Electrical Cities and Eco-productive and Agro-ecological Parks
Against Climate Change with Bio-Circular Economy

Organized by COBASE Basic Technical Scientific Cooperative

Massimo Pieri, COBASE, listed urban ecosystem indicators including: early warning systems for droughts, floods, pollution and natural disasters; well being and happiness; entropy; efficiency and quality.

Stefano Mannacio, COBASE, emphasized that urban agriculture needs to transition into agro-ecology which incorporates traditional knowledge to create a new kind of biotechnology.

This session, moderated by Stefano Mannacio, COBASE, considered how to use high efficiency electricity to design new settlements, and achieve co-benefits such as the elimination of combustions, the development of a bio-circular economy and the creation of agro-ecological and eco-productive parks, in view of resources scarcity, against climate change and desertification and to protect biodiversity and well-being.

Noting that 70% of the world's population will live in urban areas in the next 30 years, Massimo Pieri, President, COBASE, stressed the need for climate actions to focus on cities. He highlighted the importance of combining traditional knowledge with modern technological knowledge to create sustainable solutions to climate change. Pieri drew attention to the need to model cities on natural systems that are asymmetrical, and thus more energy efficient. He explained that an electrical city's energy production will rely on "hot and cold chains of energy," and will run on low voltage systems. He also explained that these cities will need to construct power plants for local use, and that renewable energy production will only be permissible if the renewables are determined to have a proven net return of over 40%. Commenting on the day-to-day living in the electrical city, he described that: wastes will be recycled to produce biogas, other useable products and compost; all food will be local, organic, short-chain, and healing; no slaughterhouses will be permitted as intensive agriculture and animal husbandry increases greenhouse gas emissions; and vegetarianism will be encouraged.

Mannacio spoke on urban efficiency, biodiversity and traditional knowledge. Listing mitigation methods including green roofing and enhancing forestation in urban areas, he noted that mitigation is not enough and called for urban agriculture in vacant urban areas. He noted that this type of agriculture can preserve bioregional ecologies outside the city from being transformed into croplands and thus increase deforestation; and can be used as a tool to fight hunger and malnutrition in urban areas. Going beyond urban agriculture, he stressed the need to encourage agro-ecology which includes animal rearing, but does not allow for intensive agriculture, reiterating that the production of meat is not sustainable. Stressing that food consumption patterns are important for combating climate change, he noted the need to encourage vegetarianism. Mannacio then compared artificial ecology to natural ecology, describing the Amazon rainforest as the "most artificial environment in the world" as it was created by Indigenous Peoples who artificially fertilized farm fields by composting waste, which enhanced the biodiversity of the land. He stated that the Amazon is like a city, but with more sustainable consumption patterns.

In the discussion, participants raised issues including: how to measure and reduce the entropy of an urban system; how to operationalize such an electrical city; and the use of areas outside the urban area relative to the energy efficient electrical city.

+ More Information:

+ Contacts:

Stefano Mannacio (Coordinator) -

ENBOTS CoverageAbout | 1 Jun | 2 Jun | 3 Jun | 4 Jun | 5 Jun | 6 Jun | 8 Jun | 9 Jun | 10 Jun | 11 Jun

The Earth Negotiations Bulletin on the side (ENBOTS) © <> is a special publication of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD). This issue has been written by Rishikesh Ram Bhandary, Tallash Kantai and Gillian Nelson, Ph.D. The Digital Editor is Mike Muzurakis. The Editor is Dan Birchall <>. The Director of IISD Reporting Services is Langston James “Kimo” Goree VI <>. Specific funding for coverage of side events through ENBOTS has been provided by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The opinions expressed in ENBOTS are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IISD and funders. Excerpts from ENBOTS may be used in non-commercial publications only with appropriate academic citation. For permission to use this material in commercial publications, contact the Director of IISD Reporting Services at <>. Electronic versions of issues of ENBOTS from the Bonn Climate Change Conference - June 2015 can be found on the Linkages website at The ENBOTS Team at the Bonn Climate Change Conference - June 2015 can be contacted by e-mail at <>.

Specific Funding for coverage of the Bonn Climate Change Conference - June 2015
has been provided by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the European Union
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia EU

IISD Reporting Services is grateful to the many donors of the Earth Negotiations Bulletin (ENB) and recognizes the following as core contributors to the ENB: the European Union, the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB), the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), the Japanese Ministry of Environment (through the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies - IGES), the New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, SWAN International, Government of Switzerland (the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN), the Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation (SDC), and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Funding for translation of the Bulletin into French is provided by the Government of France, the Wallonia, Québec, and the International Organization of La Francophonie/Institute for Sustainable Development of La Francophonie (IOF/IFDD).