Summary report, 4–5 November 1993

48th General Assembly (Debate on ICPD Preparations)

The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)was considered by the 48th session of the UN General Assembly on 4-5 November 1993. The discussions took place in the SecondCommittee, which had before it a number of documents includingthe Report of the Secretary-General on the implementation ofGeneral Assembly resolution 47/167 and ECOSOC resolution 1991/93(A/48/430) and the annotated outline of the final document of theConference (A/48/430/Add.1). The annotated outline was the focusof many statements during the Second Committee debate. ICPDSecretary-General Dr. Nafis Sadik encouraged delegates to usetheir statements to the Second Committee to give an assessment ofthe annotated outline.

During the discussion, delegates raised a number of key points.These were summarized by Dr. Sadik in her closing statement asfollows:

  • The centrality of population issues must be maintained in the Cairo document;
  • Part II (Choices and Responsibilities) and Part III (Means of Implementation) must be more in line with one another;
  • The recommendations should be action-oriented, clear and concise;
  • There should be an emphasis on implementable activities, not just recommendations;
  • The rights of the individual must be central to the document;
  • The chapter on the empowerment of women must be strengthened;
  • The document should give more attention to sexuality and the family planning needs of youth and adolescents;
  • The 20-year goals should not establish demographic targets and quotas, but should relate more to education and access to family planning information;
  • The Secretariat should provide information on the costs of various proposals;
  • Means of implementation should be given a high priority;
  • The chapter on follow-up to the Conference is inadequate;
  • The issues of consumption and lifestyles should be given more attention;
  • The perspective and needs of countries in transition should be reflected in the document;
  • The section on indigenous peoples needs strengthening; and
  • The role of NGOs should be spelled out more carefully.

The ICPD Secretariat will be using these statements, as well asany written comments and reactions to the annotated outline, toassist it in its next major task -- the preparation of the fulltext of the draft final document. This draft will be completed inJanuary and will be the focus of discussions at the third sessionof the ICPD Preparatory Committee, to be held from 4-22 April1994.


In her opening statement to the Second Committee, ICPDSecretary-General Dr. Nafis Sadik asked delegates to examine andcomment on the annotated outline. She also touched briefly onseveral other aspects of the preparatory process. She mentionedthat they have been able to assist 92 developing countries (at atotal outlay of over US$760,000) in the preparation of nationalpopulation reports and in activities aimed at raising publicawareness on population and development issues. With regard tonational population reports, 50 countries have already submittedtheir reports and she encouraged delegates to both submit theirreports and make them widely available in their countries, atPrepCom III and in Cairo. In addition to asking delegates toendorse ECOSOC resolution 1993/76 (which recommends extending thethird session of the PrepCom by one week, convening two days ofpre-Conference consultations, and raising the level of thePreparatory Committee to a subsidiary body of the GeneralAssembly), Dr. Sadik asked governments for permission to conductinformal briefings during the first three months of 1994.


The following is a summary of statements made by 47 governments,many on behalf of regional or interest groups. These summariesfocus on comments about the annotated outline of the finaldocument of the Conference, even though many delegates commentedon regional or national level activities related to populationand development. For a summary of the annotated outline, seeEarth Negotiations Bulletin, vol. 6, no. 12.


Colombia, on behalf of the G-77, stressedthat the Secretariat must pay careful attention to the points ofview of the developing world. The full understanding of thechanging economic, cultural and political conditions of thedeveloping world constitutes the fundamental basis for aneffective support of the international community to the effortsof developing countries to incorporate population components intodevelopment strategies. The G-77 pointed out that it attachesgreat importance to Part III of the document, which is devoted tothe means of implementation.


Belgium, on behalf of the EuropeanCommunity and its Member States, made the following points: thereshould be a succinct preamble and a statement of principle onpopulation and development; the document should be simplified,actions clearly targeted and a proliferation of topics should beavoided; the document should be clear in its objectives; sectoraland cross-sectoral aspects should be integrated into chapterswithout subdivisions; and the number of recommendations should berestricted and grouped by chapter rather than section. The ECbelieves that the document should contain recommendationsregarding: the promotion of fair and sustainable development forthe benefit of the human race; the improvement of knowledge ofthe relationship between population, environment and development;cooperation to implement international commitments to eliminatediscrimination against women and girls; addressing sexual andreproductive health, including abortion; ensuring that choiceabout the number of children remains a basic human right for thecouple and the individual; considering the needs of theadolescent population; finding solutions to migration problems;and rehabilitating living conditions to better integrateimmigrants.


