Summary report, 8–12 December 2003

Pan-African Implementation and Partnership Conference on Water

The UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) at its eleventh session (CSD-11) invited the United Nations Regional Commissions to consider organizing regional implementation meetings to contribute to the work of the CSD. In response to this invitation, the UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) incorporated consideration of the CSD agenda in its deliberations at the Pan-African Implementation and Partnership Conference on Water, which met from 8-12 December 2003, at ECA headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

The Conference brought together approximately 1,000 delegates and 45 water and environment ministers representing countries throughout the African continent, intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other key stakeholders to address the implication of the outcomes of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) on regional water initiatives and the continent’s role in implementing the Summit’s outcomes. The Conference also provided a platform for African countries, the international community and UN agencies to reaffirm their commitment to solving Africa’s water crisis and to collectively implement the actions envisaged in the African Water Vision, the Water Agenda of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), the WSSD’s targets and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on water. These targets include halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and without access to basic sanitation by 2015 and developing integrated water resource management (IWRM) and water efficiency plans by 2005. The outcome of this meeting will be transmitted to the UN Secretary-General to contribute to the preparations for CSD-12.


The CSD emerged from Agenda 21, the programme of action adopted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Agenda 21 called for the creation of the CSD to ensure effective follow-up of UNCED, enhance international cooperation, and examine progress in implementing Agenda 21 at the local, national, regional and international levels. In 1992, the 47th session of the UN General Assembly (UNGA) set out, in resolution 47/191, the CSD’s terms of reference and its composition, guidelines for the participation of Major Groups, the CSD’s organization of work, its relationship with other UN bodies, and Secretariat arrangements. The CSD held its first substantive session in June 1993 and has continued to meet on an annual basis.

UNGASS-19: In June 1997, the 19th UN General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS-19), also known as "Rio+5," was held to review the implementation of Agenda 21. Negotiations produced the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 along with a five-year work programme for the CSD.

GA RESOLUTION 55/199: On 20 December 2000, the General Assembly adopted resolution 55/199 on the 10-year review of progress achieved in the implementation of the UNCED outcomes. The General Assembly decided to organize this review in 2002, which aimed to reinvigorate global commitment to sustainable development. The General Assembly accepted South Africa’s offer to host the event, which was called the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD). Among other things, the resolution stated that the tenth session of the CSD (CSD-10) would serve as the open-ended preparatory committee (PrepCom) for the Summit.

WSSD PREPARATORY PROCESS: CSD-10 held four sessions between April 2001 and June 2002. Chaired by Emil Salim (Indonesia), the PrepCom conducted a comprehensive review and assessment of progress achieved in the implementation of Agenda 21. By the conclusion of PrepCom IV, held in Bali, Indonesia, from 27 May to 7 June 2002, a draft Plan of Implementation had been negotiated and transmitted to the Summit for completion. The Bali PrepCom also produced a non-negotiated document containing guidelines, known as the Bali Guiding Principles, for the development of voluntary partnerships – or "Type II" outcomes.

WSSD: The WSSD convened from 26 August to 4 September 2002, in Johannesburg, South Africa. The Summit adopted two main documents: the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI) and the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development. Over 200 "Type II" non-negotiated partnerships and initiatives for sustainable development aimed at implementing sustainable development goals were also launched. The JPOI is a framework for action to implement the UNCED commitments, and includes a number of new commitments. It contains chapters on poverty eradication, consumption and production, the natural resource base, globalization, health, small island developing States (SIDS), Africa, other regional initiatives, means of implementation, and an institutional framework. The JPOI also states that the implementation of Agenda 21 and the outcomes of the Summit should be effectively pursued at the regional and sub-regional levels and through the UN Regional Commissions and other institutions and bodies.

CSD-11: Convening for its first substantive session following the WSSD, the Commission held its 11th session from 28 April to 9 May 2003, at UN headquarters in New York. The session included regional implementation forums to inform delegates of initial steps undertaken in each UN region to implement WSSD outcomes. CSD-11 concluded with the adoption of the CSD’s multi-year programme of work for the period 2004-2017. The programme of work is organized as a series of two-year action-oriented implementation cycles, with a review session and a policy session in each cycle. Each two-year cycle is expected to consider a thematic cluster of issues and a suite of cross-cutting issues, with the upcoming 2004-2005 cycle focusing on water, sanitation, and human settlements. Cross-cutting issues include: poverty eradication; changing unsustainable patterns of production and consumption; protecting and managing the natural resource base of economic and social development; sustainable development in a globalizing world; health and sustainable development; sustainable development of SIDS; sustainable development for Africa; other regional initiatives; means of implementation; the institutional framework for sustainable development; gender equity; and education.

