Summary report, 16 December 1994

1994 Year-end Update on ICPD

Even though the International Conference on Population and Developmenthas come and gone, important work remains to be done to implement theProgramme of Action adopted by the Conference on 13 September 1994.In this regard, the 49th United Nations General Assembly reviewed theoutcome of the Conference and adopted two resolutions. The firstresolution puts the institutional mechanisms in place for theimplementation of the Programme of Action within the UN system,including revitalizing ECOSOC"s Population Commission, which has beenrenamed the Commission on Population and Development. The secondresolution requests the Secretary-General to prepare a report oninternational migration and development, which would include aspectsrelated to the objectives and modalities of convening an internationalconference on this issue.

This special year-end issue of the Earth Negotiations Bulletin willsummarize the results of the General Assembly"s consideration of theConfererence and highlight upcoming events. This issue of the EarthNegotiations Bulletin is published as part of a series of year-endissues intended to summarize the current state of play in the varioussustainable development conferences and negotiations reported on by theBulletin in 1994.


The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) wascreated by United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)Resolution 1989/91 in 1989. The Secretary-General of the Conference wasDr. Nafis Sadik, the Executive Director of the United Nations PopulationFund (UNFPA).


The Preparatory Committee (PrepCom) for the Conference held its firstsubstantive session in New York from 4-8 March 1991. This sessiondefined the objectives and themes of the Conference, and proposedconvening expert group meetings, regional population conferences andtwo additional sessions of the PrepCom. The PrepCom identified sixclusters of priority issues: population, environment and development;population policies and programmes; population and women; familyplanning, health and family well-being; population growth anddemographic structure; and population distribution and migration. Theseclusters were addressed by a series of expert group meetings organizedby the Population Division of the Department of Economic and SocialInformation and Policy Analysis of the UN Secretariat, in consultationwith UNFPA. Another source of input was a series of regional populationconferences held in Asia, Africa, Europe, Latin America and theCaribbean, and the Middle East.


The second session of the Preparatory Committee was held in New Yorkfrom 10-21 May 1993. The overriding objective was to reach agreementon the form and substance of the final document to be adopted inCairo. Delegates agreed on a set of issues to be discussed andelaborated a conceptual framework for the final document. There wassupport for adoption of a new, free-standing document to includeaction-oriented recommendations to effectively address population anddevelopment challenges into the next decade. Delegates also reachedconsensus on the inclusion of a number of issues in this document,including the relationship between population, environment, sustainedeconomic growth and development; the empowerment of women; populationageing; health and mortality; population distribution, urbanization andinternal migration; international migration; reproductive health andfamily planning; and partnership between governments and NGOs.


The third session of the Preparatory Committee was held in New Yorkfrom 4-22 April 1994. Delegates tried to reach agreement on as much ofthe draft final Programme of Action as possible. During the first week ofthe PrepCom, delegates proposed amendments to the Secretariat"s drafttext (A/CONF.171/PC/5). Two working groups, under the chairmanship ofNicolaas Biegman (Netherlands) and Lionel Hurst (Antigua and Barbuda)were responsible for negotiating the chapters in the draft Programme ofAction. During the second and third weeks, the Working Group Chairsproduced revised versions of each chapter for the consideration ofdelegations. During the last three days of the PrepCom, delegatesconsidered each chapter one final time in Plenary. Although the Chairhad hoped to remove as many of the remaining brackets as possible,some of the more divisive issues could not be resolved. Thus, thePrepCom adopted the final draft Programme of Action and sent the text,brackets and all, to the Conference in Cairo.

PrepCom III made a number of concrete advances during its three-weeksession. These include: the focus shifted from family planning to overallreproductive health; population is placed in the overall developmentcontext; the chapter on empowerment of women (Chapter IV) is muchstronger than anyone had ever expected, in fact it is considerablystronger than any of the draft language for the upcoming Women"sConference in Beijing; it contains reference to unsustainable patterns ofproduction and consumption; and it recognizes the special needs andrights of indigenous people.