Dr. Maher Mahran, Minister of State for Populationand Family Welfare, said that the link between population,sustained economic growth and sustainable development should bestrongly supported by further elaborating the impact ofconsumption patterns. The link between poverty reduction andStructural Adjustment programmes should be addressed in thedocument, as should the link between rural development andsustained economic growth. He also recommended that theSecretariat give greater emphasis to: the responsibilities ofmen; closing the gender gap; recommending "Safe Motherhood"education programmes; raising the status of women; reducingilliteracy rates among adult women; the link between ethics andpopulation programmes; effective programmes for the elderly;school programmes in population and environmental protectionstudies; adequate financial resources for the implementationprocess; respecting the sovereign rights of States; andrecommending that NGOs be given freedom to exercise theirhistorical creativity and pioneering role without unduebureaucratic constraints. He also proposed integrating thesub-chapters in Chapter IV (gender equality) with other chaptersand combining Chapters V and VI (family with population growthand structure); VII and VIII (reproductive rights with health andmortality); IX and X (population distribution with internationalmigration); and XI and XII (information, education andcommunication with capacity-building).


The delegate stressed that theinterests of all countries should be taken into account in thefinal document. Russia faces a number of unique problems thatshould not be ignored: a drop in population and issues related topopulation distribution, age, the size of the labor force,refugees, and emigration.


Chile, on behalf of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil,Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador (representing the States ofCentral America), Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela,supported the structure of the document and urged delegates tofocus on substance. Chile stressed: the importance of placinghumans at the center of population issues; the need to reaffirmpolitical support for population policies; and the need toaddress international migration.


Tunisia, on behalf of Algeria, Libya, Mauritaniaand Morocco, stressed the importance of birth control in theMaghreb region, now that the mortality rate is lowered. Tunisiaalso mentioned the main points raised at the Conference onPopulation and Development in the Maghreb Countries, held in Julyin Tunis. These include the importance of: population questionsin sustainable development; international migration; the role ofwomen in development; the right to family planning; and priorityto maternal and infant health. With regard to the annotatedoutline, the means of implementation section should containpractical proposals relating to Part II of the document (Choicesand Responsibilities). He also suggested: strengthening thechapter on technology transfer and recommending protection of therights of ‚migr‚s as well as the rights of victims of barbaricpractices, like in Bosnia.


Austria raised a number of points including:maintaining an integrated approach to population that flows fromRio's "shared but unequal responsibilities of States";emphasizing freedom of choice in reproductive health and familyplanning; provision of appropriate primary healthcare; and givingmore attention to the problems of transitional countries. Thefinal document should be operational, action-oriented andspecific, and the 20-year goals should be incorporated into thetext. There should be strong follow-up to the Conference and itsoutcome should be incorporated into the preparations for theSocial Summit.


Oscar Avalle commented that the annotatedoutline lacks a link between its parts. Specifically, Part III(Means of Implementation) does not seem to be connected with therest of the document. He suggested that the connection betweenPart II and Part III could be made by the identification of amenu of voluntary activities in each of the chapters of Part II,indicating, in a qualitative form, the means of implementationnecessary for their execution. Then, Part III could contain theactions and methods necessary to facilitate national andinternational execution of the concepts contained in the rest ofthe document. This approach would also eliminate unnecessaryideological debates about the proposed recommendations foractions. He also stressed the importance of considering theproblem of population within the context of sustainabledevelopment.


Carlston Boucher of the World Bank commentedthat many donors are re-examining their roles with regard topopulation issues. The Bank has been increasing its capacity towork with other UN organs, governments and NGOs to designcreative population projects to meet diverse needs.


Amb. Peter Osvald, on behalf of the Nordiccountries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden),stressed that population size and rate of growth should beexamined in relation to the society of which they are a product.The role of society should be to facilitate choice by theindividual and couples. The empowerment of women in society mustbe championed in its own right and there must be a concurrentchanging of attitudes and responsibilities of men. Reproductiverights, reproductive health and family planning are crucial. TheNordics found that the annotated outline needs more strength andclarity on the issue of adolescents and young people. Thedocument should also reflect the concept of partnership betweennational governments and external assistance. If national goalsare adopted they should be linked to the availability of services(i.e., education, child care or reproductive health).