CSD-11 also invited the UN Regional Commissions to consider organizing regional implementation forums to: contribute to sustainable development implementation at the regional level; focus on the thematic cluster of issues; and provide input to the Secretary-General’s report, including identifying obstacles and constraints, new challenges and opportunities for implementation.

Following the adjournment of CSD-11, CSD-12 held its first session to elect its Bureau. Børge Brende, Norway’s Environment Minister, was elected Chair of CSD-12 by acclamation. Other CSD-12 Bureau members include: Bruno Stagno Ugarte (Costa Rica), Toru Shimuzu (Japan), Bolus Paul Zom Lolo (Nigeria) and Eva Tomic (Slovenia).

MEETINGS OF THE CSD-12 BUREAU: To date, the CSD-12 Bureau has met three times: 10-11 September 2003 in Oslo, Norway; 3 October 2003 in New York; and 18 November 2003 in New York. During these meetings, the Bureau has been briefed on the state of preparation of CSD-12 documentation and the preparations for and outcomes of the regional implementation meetings, among other issues. At its third meeting, the Bureau reaffirmed that CSD-12 will address the thematic issues in an integrated manner, including the inter-linkages between the thematic cluster and the cross-cutting issues and the inter-linkages among the issues of water and sanitation and human settlements.

WEST ASIA REGIONAL IMPLEMENTATION MEETING: Hosted by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA), the CSD Regional Implementation Meeting for West Asia convened from 19-21 October 2003 in Cairo, Egypt. The meeting was held within the ambit of the Joint Committee on Environment and Development in the Arab Region, a committee composed of representatives from ESCWA, the Technical Secretariat of the Council of Arab Ministers Responsible for the Environment, the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), and the Regional Office for Western Asia of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Participants adopted 10 decisions on, inter alia: follow-up measures to the WSSD outcomes and the Arab Initiative for Sustainable Development; follow-up activities to the Abu Dhabi Declaration on the future of the Arab Environment Programme; a work programme for the environment up to 2005; priorities and achievements in the field of sustainable development; incentives to the private sector to invest in environmental projects; and the establishment of an Arab environment fund. A consolidated report on progress made in the areas of water, sanitation and human settlements in the region will be transmitted to CSD-12.

ASIA AND PACIFIC REGIONAL IMPLEMENTATION MEETING: This meeting, convened in Bangkok, Thailand from 27-28 October 2003, was jointly organized by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and DESA, in collaboration with the UN Development Programme (UNDP). Participants reviewed the state of implementation concerning CSD-12’s thematic cluster of water, sanitation and human settlements in the region. In addition to panel presentations and multi-stakeholder discussions, three break-out sessions focused on experiences in the Asia, Central Asia and Pacific regions. The outcome of this meeting will be transmitted to the preparations for CSD-12.


The Pan-African Implementation and Partnership Conference on Water commenced on Monday morning, 8 December 2003. Following an opening Plenary, delegates met in thematic sessions for two days to discuss: water, sanitation and human settlements; water and food security; protecting ecosystems and livelihoods; water and climate; financing water infrastructure; integrated water resources management (IWRM); water allocation; water wisdom; and water governance.

On Wednesday, 10 December, delegates met in multi-stakeholder sessions to discuss: achieving the Millennium Development Goals and targets agreed upon at the World Summit on Sustainable Development; the Africa-EU Water Partnership; the Third World Water Forum; and water and gender. A special session on African inputs to CSD-12 also met in a parallel session.

A high-level ministerial segment took place from Thursday, 11 December, to Friday, 12 December, for African ministers and other senior officials to consider outcomes from the thematic and multi-stakeholder sessions and Africa’s inputs to CSD-12. The following report summarizes the issues discussed at the Conference.


On Monday morning, Halifa Omar Drammen, Conference Steering Committee Chair, welcomed delegates, noting the Conference’s importance in bringing together numerous UN agencies, scientists, experts and senior government officials from the region to address the critical issue of water management. Kewai Amoako, ECA Executive Secretary, stressed the need to start implementing water-related goals and called for new partnerships. Alhaji Muktari Shagari, Nigerian Water Resources Minister and Chair of the African Ministers’ Council on Water (AMCOW), stressed the need to review IWRM strategies, address the continent’s water and sanitation problems, and effectively implement the goals set by the NEPAD Water Agenda, the MDGs, and the WSSD. Shiferaw Jarso, Ethiopian Water Resources Minister, noted that the WSSD goals could only be achieved with the support of multilateral, bilateral and government agencies. Anna Tibaijuka, UN-HABITAT Executive Director, announced the launch of the second phase of UN-HABITAT’s Water for African Cities programme.