Nevertheless, a number of key issues were left to be resolved in Cairo:the definition of family planning, reproductive and sexual health andrights, and safe motherhood; the reproductive and sexual health needsof adolescents; the preamble and principles (Chapters I and II); and theresource requirements needed for implementation.


The International Conference on Population and Development met inCairo, Egypt, from 5-13 September 1994. An estimated 20,000 governmentdelegates, UN representatives, NGOs and media representativesdescended on Cairo for the nine-day Conference and the parallel NGOForum. During the course of the Conference, delegates reachedagreement on the sixteen-chapter Programme of Action that sets out aseries of recommended actions on population and development, includingthose that lead to sustained economic growth within the context ofsustainable development, protection of the integrity of the family,combating HIV/AIDS, protecting the health of adolescents, and closingthe gender gap in education. The negotiations were not easy and therewere times when it appeared as though consensus would be impossibleon such controversial issues as abortion, sexual and reproductive health,family reunification and the definition of the family. Yet, by the time thelast chapter was adopted and the last speech was given, thousands ofweary delegates, observers and NGOs agreed that in spite of somedifficult moments, the Conference was a success and the Programme ofAction, compared with earlier documents on population and development,represents a "quantum leap."

The Programme of Action includes: a shift from the previous emphasis ondemography and population control to sustainable development and therecognition of the need for comprehensive reproductive health care andreproductive rights; strong language on the empowerment of women;reflection of different values and religious beliefs; reaffirmation of thecentral role of the family; and recognition of the needs of adolescents.

The Programme of Action contains the following chapters: I.Preamble; II. Principles; III. Interrelationships between population,sustained economic growth and sustainable development; IV. Genderequality, equity and empowerment of women; V. The family, its roles,rights, composition and structure; VI. Population growth and structure;VII. Reproductive rights and reproductive health; VIII. Health, morbidityand mortality; IX. Population distribution, urbanization andinternal migration; X. International migration; XI. Population,development and education; XII. Technology, research and development;XIII. National action; XIV. International cooperation; XV. Partnership withthe non-governmental sector; and XVI. Follow-up to the Conference.


The General Assembly began consideration of Agenda Item 158 on theInternational Conference on Population and Development on Thursday, 17November 1994. While the debate was held in the Plenary, the action onthis item was taken in the Second Committee. Delegates had before themthe report of the ICPD, as contained in documents A/CONF.171/13 andA/CONF.171/13/Add. 1.

During the course of the two-day debate, delegates praised the ICPD forits comprehensive treatment of population and development, whichrepresented the first time that an international conference on populationhas not focused on demographics. Furthermore, delegates expressedsatisfaction with the advances made in the Programme of Action withregard to the role of NGOs, the empowerment of women, reproductivehealth, reproductive rights and treatment of unsafe abortion as a publichealth issue. While delegates stressed the need for effective follow-up tothe Conference, the majority did not think that any new UN institutionsshould be established, but rather the UN Commission on Population, thePopulation Division of the UN Secretariat and UNFPA should bestrengthened.

The following is a summary of the two-day debate.


On behalf of the G-77 and China, Amb. RamtaneLamamra said that the urgency of implementing the Cairo Programme ofAction requires rapid mobilization of human and financial resources tocarry out the actions agreed to by the international community. Giventhe enormous amount of work to be done, the developed countries mustprovide the resources they committed to in the Programme of Action tosupport the efforts of the developing countries. With regard toConference follow-up, the G-77 and China believe that efforts must bemade system-wide to enable better coordination among UN agencies andto harmonize procedures for the submission of reports to ECOSOC. TheSecretariat should draw up a study on future institutional arrangementsfor this purpose.


On behalf of the European Union, Gerhard WalterHenze said that the EU confirms its commitment to make substantialincreases in its contribution to population programmes.The EU believesthat ECOSOC should act as the principal monitoring mechanism. Themandate and the functioning of the Population Commission should bereviewed and adjusted to respond to the broader scope and integratedapproach of the Cairo Programme of Action. There should be greatercooperation between the UN Population Fund and the Population Divisionof the UN Secretariat. The EU does not, however, see the need toestablish a separate Executive Board for UNFPA. The EU also stressedthe need to seek an appropriate consolidated reporting system for thefollow-up of all UN conferences in related fields.