Cui Tiankai said that the preamble and principlessection should set forth the relationship between alleviatingpopulation pressure, eliminating poverty, developing the economyand protecting the environment. The right to development shouldalso be included. In order to make the document morecomprehensive and responsive to the needs of developingcountries, the following areas should be included: elimination ofhunger and malnutrition, food security, alleviation of naturaldisasters, improvement of human settlements, and human resourcesdevelopment. The sections on means of implementation andfollow-up should be improved. Finally, internationalorganizations in the field of population and development shouldstrengthen their coordination, improve efficiency, fully utilizetheir respective expertise, and adopt practical and effectivemeasures.


Amb. Victor Marrero stressed that therecommendations that come out of the Cairo Conference shouldconstitute a clear agenda for future action. The US hopes thatthe document will state clearly that stabilizing the world'spopulation is a goal that underlies and mutually reinforces allother goals. Women's control over childbearing is fundamental toachieving full gender equality. The section on family planningneeds to be broadened to encompass not only access to currentlyavailable methods of contraception, but AIDS prevention,contraceptive needs of adolescents, safe abortion and otherpregnancy-related services. With regard to the means ofimplementation, the US suggested the following: governmentsshould strengthen information, education and communicationprogrammes related to family planning and reproductive health;donors and recipients should be held accountable for howfinancial and technical support is used; the section on researchshould be broadened; and estimates of resource requirementsshould be included.


New Zealand, on behalf of the MemberStates of the South Pacific Forum who are also Member States ofthe UN (Australia, Micronesia, Fiji, Marshall Islands, NewZealand, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu),introduced two documents: the Communiqu‚ of the South PacificForum (A/48/359) and the Port Vila Declaration on Population andSustainable Development (A/C.2/48/3), which form the basis of theSouth Pacific position on the ICPD. The Port Vila Declarationunderscores that population issues cannot be separated from theissue of improving the social, economic, political and legalstatus of women. He also affirmed the importance of theperspective of indigenous peoples.


Japan suggested that Part II of the document,"Choices and Responsibilities," and Part III, "Means ofImplementation," might be combined as a new Part III. A new PartII might provide a summary of what is to be included in the Cairodocument and explain how that document differs from the WorldPopulation Plan of Action. The new Part III could be made shorterby putting Chapters IV, V, VII and VIII in a new chapter entitled"Health and the Role of Women," Chapters IX and X in a newchapter entitled "Migration," and Chapters XIV, XV and XVI in anew chapter entitled "National Action and InternationalCooperation." At the same time, each chapter should be as shortas possible.


On behalf of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala,Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama, Nelson Valenzuela stressed theneed for a balance between population, development andconsumption patterns. Issues that must be taken into accountinclude: changes in mortality, fertility and growth rates;regional priorities; the increasing number of poor, especially inrural areas; the need to focus more on the needs of adolescents;the elimination of poverty; and the improved status of women.


On behalf of the 12 Member States ofthe Caribbean Community (Barbados, Bahamas, Belize, Dominica,Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St.Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago), thedelegate from Antigua and Barbuda said that the empowerment ofwomen is an essential factor in the achievement of populationobjectives, sustained economic growth and sustainabledevelopment. The Member States of CARICOM support the view thatthe issues and recommendations of the final document should beforward-looking, operational and pragmatic; its recommendationsshould take into account regional diversity and country-specificconditions, such as those in the Caribbean; and any actionprogramme should be free-standing and operational in nature,while building on the important achievements of the 1974 and 1984population conferences.


Amb. Stanley Kalpage said that particularattention should be paid to education, health, employment andgender issues, such as the role and status of women and thebarriers for equality between men and women, as well aspopulation distribution and international and national migration.The ICPD should also consider resource mobilization andallocation, the role of governments and NGOs, and internationalcooperation. Low income countries should be provided withcontinued support by the international community to enable themto consolidate their achievements in the areas of population anddevelopment.


Corinne Tomkinson noted that the key issues forAustralia include: the linkages between environmentaldegradation, population distribution and poverty; status of womenissues; indigenous peoples' issues; population movements,including international migration; reproductive rights,reproductive health and family planning; health and mortality;and population aging. If goals are to be set, they should becarefully thought out and realistic in their aims. Australia alsohas reservations about setting financial targets for donors inpopulation assistance that may prove to be unrealistic andimpossible to achieve. The text in Part II of the document shoulddistinguish between national and international responsibilitiesfor implementation of recommendations. Part III, Means ofImplementation, requires further work and should be linked withrecommendations in the earlier sections. Institutional outcomesshould be referenced in the text as well.