Mahmoud Abu-Zeid, Egyptian Minister of Water Resources and Irrigation, underlined the low proportion of irrigated lands and the lack of joint river management in Africa, and suggested that action be taken in a number of areas, including: experience exchange; financial and technical support; joint river basin management; and capacity building. Wiseman Nkuhlu, NEPAD Steering Committee Chair, called for the creation of a common African agenda and increased contributions to the African Water Facility (AWF).

Philibert Afrika, Director of the African Development Bank (ADB), stressed the importance of private sector investment and cooperation between all stakeholders, noting a strategic agricultural water study carried out in collaboration with the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the World Bank. Michel Jarraud, World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Secretary-General, noted the lack of infrastructure and capacity to assess water needs and resources in Africa, but highlighted WMO’s efforts regarding surveillance and planning and improved regional cooperation. Per Engebak, United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), called for renewed commitment to water resources and sanitation. Werner Burkhart, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Deputy Director-General, noted the IAEA’s contribution to water resource management through technical projects and stressed the importance of institutional capacity and local ownership of IAEA activities.

Through a video message, Børge Brende, Norwegian Minister of Environment and CSD-12 Chair, stressed the role of regional conferences to reach WSSD targets and the importance of addressing the three areas of the current CSD cycle – water, sanitation and human settlements. Albert Diphoorn, on behalf of Prince Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands, underlined the Dutch commitment to global water issues through, inter alia, the Netherlands Water Partnership.

Dawit Johannes, Speaker of the Ethiopian House of Parliament, stated that reaching the MDG and WSSD targets on water will help eradicate poverty and achieve sustainable development in Africa. He then declared the Conference officially open.


On Monday, 8 December, and Tuesday, 9 December, delegates met in nine thematic sessions. The Earth Negotiations Bulletin covered the sessions on: water, sanitation and human settlements; protecting ecosystems and livelihoods; and financing water infrastructure. Coverage of the sessions on water and food security, water and climatic risks, IWRM, water allocation, water wisdom, and water governance was limited to Plenary summaries. Recommendations for ministerial consideration were formulated in the thematic sessions and were presented in an evening Plenary session on Tuesday, 9 December.

WATER, SANITATION AND HUMAN SETTLEMENTS: Albert Wright, Millennium Project Task Force on Water and Sanitation Coordinator, chaired the session on water, sanitation and human settlements, noting the time-bound MDGs, particularly the target on reducing by half the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015.

Ronnie Kasrils, South African Minister for Water Affairs and Forestry, stressed the need to strengthen partnerships and leadership in meeting the MDGs, particularly at the local government level. He also stressed the need to invest in capacity building, human resources and infrastructure. Philibert Afrika, ADBnoted that the Bank has invested US$3 billion in water and sanitation projects, adding that partnerships among donors, stakeholders and governments are essential in meeting the MDGs on water and sanitation.

Piers Cross, World Bank Water and Sanitation Programme, stressed the importance of working with African governments to improve leadership in the water and sanitation sector and the need to promote small-scale entrepreneurship. He added that capacity building and investment are essential to meeting the MDGs. Kalyan Ray, UN-HABITAT, said global water goals will only be met through local action and governments need to shift from a needs-based approach to a rights-based approach in improving water security for the poor. He added that more investment will be necessary to meet the MDGs. Per Engebak, UNICEF, noted his agency’s long commitment to water and sanitation, with special attention given to improving children’s health. He stressed the need for cost-effective technology at the community level and support to maintain local systems.

In an ensuing discussion, several delegates called for African countries to develop water policies and institutions based on self-reliance, with high priority given to drinking water supplies. One delegate noted that human settlements are a key part of the integrated approach to water and sanitation, while another emphasized the need to push the water agenda in other fora, such as in the health, education and industrial sectors. On capacity building at the community level, one delegate stressed the need to include youth and women.

The group then divided into two sub-sessions, one on urban- and the other on rural-related issues (The Earth Negotiations Bulletin was limited to coverage of the urban sub-session).

André Dzikus, UN-HABITAT, chaired a panel discussion on urban water demand management (WDM). Michael Singh, South African Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, said that WDM can improve the cost recovery of water supply and institutions can maximize the use of existing water resources and existing infrastructure to postpone the need for new dams and infrastructure, such as treatment plants, reservoirs and water delivery pipes. He noted the need to, inter alia: develop national WDM strategies; establish more comprehensive regional WDM programmes; increase the profile of WDM in inter-basin studies; and increase funding opportunities for WDM programmes.