The representative said that the Programmes of Action tobe adopted in Copenhagen, Beijing and Istanbul must reflect whathappened in Cairo. The Population Commission is the logical institutionfor follow-up and the focus of the Commission should shift fromdemography to the relationship between population and development. Itsmembership should be increased from 27 to 53 and it should meetannually instead of biannually. Egypt supports the establishment of aseparate Executive Board for UNFPA.


Amb. Nugroho Wisnumurti said that there is a need tostrengthen both the Population Commission and UNFPA. The Commission"smandate should be reviewed and strengthened. Likewise, UNFPA shouldhave its own Executive Board and should be strengthened to increaseits effectiveness as the operational arm of the United Nations in thefield of population and development.


On behalf of the Nordic countries, Elizabeth Rehn,Minister of Equality Affairs, said that the responsibility for overallpolicy guidance and coordination on population and development issuesbelongs to ECOSOC. There does not seem to be justification for aseparate Executive Board for UNFPA. She stressed the need for greaterinter-agency cooperation, a combined reporting and monitoring systemfor the follow-up of various conferences, and assurance of theeffectiveness and predictability of financing for population anddevelopment activities.


Amb. Wang Xuexian said that no country should attachany conditions to its donations made in the field of population anddevelopment. The relevant agencies of the UN system should give toppriority to the implementation of the Programme of Action and the UNagencies, especially UNFPA, should mobilize sufficient resources for itsimplementation. The Population Commission should examine on a regularbasis the implementation of the Programme of Action.


On behalf of the member States ofCARICOM and Suriname, Amb. Lionel Hurst said that the key to achievingthe sustainable population growth goals recommended in the Programmeof Action rests with the participation of women in every aspect ofdevelopment. This begins with the education of the girl-child. Hesupported the proposal to establish an expert group with participantsfrom WHO, UNFPA, UNICEF and UNDP to move the concept ofreproductive health from the discussion stage to the implementationstage.


Amb. Shunji Maruyama said that Japan will extend itscooperation to developing countries in the amount of US$3 billion aspart of its ODA programme for the period 1994-2000. The PopulationDivision should assume responsibility for overall coordination, whileUNFPA should assume responsibility for implementing operationalprogrammes. A substantially reinforced Population Commission should bethe major expert level institution. It could be renamed the Commissionon Population and Development. The current membership of 27 memberStates should be maintained. Japan is not convinced that UNFPA needsits own Executive Board


Amb. David Karsgaard noted the call for an internationalconference on migration and development. Canada could support such aconference if it builds on the ICPD consensus and there is broadagreement in advance on its objectives and process. ECOSOC shouldprovide system-wide coordination in implementing the Programme ofAction. While all UN bodies and related organizations should review theirprogrammes and strategies, there should be no shifts in responsibilitiesuntil after a comprehensive review of their mandates.


The representative said that theProgramme of Action presupposes a more active role for the non-governmental sector. The sovereign rights of States to develop theirown population policies must be taken into account. Some of the follow-up functions to the Population Commission. There will need to be anexpansion of its mandate, its membership and its relationship withUNFPA, which should remain the center of UN activities on population.


Amb. Kamal Kharrazi said that without provision ofsubstantial external resources on an assured basis, the chances of fulland expeditious implementation of the Programme of Action are slim. Hestressed the importance of strengthening the Population Commission andUNFPA, and coordination among all relevant organizations of the UNsystem. With regard to the establishment of an Executive Board forUNFPA, there is a need for a detailed report on the advantages and thefinancial costs.


The representative said to enhance the implementation ofthe Cairo Programme of Action, overseas funding will be required toassist and supplement national resources. There is also a need for: anenergized and revitalized UNFPA; strengthened UNFPA regional andsubregional offices; and a separate UNFPA Executive Board. The role,composition and mandate of the UN Population Commission also must bereviewed. Just as we set out in Cairo to move the debate beyond familyplanning, we need to now act rapidly to move the commitments beyondwords.