Claude Baillargeon expressed some concern with theproposal for 20-year goals because goals do not necessarilytranslate into worthwhile programmes. Goals cannot be imposedfrom outside; they must make sense within national realities andmust be relevant, embraced and owned by governments and theirpeoples. He suggested that the recommendations from the Ottawaroundtable on family planning, reproductive rights andreproductive health be incorporated into the final document. Withregard to international migration, recommendations should addressthe need for sustained and sustainable economic growth anddevelopment; ensuring that migration benefits both sending andreceiving countries as well as individual migrants; addressingthe underlying causes of refugee movements; and protecting theright to seek asylum. The follow-up section requires more workand should ensure that the progress made in Cairo is enhanced atthe Social Summit, the Women's Conference and Habitat.


Witjaksana Soegarda raised the following issuesthat should be incorporated into the document: the primary focusshould be on people; the relationship between rapid populationgrowth and poverty; the differences in the level of social,economic and cultural development in each country; communityparticipation at the grassroots level; and capacity building andhuman resources development. The 20-year goals should encompasspopulation growth, maternal and infant mortality, literacy, lifeexpectancy, gender equality, and the availability and access to afull range of modern and safe family planning services.


Brian Singh stressed the importance of thefollowing: sustained economic growth; greater harmony amongpopulation, resources, environment and development; balancedrepresentation of both sexes in population programmes anddecision-making; recognition of the distinct perspective ofindigenous peoples; improved access to primary health care;addressing the economic, trade and development cooperationpolicies of countries of origin and destination on internationalmigration; ensuring the availability of appropriately-trainedpersonnel for the formulation, implementation and monitoring ofpopulation programmes; and putting in place mechanisms forassessing progress made in achieving the goals and objectives ofthe action programme.


The delegate from Nigeria said that to be viableand relevant, the final document must be realistic, pragmatic,action-oriented and implementable. Emphasis needs to be placed onthe linkage between poverty reduction and structural adjustmentprogrammes, as well as between rural development and sustainedeconomic growth. The issue of resource allocation should beadequately addressed in all its ramifications. The chapters oninternational cooperation and follow-up need to be strengthened.


The representative of Yemen noted the intractableburdens and challenges faced by least developed countries. Heannounced that Yemen had established a National Council ofPopulation and a national secretariat for the ICPD.


Nepal feels that the status quo is unacceptable.The linkage between population and development was made duringthe 1974 Bucharest Conference but not adequately treated. Hecalled on support from the international community in preparationfor the ICPD.


Heather Dowsett of New Zealand noted thatpreparations for the Conference have succeeded in increasingawareness of population issues and their linkages to development.She called the present structure of the document "a littleunwieldy" and said that the final document should be moreflexible, less repetitious and more action-oriented. For internalconsistency, the document will need to get the linkages andbalance right between principles, sectoral and cross-sectoralissues. Each of the principles needs to explicitly recognizewomen's concerns and gender considerations. She reiterated hergovernment's support for a set of substantive, realistic goalslinked to activities. She called for mainstreaming population inthe work of the UN and establishing roles for implementing andmonitoring the outcomes of Cairo. In the chapter on GenderEquality and Empowerment of Women she wants to see activitiesthat will involve women in decision-making and will tackle theissue of male responsibility. In the chapter on ReproductiveRights the treatment of abortion needs to be further developed.Indigenous issues need to be woven throughout the document.


The delegate from Switzerland said that theCairo document should have a concise preamble and statement ofprinciples. He noted with interest the proposal for 20-year goalsthat would help reinforce a social fabric conducive tosustainable human development. He tabled comments on theannotated outline that dealt with the structure and subjectmatter of the chapters. The sub-chapters need to be moreconsistent. On matters of substance, the notion of "carryingcapacity" (Chapter III) needs more clarification; the objectivesof the Chapter IV, Part A, "Empowerment and the Status of Women,"are not sufficiently elaborated; Chapter V, "The Family, ItsRoles, Composition and Structure," has a Western perspective andits structure and content could be improved; the objectives andselected topics for recommendations in Chapter VI, "PopulationGrowth and Structure," are vague and this chapter's treatment ofindigenous people should be within a broader context; and asub-chapter on "integration," which would include comments onsocial and economic integration of resident legal migrants andstrategies to promote integration, especially of vulnerablegroups, is missing from Chapter X, "International Migration".