Abebe Bellete, Addis Ababa Water and Sewage Authority, noted the city’s efforts to improve water efficiency in urban areas by developing WDM and conservation strategies, improving capacity building in detecting leaks, and promoting WDM in existing and planned water projects. Daniel Adom, Ghana Water Resources Commission, highlighted a WDM pilot project conducted at the University of Ghana to assess water consumption and defective fixtures and pipes. He said similar WDM activities would be replicated on a citywide basis.

Cees van de Guchte, UNEP, chaired a panel discussion on wastewater and sanitation. Graham Alabaster, UN-HABITAT, presented on municipal wastewater treatment and land-based sources of pollution, calling for more focus on promoting sustainable technologies for wastewater treatment, such as efforts to reuse wastewater, develop low-cost assessment methodologies, and involve local communities in managing catchments. Micheni Ntiba, Nairobi University, presented on the Nairobi Convention, which addresses land-based activities in the Western Indian Ocean. He said the Convention aims to reduce stress to the ecosystem by improving water and sediment quality, and to strengthen the regional legal basis for preventing land-based sources of pollution. Bonaventura Baya, Tanzanian National Environment Management Council, presented on a pilot project that constructs wetlands to prevent marine pollution. He said constructed wetlands serve as low-cost and low-maintenance wastewater treatment systems that can be used throughout Africa.

Manda Hinsch, South African Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, spoke on the impact urban settlements have on water resources, particularly fast growing informal urban areas. She said communities need to take ownership of their own systems, but ongoing support from governments is needed. Meera Mehta, World Bank Water and Sanitation Programme, spoke on financial challenges to improve water and sanitation services, citing the need to double aid, leverage additional resources and reform the governance of that sector.

On Tuesday, 9 December, Daniel Adom, Ghana Water Resources Commission, presented recommendations on urban water supply and sanitation in Plenary. Recommendations for ministerial consideration include:

  • ensuring that the poor have access to sanitation facilities and efficient sanitation services;
  • providing water and sanitation facilities for schools;
  • adopting partnership approaches and developing innovative financial mechanisms to mobilize funds;
  • mainstreaming WDM in water policies and planning processes;
  • developing regulatory frameworks to ensure water service providers are accountable for their performance;
  • initiating a national water awareness programme in all major African cities; and
  • introducing value-based water education activities for teachers.

Hans Spruijt, UNICEF, presented recommendations on rural water supply and sanitation, including the need to:

  • undertake a sector re-assessment to carry out reforms and prepare country action plans for attaining MDGs;
  • integrate water supplies, sanitation and hygiene education at all levels;
  • encourage inter-sectorial collaboration;
  • recognize stakeholder participation in the prevention of diseases; and
  • privatize school sanitation and hygiene education.

PROTECTING ECOSYSTEMS AND LIVELIHOODS: Maria Mutagamba, Ugandan Water Resources Minister, and Eric Odada, Nairobi University, co-chaired the session on protecting ecosystems and livelihoods. Richard Robarts, UNEP, presented on improving water quality monitoring, noting that the worldwide decrease of freshwater quality is insufficiently recognized. He identified the need to: assess the current status and trends in freshwater quality; develop legislation and international agreements and assess their effectiveness; apply the "polluter pays" principle; build technical, institutional and intellectual capacity; and develop low-cost approaches for data collection.

Holger Hoff, Global Water System Project, provided a scientific background on the vulnerability of African water resources, noting: the vulnerability results from global change and human-related pressures; water and land management in Africa affect the global water system; and food and water security are closely linked. Highlighting goods and services provided by natural ecosystems and the virtual international trade of the water resources used for food production, he advocated water management through bottom-up and top-down approaches.

Margarita Pacheco-Montes, International Rainwater Harvesting Alliance, stressed that rainwater harvesting can contribute to sustainable livelihoods and ecosystem conservation, while Mesfin Shenkut, Ethiopian Rainwater Harvesting Association, stressed the need to include rainwater harvesting technologies in learning institutions’ curricula and raise awareness among decision makers, development partners and local communities.

Presenting on the vulnerability of water resources to environmental change, Hans Beekman, UNEP, said that vulnerability assessments should include water quality, climate variability, pollution, urbanization, competition for water, data availability and knowledge gaps. He stressed the importance of considering the river/lake basin perspective, the complete hydrological cycle, and all integrated components of water ma3nagement, including equity, efficiency and sustainability. He added that adaptation and mitigation require: an institutional and legislative framework; capacity building; data collection and monitoring; and technology development.