The representative said that people must be put atthe center of development efforts. Zimbabwe has made some progresswith regard to the empowerment of women since independence. However,there is still much maternal mortality related to unsafe abortions indeveloping countries. All efforts must be made to obviate the need torecourse to abortion. Without resources, the Programme of Action willremain a paper promise. The international community must provide newand additional financial resources to ensure adequate implementation.


John McKinnon said that New Zealand recentlyannounced a 20% increase in its 1995 contribution to UNFPA. At theinternational level, regular review by the General Assembly will benecessary and any reporting requirements by member States should berealistic. There is no need for new institutional or governancestructures, however, there should be a comprehensive review of theroles of the Population Commission, the Population Division of the UNSecretariat and UNFPA at the 1995 ECOSOC meeting. UNFPA/UNDP Boardshould give more attention to governing UNFPA.


Amb. Ernst Sucharipa said that Austria looks forwardto the discussion at ECOSOC on the implications of the ICPDrecommendations on UN operational activities for development. ThePopulation Division and UNFPA should intensify their cooperation basedon their respective comparative advantages. The Population Commissionshould examine its role in the implementation of the ICPDrecommendations and report to ECOSOC. The establishment of anExecutive Board for UNFPA deserves further consideration.


Ion C. Popescu from the Ministry of Foreign Affairssaid that Romania supports the principles and objectives of the CairoProgramme of Action and especially notes the right to development, therecognition of the problems of population and development in thecountries with economies in transition, and the importance ofpartnership with the non-governmental sector. Romania increased hervoluntary contribution to UNFPA for 1995 by 30%. Bucharest has offeredto host a meeting of the UN/ECE member States on ICPD follow-up.


Dr. Manuel Urbina, Secretary-General of the NationalPopulation Council, underlined the Conference conclusions on the subjectof international migration. Mexico supports the convening of aninternational conference on migration. Mexico is also convinced that thePopulation Commission must be strengthened as it should serve as theintergovernmental agency for the follow-up of the Programme of Action.


Amb. Joseph Cassar said that the Programme of Actionplaces the right emphases on the respect for religious and ethicalvalues and for diverse cultural backgrounds. Apart from reservationsthat Malta still has with regard to the inadequate protection of therights of the unborn child, the Programme of Action does offer apositive strategy that integrates population issues within the muchwider context of development.


The representative said that subregional andregional cooperation on population should be encouraged andstrengthened. The special needs of the poor and vulnerable must beconsidered. The UN should continue to play an important role in thefield of population and development. The existing mechanisms of the UN,particularly the Population Commission, should be reviewed andstrengthened. The question of a separate executive board for UNFPAshould also be considered.


S‚rgio Florencio noted that the follow-up to the ICPDinvolves giving the Population Commission the means to carry out theresponsibility of intergovernmental monitoring of the Cairorecommendations and commitments. UNFPA should retain the overallresponsibility for the operational implementation of internationalcooperation in the population field. While the establishment of a separateExecutive Board for UNFPA does not have widespread support, at thevery least one full session of the UNDP/UNFPA Executive Board shouldbe devoted to UNFPA affairs.


Manoranjan Bhakta, Member of Parliament, said that withregard to funding, the 20:20 proposal requires further discussion andmore clarity before being adopted in any manner. He also stressed theneed for access to newer technology and increased availability ofresources. A separate Executive Board for UNFPA should only beconsidered if substantial resources become available.


Amb. Utula U. Samana said that success ofthe ICPD depends on establishment of realistic and practical strategiesinvolving all sectors of the community at the national level andinternational support by donor agencies and multilateral organizations tonational programmes. With regard to institutional follow-up to theConference, Papua New Guinea is following closely the current debate onthe mechanisms for implementation of the Programme of Action and thefuture Executive Board of UNFPA.