The delegate stressed the need to integratefamily planning with nation building in developing countries. Thefollowing issues should be highlighted: the complex relationshipbetween population growth rates and poverty; the need to payadequate attention to women; denial of reproductive rights; andeducation of the girl child. Success of population programmes andpolicies, however, is largely based on the provision of financialassistance.


The delegate from the Ukraine said that thedocument should take into account regional particularities,especially those of the economies in transition. He noted thatthis region faces the unique problem of depopulation.


The representative of Bahrain said that the ICPDis an important step in drawing up demographic policies thatensure both economic growth and sustainable development. Familyplanning programmes must go hand-in-hand with societies. Hehighlighted the primacy of national sovereignty in settingpolicies.


The representative of India noted the document'semphasis on issues other than population, recalling hisdelegation's contention that the ICPD should avoid issues likethe environment. Population issues have to be considered asessential elements of a development strategy and the Conferenceshould focus on poverty alleviation. While welcoming the role ofNGOs in promoting community participation, education andcommunication, he said that NGOs cannot be considered on a parwith governments. Some of the principles being discussed may beinappropriate and India supports a preamble that wouldincorporate existing international agreements.


Wilfrido L. Enverga of the Philippine Houseof Representatives noted his government's policy of freedom ofchoice. Family planning methods must be in harmony with personaland religious beliefs. He supported the proposal in the outlineto integrate the issue of human rights in the formulation ofpopulation policies and programmes. He called for exploration andmaximization of the issue of return migration as a channel forthe transfer of technology to the migrants' countries of origin.


The representative from UNIDO mentioned that thetransition from an agrarian to an industrial economy is animportant measure for combatting poverty. UNIDO described anumber of its programmes related to the ICPD, including women inindustry and support for rural and small-scale industries.


The UNESCO representative, Zofia Olszowski, notedthat, together with UNICEF and UNFPA, UNESCO is convening a"Summit" of nine highly populated countries (Bangladesh, Brazil,China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan) inNew Delhi on 13-16 December 1993. The meeting is a step towardsthe achievement of universal primary education together withcombatting the population explosion and underdevelopment.


Regarding the annotated outline, Iran pointed outthe following: the outline lacks adequate focus on development;to have a balanced text the principles should address concerns ofdeveloping states while recognizing religious, cultural and otherdiversity; the sections on financial resources and technologytransfer need to be strengthened; illegality of abortion is not abarrier to reproductive health; undocumented migrants andrefugees must be addressed; international aid for capacitybuilding is needed; there should be no conditionality on aid;specific commitments regarding financial resources are needed;and implementation must be monitored.


The delegate stressed the fact that populationissues cannot be treated in isolation, but in conjunction withdevelopment. The final document needs more input from States andshould address the availability of resources to support theefforts of developing countries with regard to populationpolicies and programmes.


The delegate said that the success of theConference is in having a universal message that is applicable todifferent countries and cultures. The Conference needs to assesscosts and mechanisms for implementing recommendations and goals.Population problems should not be dealt within a North-Southcontext. Population and development issues in countries witheconomies in transition deserve more consideration.


The delegate mentioned the increase in thenumber of people living in poverty and the impact of sustainableeconomic development on population. The population policies indeveloping countries will only work in an enabling economicenvironment that includes a solution to the debt crisis andprovision of funds.


The delegate mentioned that humans are at thecenter of development and that there is a need to integratepopulation concerns with sustainable development. He cited thepainful process of transition in Eastern Europe and mentionedthat investment in the region will improve the stability of thewhole continent. Countries in transition should be the first toqualify for aid in Europe. He expressed hope that the populationproblems in transitional countries will be duly reflected in thedocument.


Walter Balzan noted the emphasis in the annotatedoutline on the issues of poverty, unemployment and indebtedness,as well as gender equality and empowerment of women. He stressedthe importance of issues related to the aged and said thateducation is crucial, particularly with regard tosexually-transmitted diseases.


The observer from the Holy See noted that in thepreamble and principles section the recognition of the rights anddignity of the human person should be stated clearly as a premisethat guides all subsequent statements and proposals. In Part Two,Choices and Responsibilities, he said the document should havestronger links between population and the problems of sustainabledevelopment, economic growth and resource sharing. Efforts towardaddressing the problems of the aged, migrants, indigenous peoplesand the disabled must take into full consideration thefundamental dignity and inalienable rights of each person. TheHoly See, noting references in the document to "unsafe abortion,"reiterated its opposition to abortion as a method of familyplanning. He said that while the document calls for the use ofcontraceptive devices, no mention is made of natural familyplanning. He went on to say that reference to the "plurality offamily forms," in accommodation to new social trends orexperiments, could weaken national laws and policies supportingthe family.