Bruce Banoeng and Daniel Nkhuwa, UNEP, presented on early warning networks for urban groundwater pollution. Noting that many African cities rely on groundwater for their drinking water, they said population growth poses threats due to increasing on-site sanitation, industrial pollution and lack of organized domestic waste disposal. Highlighting cooperation between UNEP, UN-HABITAT, the ECA and the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in establishing an early warning network, they stressed the need to assess groundwater vulnerability, identify pollution hotspots and major threats for each city, and disseminate results through an Early Warning Bulletin.

Edith Mussukuya, UNEP Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA), presented on a GEF project that seeks to develop a comprehensive assessment of environmental conditions in transboundary waters to identify priorities for action. Dan Olago, University of Nairobi, presented on four GIWA regions in Africa. He listed the threats they face: freshwater shortage; habitat and community modification; pollution; unsustainable exploitation of fisheries and other living resources; and global change. He also discussed policy options, such as fishing quotas, civic education, awareness raising and enforcement of standards.

Sarah Humphrey, World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Africa, stressed the importance of political will, integrated management and environmental dialogue. Patrick Dugan, WorldFish Center, presented on managing African river fisheries and improving water productivity. He explained that all aspects of flood dynamics must be examined to improve fisheries productivity and called for good governance and enhanced information exchange. Robert Munro, Xxcel Africa, stressed the link between improved sanitation and ecosystem protection.

In Plenary on Tuesday, 9 December, Eric Odada, Nairobi University, presented recommendations for ministerial consideration, including the need to: accelerate technical support and capacity building for water monitoring and assessment; prioritize equitable use and sustainable management with harmonized water quality standards; adopt annual national strategic plans and budgets on safe water and sanitation to achieve the 2015 WSSD target; and involve stakeholders and civic society in decision making and implementation to achieve effective water management.

FINANCING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE: Salif Diallo, Burkina Faso’s Minister of Agriculture and Water Resources, and Albert Diphoorn, ADB, co-chaired the session. Shebu Yahaya, ADB, presented on the AWF, which he said increases access to funding for water projects and improves efficiency in the use of financing through capacity building and technical assistance. He outlined the AWF’s medium-term Action Plan through 2008, which focuses on providing grants to support strategic water infrastructure programmes. Delegates discussed future funding and key areas for the Facility’s projects and programmes.

David Grey, World Bank, presented on water resources in relation to Africa’s economic performance, noting that severe climate variability and the management of transboundary rivers are major challenges facing Africa. He emphasized the link between rainfall and gross domestic product (GDP) and noted that extreme climatic events lead to rational risk-adverse behavior that reduces investment. Highlighting the high number of shared rivers, Grey stressed the benefits of international cooperation and noted that investment in infrastructure should ensure a minimum platform for water security. Following his presentation, delegates discussed alternative livelihoods, the relationship between rainfall and GDP, and long-term river basin planning, including dams.

Bill Cosgrove, World Water Council (WWC), presented on follow-up actions to recommendations from the Camdessus Panel report on financing for the water sector, particularly for Africa. He said international financial institutions were requested to put water higher on their agenda, and consequently the Group of Eight Industrialized Countries (G-8) requested the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank to examine how to provide improved water funding. He also stressed the importance of financial sustainability of water sector funding and noted that Africans must be involved at all levels to ensure the AWF’s success. Following the presentation, delegates discussed access to ADB funds, the importance of local involvement in financial decisions, and countries’ financial self-sufficiency.

John Wasielewski, United States Agency for International Development (USAID), presented on USAID’s Development Credit Authority, which seeks to mobilize private capital to finance development initiatives and demonstrates the economic viability of investments in the local banking sector and other private capital sources. He noted that the guarantee programme provides financial institutions with up to 50% coverage on the loan amount. Delegates discussed lack of access to funds, the importance of involving national and local governments in decisions regarding loan provisions, and accessing locally available money.

Cees van de Guchte, UNEP, presented on financing wastewater collection and treatment, stressing that sanitation is not limited to "taps and toilets" since it interrelates with other sectors. He underlined the need for integrated policy packages that include legislation, economic instruments and institutional set-ups. Meike van Ginneken, World Bank, presented on innovative financing mechanisms, focusing on water supply. She noted that private investment for water projects is low in Africa due to limited cost recovery. She added that cost recovery is essential for public utilities, and "needs" should be translated into "effective demand."

Stephen Turner, Water Aid, presented on financing water for the poorest, investigating why the poorest often lack access to water and sanitation. He focused on resolving land tenure issues, recognizing community assets, designing cross-subsidies, and prioritizing equity in monitoring and planning. Bertraud Charrier, Green Cross International, stressed that viable water projects should be elaborated in terms of their social, financial, technical and ecological dimensions, and that local authorities need to be involved.