Amb. Manasa K. Seniloli said that the availability and earlymobilization of financial resources will be a critical element underpinningthe success of activities at the national level to breathe life into theProgramme of Action. ECOSOC must play an integral role in broadlymonitoring and coordinating the follow-up to Cairo. The GeneralAssembly should also organize a regular review of the implementation ofthe Programme of Action. At the subregional level, Fiji will seek toengage its neighbors in a dialogue as to how the South Pacific Forumcan better respond to the challenges posed by the Programme of Action.


The representative said that the Cairo Programme ofAction will only be a positive and dynamic force if governments, localcommunities, NGOs and the UN system translate the recommendations ofthe Conference into positive measures. Projects must be related tonational values.


The representative said that one of themost positive outcomes of the ICPD was recognition of the importance ofempowering women. Other strong sections are the ones on reproductivehealth and rights and grassroots participation. The challenge now isimplementation and developing countries need the support of theinternational community.


Dr. Jan Woroniecki said mechanisms should be examinedto further expand the participation of NGOs in UNFPA- financedactivities. The General Assembly and ECOSOC should carry out theirrespective responsibilities in providing system-wide coordination andguidance in the monitoring and implementation of the Programme ofAction. Creation of a more coherent reporting system, taking intoaccount the reporting procedures that are required in follow-up toother international conferences, should also be taken into consideration.


The representative said that the Cairo Programme ofAction gives the major burden of implementation to developing countries.The importance of institutional follow-up to the Conference cannot beover-emphasized. The role and support of the UN system in theimplementation of the Programme is very important. They must make thebest use of existing institutions without compromising effective follow-up. A separate Executive Board for UNFPA must be considered.


Richard Rowe said that ECOSOC must fulfill its rolein coordination of the follow-up process among relevant UN agencies andcall for active field-level support to assist countries in implementing theProgramme of Action. On the question of a separate Executive Board forUNFPA, further consideration should be given to this matter at a laterdate. Australia has already trebled funding for population anddevelopment activities. Australia welcomes the proposal that aninternational conference on migration be convened by the UN, however,it should not overlap with the work of other international organizationslike the OECD.


The representative said there are four levels wherethe analysis should move forward: the General Assembly, ECOSOC, afunctional commission of ECOSOC on population and development; and anExecutive Board for UNFPA. This would provide follow-up from aninstitutional point of view. The Secretary-General should prepare areport on this, including budgetary implications and logistical support.Argentina supports holding a conference on international migration anddevelopment.


The representative said that at the national level,governments should work to increase the consciousness of populationissues by giving utmost attention to these issues in the schools. At theinternational level, governments must cooperate better to achieve commongoals.


Jan Ali Junejo said that only after a review of therespective roles of the bodies in the UN system dealing with populationand development issues can an appropriate follow-up mechanism beidentified. If the General Assembly is unable to consider the need for aseparate Executive Board for UNFPA this year, the matter should betaken up by ECOSOC next year.


Ronald B. Allarey said that the Philippines hascalled for an international conference on migration and has presented adraft resolution on this matter to the G-77. The Philippines Governmenthas forged a closer partnership with NGOs to implement the CairoProgramme of Action. Philippine laws reject abortion as a method offamily planning. The Government has made available a choice of otherfamily planning methods to lower the incidence of illegal and unsafeabortions.


The Tunisian Ambassador said that the success insolving population and development problems largely depends onstrengthening cooperation among States, while bearing in mind thecharacteristics and priorities of each society. He stressed the need toensure further financial resources to implement the Programme of Action.Given all of the ramifications of the immigration problem, Tunisia feelsthat this phenomenon must be controlled and the international communityshould convene an international conference on immigration before 1997.


The Nigerian Ambassador noted the need for respect ofeach nation"s sovereignty in the implementation of the Programme ofAction. Gender equality and the empowerment of women are vital. TheProgramme of Action must be backed by financial support and countriesmust consider specific targets for assistance, especially to improveeducation, reduce infant and maternal mortality and provide healthservices. Increased coordination is needed among all relevant UNagencies.


Amb. Ren‚ Val‚ry Mongbe said that regarding thePopulation Commission, it is important to: draft new terms of referenceon the mandate of the Commission; rename the Commission to include thedevelopment dimension; and raise the number of member states to 53.The issue of the UNFPA Executive Board cannot be dealt with at thissession of the General Assembly since more study is needed.