Amb. Jamsheed Marker said that the decisions atCairo should be action-oriented and innovative, reflecting theevolution of the population debate from the Bucharest and MexicoConferences. Population programmes must be fully integrated withother aspects of socio- economic development. Pakistan believesthat a short list of principles drafted on the basis of existingconsensus language would provide an appropriate framework for thePlan of Action. The principles should include recognition of thesovereign right of each country to establish its own populationpolicies and programmes. The final document should include achapter on the protection of vulnerable groups, particularlywomen and children, in times of disaster, civil unrest and war.In addition, the "development obstacles" that affect a country'sability to achieve balanced growth should be stressed.


: The delegate from Benin said that any policies thatforce population stabilization are against the natural laws ofcouples to decide the number and spacing of children. Beninfavors the merging of chapters and sections in the outline tomake the document more harmonious, integrated and comprehensive.


The delegate from Tanzania mentioned the need toaddress population-related issues such as food production, thepressure for provision of more jobs, shelter, education, healthservices and other social services, as well as the impact ofpopulation growth on the environment. National populationpolicies and programmes can only be implemented with a heavyinvestment in both human and financial resources, and supportfrom the international community is required.


Suchada Kulawat offered the following commentson the annotated outline: the format should reflect clear,action-oriented proposals; the issues of the means ofimplementation should not be separated from the basis for action,objectives and recommendations; HIV/AIDS needs to be addressedmore specifically in the document; the section on family planningshould include reference to the promotion of male participation;and the 20-year goals should include reduction of infantmortality levels, universal access to family planning informationand services, and universal access to primary and secondary leveleducation. On the issue of money, the concept of globalpartnership in the area of population and development should gobeyond aid and involve shared responsibilities at all levels.Follow-up should include institutional arrangements. Thailandalso supports the full participation of NGOs.


The delegate from Zimbabwe made the followingpoints with regard to the annotated outline: the need for new andadditional financial resources should be more explicit; regardinggender equality and empowerment of women, the focus should be onthe full integration of women into development, not justpopulation; and the document should mention the minimum legal ageof consent. In the chapter on the family there is a need tomention vulnerabilities such as drug and alcohol abuse. Theproblems relating to the high proportion of youth in thepopulation of some countries must also be addressed. Finally,there is an overlap between the chapters on reproductive health(VII) and health and mortality (VIII).


Ahmed Yousif Mohamed mentioned that in the nineyears since the Mexico City Conference there are still highmortality rates and steps should be taken to tackle this problem.The Cairo document should focus on population issues, as there isa Women's Conference in 1995 to deal with gender issues. He alsostressed: the need for an economic climate conducive todevelopment; eradication of poverty cannot take place withoutaid; and new and additional financial resources are necessary toimplement the programme of action.


Amb. Byung Yong Soh said that population mattersshould be at the center of the preparatory process. Therecommendations for action should be forward-looking, operationaland pragmatic. The goals should be feasible and a workable planof action should be established to attain them. He suggested thatChapter III be reorganized to have two sections: one onPopulation and Sustained Economic Growth and one on Population,Sustainable Development and Environment. He also stressed theneed for better interagency cooperation on population issues.


Billie Miller of the NGO Planning Committee for the ICPD gave abrief presentation on NGO preparations for Cairo. She said thatthe NGO Planning Committee disseminated the annotated outline to1500 NGOs. The ICPD and the NGO Forum are two sides of the samecoin -- the policies endorsed at the ICPD will be incompletewithout the participation of the NGO community. Approximately10,000 NGOs are expected at the NGO Forum. She urged governmentsto include NGO representatives on their official delegations atPrepCom III and the Conference. She closed by asking governmentsto provide financial support for the NGO Forum and invited everydelegate to attend.


Now that the Second Committee's debate on the InternationalConference on Population and Development has come to a close, thenext step begins. Delegates will soon meet in informal sessionsto negotiate a resolution that will likely endorse ECOSOCresolution 1993/76, elevate the status of the ICPD PreparatoryCommittee to a subsidiary body of the General Assembly, anddetermine the 1994 budgetary implications for the PreparatoryCommittee and the Conference. The resolution will be proceduralin nature. This resolution is expected to be adopted by theSecond Committee in mid-December and then forwarded to thePlenary for adoption before the General Assembly concludes forthe year.