Adrian Gauci, ECA, presented on water privatization and equity in Sub-Saharan Africa, noting that water should be considered a productive asset that reduces risk-adverse behavior and poverty. He stated that although it is meant to increase efficiency, privatization in the water sector does not necessarily lead to reform. He added that the rationale to privatize should be revised according to cost-benefit analyses, and that people’s vulnerability and regulatory mechanisms should be addressed.

On Tuesday, 9 December, Meike van Ginneken, World Bank, presented the session’s recommendations in Plenary. She noted, inter alia, that: existing resources should be used more effectively and reach the poor; donor financing is crucial; local governments should be empowered; and local private capital has to be mobilized. She also stressed that governments should increase sustainable cash flows and donor countries should make incremental funding available and channel it to local initiatives.

WATER AND FOOD SECURITY: Mahmood Abu Zeid, Egyptian Minister of Water Resources and Irrigation, chaired the session on water and food security. Delegates stressed the need to strengthen the inter-connection between water and agriculture polices to ensure sector investments. Several delegates recognized the importance that large public irrigation schemes play in poverty alleviation, but added that more modern management practices are needed. There were also calls for more economic incentives for small, medium and large businesses. The session underlined the need for African countries to develop: markets; basic rural infrastructure; secure land tenure and water rights and capacity building for farmers; and effective institutional mechanisms for transboundary water management.

On Tuesday, 9 December, Douglas Merrey, International Water Management Institute, presented recommendations for ministerial consideration on water for food security, which include:

  • pursuing opportunities for innovative new technologies for agricultural water;
  • supporting innovative approaches to investment in agricultural water;
  • creating conditions that encourage investment and increase good returns to private and public investors while targeting poor people, especially women;
  • promoting agricultural water in the context of IWRM; and
  • supporting collaborative programmes for investment in agricultural water.

WATER AND CLIMATIC RISKS: In a session chaired by Kenyan Water Resources Minister Martha Karua, delegates agreed that water security requires large investments and is a prerequisite for economic growth and poverty reduction in Africa. They noted that water managers need to design strategies to cope with climatic variability, including the use of risk assessment as a decision-making tool in development planning.

On Tuesday, 9 December, William Cosgrove, WWC, reported on the recommendations on managing water and climate risks, which include the need for: multidisciplinary and regional approaches; assessment of climate change on water resources; development of warning tools for better preparedness and response; dissemination of hydrological and meteorological knowledge; increased funding; strengthened institutional capacity; and inter-agency cooperation.

INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: This session, chaired by Mohammed Sani Adamu, Lake Chad Basin Commission, addressed IWRM issues and shared water resources. Delegates highlighted the importance of: partnerships; management structures and implementation arrangements; reliable access to data for effective management and operation; and common technical tools to ensure effectiveness of management and decision making.

On Tuesday, 9 December, Ibraheem Olomoda, Niger Basin Authority, presented the session’s recommendations, noting, inter alia, that: regional economic communities should establish permanent IWRM coordination units; strong civil society organizations and private sector participation is required; scientific and technical cooperation, mechanisms for data collection, and existing river basin organizations should be strengthened; and joint management of shared water resources should be considered as basic elements of African development.

WATER ALLOCATION: Philippe Mvouo, Water Resources Minister of the Republic of Congo, chaired the session on valuing and allocating water for sustainable livelihoods. Delegates discussed: competing water uses; achieving water and energy targets; financing action for water management; improved sanitation and affordable water for poor communities; and equity issues with regard to water allocation. Alberto Calcagno, UNEP, elaborated on key water and energy issues, focusing on the need to improve planning and management of dams and their alternatives to ensure sustainable solutions. Mamadou Kane, UN Office of the African Union (AU), provided an overview of the development, planning and implementing challenges in the region, stressing the need to take into account lessons learned. Marie Elise Gbedo, Africa Women’s Network for Development, highlighted issues concerning women.

On Tuesday, 9 December, Mamadou Kane presented recommendations for ministerial consideration on valuing and allocating water, which include: developing comprehensive systems for valuing and allocating water resources; initiating policy dialogue processes on valuing and allocating water resources; promoting cooperation at the sub-regional and international river basin level; and promoting a policy dialogue for the development of water policies taking into account the needs of women and children.