The representative said that the Programme of Actionmust be implemented with respect for national sovereignty and thereligious values of the society.


The representative said that fourteen PacificIsland delegations participated in the Cairo Conference, compared tothree at the Mexico City Conference. The adoption of the Port VilaDeclaration on Population and Sustainable Development in 1993 was afirm commitment of the collective efforts of the Pacific Island States. Hestressed the important role that the UNFPA regional office in Fiji playsin backstopping the population programmes in the South Pacific.


The representative said that while the roles,responsibilities and mandates of the UN organs dealing with populationand development issues should be reviewed and strengthened, currentrealities must be reflected and implementation of the Programme ofAction should not wait until after this review. The Population Commissionshould be restructured to be a Population and Development Commission.Expansion of its membership should be considered. The Marshall Islandssupports establishment of an Executive Board for UNFPA.


The representative said that the role of NGOs must berecognized as essential to the effective implementation of the Programmeof Action. To reap the benefits of Cairo at the international level,political will must be backed by financial resources. The PopulationCommission should have an important role to play in monitoring andreviewing the Programme of Action in close collaboration with PopulationDivision and UNFPA.


The representative said that UN agencies andinternational financial institutions have a key leadership role in follow-up. Better coordination is needed among donors and it is crucial todevelop a monitoring system to track progress toward implementing theProgramme of Action. This monitoring system must be active rather thanpassive. Monitoring reports should be packaged to encourage use bypolicymakers and the monitoring system must not be overly burdensometo governments.


The representativesaid that: each country should give priority to the formulation ofnational population policies; people"s will should be respected; peace andsecurity are prerequisites for implementation of the Programme ofAction; mobilization of financial resources is needed at the national andinternational levels; and South-South cooperation could be conducive toimplementation. Monitoring implementation at the national, regional andinternational levels is needed. UNFPA should play an enhanced role inthis regard.


The delegate said that without the political will thevaluable gains in Cairo will be lost. The time has come for the GeneralAssembly to consider the possibility of giving UNFPA its own governingbody.

KAZAKHSTAN: Amb. Akmaral Kh. Arystanbekova said that eachcountry has its own priorities as it faces its own unique challenges. Thesituation in Kazakhstan is aggravated by environmental degradation andthe transition to a market economy. High rates of migration, increasingunemployment, problems in providing education and health care are alsoaffecting the country. Technical and financial assistance from theinternational community is essential.


The representative said that the Programme of Actionrepresents a diverse number of views. The implementation of theProgramme of Action requires effective follow-up. ECOSOC can play auseful role in this regard. Slovakia will prepare a national Programme ofAction in preparation for the WSSD and the Women"s Conference. Theadvancement of the role of women is crucial to bringing about change.There is a need to re-evaluate national and international programmes tobring them in line with the Cairo Programme of Action.


The representative said that there is a need to raisefurther resources to assist African countries in implementing populationprogrammes. The Population Commission must be strengthened.


The representative said that the Programme of Actionhighlighted the need for cultural co-existence. At the national level,various plans and programmes must be promoted. NGOs have animportant role to play in this regard. Cairo opened a new phase in theconsideration of population issues and now the initiatives must be takento effectively implement the Programme of Action while respectingcultural rights.


Archbishop Renato R. Martino noted that the Holy Seeis pleased to find in the chapeau of Chapter II that nationalimplementation of the recommendations in the Programme of Action mustrespect various religious and ethical values and cultural backgrounds,in conformity with universally recognized human rights. The Holy Seehad hoped for a more comprehensive treatment of the relationshipbetween population and development in the document. He expressedsupport for language on strengthening the family, recognizing thatwomen must be full and equal participants in development, reduction ofchild and maternal mortality, and international and internal migration.However, the Holy See cannot, does not and will not accept abortion as acomponent of reproductive health care.


The Second Committee of the 49th General Assembly considered tworesolutions under Agenda Item 158, "Report of the InternationalConference on Population and Development." Both resolutions wereadopted by the Second Committee on 13 December 1994. The firstresolution is entitled "Report of the International Conference onPopulation and Development" (A/C.2/49/L.67). The second is called"International migration and development" (A/C.2/49/L.74). Both areexpected to be formally adopted by the General Assembly Plenary beforeChristmas.


In introducing the text of the draft resolution (A/C.2/49/L.48) on 29November 1994, Algeria, on behalf of the G-77 and China, commented thatit contained a long preamble recalling the decisions leading to the ICPD.The resolution was then divided into two sections: one on national,regional and international implementation of the Programme of Action;and one on institutional follow-up to the Conference. He drew particularattention to the operative paragraphs that would strengthen thePopulation Commission and change its name and mandate to include bothpopulation and development, and request ECOSOC to considerestablishing a separate Executive Board for UNFPA.

During the informal consultations on this resolution, under Vice-ChairArjan Hamburger (Netherlands), a number of delegates pointed out thatthe resolution needed to include reference to the integrated approachtaken during the ICPD, which recognizes the interrelationship amongpopulation, sustained economic growth and sustainable development.Other issues that delegates thought should be mentioned include:relationship of the ICPD to other upcoming international conferences(Social Summit, Women"s Conference and Habitat II); the importance ofSouth-South cooperation in the implementation of the Programme ofAction; and temporary assistance for countries with economies intransition. Delegates also discussed the establishment of a separateExecutive Board for UNFPA and the expansion of the mandate of thePopulation Commission as well as the frequency of its meetings and thenumber of members.

As a result of these informal consultations on A/C.2/49/L.48, delegatesreached agreement on a revised draft resolution, which was submittedby the Vice-Chair for adoption by the Second Committee on 13 December1994. The Second Committee adopted this resolution (A/C.2/49/L.67) byconsensus and sent it to the General Assembly Plenary for formaladoption.

After a lengthy preambular section that recalls the resolutions leadingup to the ICPD and notes the importance of the outcome of theConference, the resolution endorses the ICPD Programme of Action. Withregard to national implementation, the resolution calls on all governmentsto commit themselves at the highest possible level to achieving the goalsof the Programme of Action and make additional contributions forimplementation. Governments, NGOs and the UN system are called on togive the widest possible dissemination to the Programme of Action. Atthe subregional and regional levels, relevant organizations, commissionsand development banks are invited to examine the results of theConference within their specific mandates. At the international level, theinternational community is called upon to provide, both bilaterally andmultilaterally, adequate and substantial international support andassistance for population and development activities. The resolution alsoemphasizes the need to maintain and enhance partnerships with NGOsand South-South cooperation.

A number of paragraphs in the resolution address financial resources.Paragraph 13 calls on the developed countries to complement thenational financial efforts of developing countries on population anddevelopment and intensify their efforts to transfer new and additionalresources to developing countries, in accordance with the Programme ofAction. Paragraph 14 calls for temporary population and developmentassistance to countries with economies in transition. Paragraph 15 callsfor the early identification and allocation of financial resources andparagraph 16 calls for exchange of information between the variousbodies of the UN system and the international financial institutions tomaximize the availability of resources and their most effective utilization.Paragraph 17 invites the Secretary-General to ensure that adequateresources are provided for Conference follow-up activities by the UNSecretariat in 1995 and paragraph 18 requests the Secretary-General toprepare periodic reports for ECOSOC on the flow of financial resourcesfor assisting implementation of the Programme of Action.

On the institutional side, the resolution outlines a three-tieredintergovernmental mechanism that will play the primary role in thefollow-up of the implementation of the Programme of Action: the GeneralAssembly will organize a regular review of implementation; ECOSOC willprovide system-wide coordination and guidance in monitoringimplementation; and the revitalized Population Commission will monitor,review and assess the implementation at the national, regional andinternational levels and advise ECOSOC thereon.