WATER WISDOM: This session was chaired by Eberhard Braune, South African Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. Delegates concurred that human and institutional capacity building is key to making the African Water Vision on sustainable water management a reality and meeting the MDGs in the water sector in Africa. Such capacity-building programmes include: establishing and sustaining national and international training centers; improving the network between existing education and training resources at the national, regional and international levels; and strengthening partnerships with international training institutions, such as UNESCO’s Institute for Water Education.

On Tuesday, 9 December, Eberhard Braune presented recommendations for ministerial consideration, which include the need to: develop capacity at all levels; strengthen partnerships with international training institutes; improve monitoring and assessment programmes; find new ways to disseminate information and share knowledge; and reinforce the link between the scientific community and decision-makers and civil society.

WATER GOVERNANCE: This session was chaired by Mohamed Douihasni, Algerian Minister of Water Resources. Delegates defined good water governance as good coordination of institutions responsible for the sub-sectors involved in water management, and noted that it requires a clear-cut mandate within an institution sustained by strong political will. Delegates also agreed that financing of water governance should be based on the "polluter-pays" and "user-pays" principles, in coordination with existing self-financing mechanisms.

On Tuesday, 9 December, Cyriaque Adjinacou, Global Water Partnership, presented recommendations on governing water wisely, including that: the monitoring and evaluation system must be transparent and should integrate various sectors; stakeholders need to be identified to ensure participation; and adequate financial resources, including social and private capital, need to be mobilized.


On Wednesday, 10 December, delegates met in a session, chaired by Francis Babu, Ugandan Minister of Housing, to review African regional implementation for CSD-12. Recalling that CSD-12 will address water, sanitation and human settlements, Josue Dione, ECA, said the Conference report should be in line with the WSSD targets on these themes. He called for: integrated river basin management; regular monitoring and assessment; strengthening local and national capacity in addressing the challenges posed by urbanization; adequate shelter; and basic services. He added that the review will focus on progress achieved since the last CSD report, and constraints, obstacles and successes in implementation.

Noting that Africa has the world’s fastest urbanization rate, Alioune Badiane, UN-HABITAT, said greater attention should be given to evaluating Africa’s development agenda, especially regarding housing for all citizens. He called for: eliminating ghettos in Africa; addressing land-use planning and management; improving infrastructure and equipment, especially in disaster areas; and improving information gathering and monitoring.

Sekou Toure, UNEP Regional Office for Africa, noted progress made in mobilizing political will and involving civic society in Africa on issues of water, sanitation and human settlements. He underscored the link between poverty eradication and environmental protection, stressing the need to adopt human-centered measures.

André Dzikus, UN-HABITAT, identified five key policy challenges: urbanization and feminization of poverty; translating global goals into local action; access to water and sanitation as basic human rights; sector reforms; and enhancing pro-poor investments. Underlining the rapid growth of urban low-income settlements, he gave examples of cases where people in developing countries actually pay more for water in real terms than people in developed countries do, and said access to water needs to be distinguished from adequate provision since sources are often not sufficient in urban areas. Calling for an effective mechanism to monitor local implementation, he stressed a needs-based rather than a rights-based approach and international support through enhanced official development assistance focused on the poorest.

Bulus Paul Lolo, CSD, recalled the Commission’s mandate to evaluate progress, promote Agenda 21 and adopt a work programme focusing on limited thematic issues, while recognizing linkages and identifying priorities. He stressed that water, sanitation and human settlements are key to achieving sustainable development and identified the following priority actions: developing IWRM plans; raising awareness of the issues; and applying locally adapted solutions.

Toure presented a draft paper on the environmental components of water, sanitation and human settlements, underscoring that the environmental dimension of sustainable development is encapsulated in major global instruments, declarations and mandates. He said delegates should address policy measures to increase water efficiency for industries, agriculture and households, and stressed data gaps, poor management and the need for more assessment and accountability.


On Wednesday, 10 December, delegates met in six multi-stakeholder sessions. The Earth Negotiations Bulletin covered the sessions on: achieving MDGs and WSSD targets; the Africa-EU Strategic Partnership on Water and Sanitation; the World Water Fora; and water and gender. The International Flood Network and outcomes from the Water for the Poorest Conference were not covered.

ACHIEVING MDGS AND WSSD TARGETS: Session Chair Robert Munro, Xxcel Africa, stressed the need to close the gap between rhetoric and practice in achieving the MDG and WSSD targets. He presented tables on water supply and sanitation coverage showing the number of additional people to be served each year until 2015 to achieve the WSSD target. Munro noted that the required increase in coverage is raised by 20% annually, starting with smaller numbers to encourage governments to take action early. One delegate said that achieving the targets requires a massive increase of infrastructure, while another stressed the need for country leadership and ownership of national plans and pointed to action already taking place within some African governments.