The Population Commission will be renamed the Commission on Populationand Development and will meet on an annual basis beginning in 1996. Atits substantive session in 1995, ECOSOC should: review the Commission"sterms of reference and mandate to bring these fully into line with thisresolution; consider the composition of the Commission; consider theestablishment of a separate executive board for UNFPA; considerrecommendations on secretariat support and coordination arrangementsfor the UN system; and consider recommendations on inter-agencycoordination and reporting procedures

Finally, the governing body of the UN Population Fund is invited tooversee the response of the Fund to the needs of countries instrengthening population and development programmes. The programmesof the UN system and regional commissions and funds are called upon toprovide their full support to implementation of the Programme of Actionat the field level.


In introducing the text of draft resolution A/C.2/49/L.47, "UnitedNations conference on international migration and development," on 29November 1994, Algeria, on behalf of the G-77 and China, noted that thediscussion on this issue took place in Cairo within the context ofChapter X (International Migration) of the Programme of Action. InCairo there was broad support for convening a conference oninternational migration and development and in the Plenary debate atthe General Assembly this commitment was renewed by a large number ofcountries. The draft called for convening this conference in 1997.

In spite of the support for convening such a conference, after informalconsultations the Second Committee agreed to postpone any decision foranother year. This was based largely on the fact that there were draftresolutions before the Second Committee calling for convening multipleconferences, including a conference on South-South cooperation and aconference on public admininistration and development. Due, in part, tothe large number of international conferences already on the over-burdened conference calendar, delegates agreed to postponeconsideration of these conferences.

Thus, the revised draft resolution (A/C.2/49/L.74) submitted by theVice-Chair, Arjen Hamburger, on the basis of informal consultations,requests the Secretary-General to prepare, in consultation with Statesand relevant international and regional organizations, a report oninternational migration and development to be submitted to ECOSOC atits substantive session in 1995. This report would include aspectsrelating to objectives and modalities for convening a UN conference oninternational migration and development. The resolution also requests theSecretary-General, on the basis of ECOSOC"s discussion, to report onthe subject to the General Assembly at its 50th session for a decision onthe convening of such a conference.


The 28th meeting of the UNPopulation Commission is scheduled for 21 February - 2 March 1995 inNew York. The Commission was renamed the "UN Commission onPopulation and Development" by the 49th session of the GeneralAssembly to emphasize the new and comprehensive approach topopulation and development embodied in the Cairo Programme of Action.The General Assembly has requested the Commission to review, within itsarea of competence, the Programme of Action and its implications and totransmit its views to the Economic and Social Council at its substantivesession in 1995.


The 28th meeting of the UNPopulation Commission is scheduled for 21 February - 2 March 1995 inNew York. The Commission was renamed the "UN Commission onPopulation and Development" by the 49th session of the GeneralAssembly to emphasize the new and comprehensive approach topopulation and development embodied in the Cairo Programme of Action.The General Assembly has requested the Commission to review, within itsarea of competence, the Programme of Action and its implications and totransmit its views to the Economic and Social Council at its substantivesession in 1995.


The 1995 organizational session of the Economic andSocial Council will meet in New York from 7-10 February 1995. Thesubstantive session is scheduled from 26 June - 28 July 1995 in Geneva.The General Assembly has asked ECOSOC to address a number of issuesrelated to the implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action,including:

  • Review the terms of reference and mandate of the Population Commission to more adequately reflect the new and comprehensive approach to population and development embodied in the Programme of Action;
  • Consider the composition of the revitalized Population Commission;
  • Consider the establishment of a separate executive board for UNFPA;
  • Consider recommendations to the Secretary-General concerning secretariat support and coordination arrangements for the UN system;
  • Consider recommendations to the Secretary-General regarding the establishment of an appropriate inter-agency coordination, collaboration and harmonization mechanisms for the implementation of the Programme of Action;
  • Review the reporting procedures within the UN system regarding population and development issues; and
  • Review the Secretariat"s report on international migration and development and determine if a conference should be held on this subject.


The Population ReferenceBureau provides an updated monthly calendar of global stewardshipevents that relate to population and religion, environment, foreign policyand other global issues. It is available on-line on the APC computernetworks in the conference <<icpd.general>>. For more information,contact Susan Kalish or Jessica Teisch by e-mail at<<>>.