Albert Wright, African Water Task Force, presented on Africa and the MDGs for water and sanitation, noting the Task Force’s role in identifying strategies to achieve the MDGs. He stressed the need to: empower the poor; increase capacity building and direct investment; ensure funding for initial investment and operation and maintenance; and establish an independent authoritative group to assess progress towards the MDGs.

Delegates noted that the Task Force’s strategy should recognize countries’ different needs to achieve MDGs and that information on African best practices should be disseminated. Delegates recommended that countries set up national task forces in 2004 and submit national plans in 2005 with strategies to achieve targets and indicative figures for annual service delivery targets until 2015. They also recommended that ministers should ensure water issues are high on the national agenda.

AFRICA-EU STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP ON WATER AND SANITATION: Session Chair André Liebaert, European Commission (EC) introduced the Africa-European Union (EU) Strategic Partnership on water and sanitation and its draft strategy and work programme for 2004-2005. Oumar Ndiaye, Senegalese Ministry of Agriculture and Water, highlighted the recent AMCOW Technical Committee consultation on the Partnership’s implementation, which established working groups on water and sanitation, IWRM and financing.

Johan Holmberg, EC, elaborated on the draft strategy and work programme, recalling the Partnership’s goals to, inter alia: reinforce political will and commitment to action; promote improved water governance, capacity building and awareness; and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of water management through multi-stakeholder dialogues and coordination. He noted that the partnership is a component of the EU Water Initiative and elaborated on the Initiative’s programmatic objectives, which include: increasing prioritization for investment in water and sanitation for the poor; initiating a programme to support transboundary IWRM; initiating national processes for IWRM; strengthening underlying institutions; building capacity; enhancing funding mechanisms for IWRM; improving coordination between IWRM actors; and improving the use of existing and new scientific knowledge regarding IWRM. Holmberg said working groups had been established on water and sanitation, IWRM and transboundary basins, and cross-cutting themes, including finance, research and monitoring, and expressed hope that the strategy and work programme would be completed before CSD-12.

Zissimos Vergos, EC, introduced a website recently launched on the EU Water Initiative’s research component. Mogens Bregnbæk, Danish Foreign Affairs Ministry, elaborated on the African Water and Sanitation component of the EU Water Initiative. Stressing the need to move the process from Europe to Africa, he noted that funding presently reaches only a limited number of countries.

Following the presentations, delegates discussed, inter alia: effectively using the national capacity, expertise and internal financing mechanisms of African countries; supporting African-led initiatives; raising awareness through a website on the Africa-EU Partnership; and increasing multi-stakeholder participation.

WORLD WATER FORA: Session Chair William Cosgrove, WWC, noted that water issues would feature prominently on the CSD-12 and CSD-13 agendas, and underscored the importance of completing the work of the Water Task Force on MDGs before the Fourth World Water Forum (WWF-4), scheduled to take place in Mexico from 22-27 March 2006. Masato Toyama, Third World Water Forum (WWF-3), introduced the Portfolio of Water Actions website network and the establishment of the Japan Water Forum, which will facilitate networking and coordination on water issues. Daniel Adom, Ghana Water Resources Commission, outlined recommendations formulated on Africa Day, which took place during WWF-3. Recommendations include: preparing a common African regional strategy for the management and development of the continent’s water resources at the national and transboundary levels; preparing IWRM and water efficiency plans by 2005; supporting capacity-building efforts to ensure the sustainability of water sector investments; enhancing awareness of the MDGs and WSSD targets; and supporting the AWF.

In an ensuing discussion, one delegate noted that WWF-3 raised the profile of water issues, while another said that CSD-12 is a unique opportunity to keep water on the international agenda prior to WWF-4.

WATER AND GENDER: Abby Mgugu, Southern African Development Community (SADC) Regional Coordinator for Women’s Land and Water Rights, chaired a session on water and gender. Mildred Mkandla, EarthCare, presented on a rainwater harvesting pilot project in Kenya, which seeks to empower women to own, control and manage their water resources. Delegates underlined the critical role women in developing countries play in the management of water resources, particularly at the household level, while often lacking access to land and financial resources to participate in the decision-making process. The session concluded that gender concerns need to be taken into account in terms of policy formulation, resource allocation, development of technology and training programmes, and management of facilities. They also stressed the need to recognize and promote indigenous knowledge systems and to develop information systems that are gender disaggregated and easily accessible at all levels.


On Thursday, 11 December, Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi officially opened the ministerial segment. Stressing that Africa critically depends on the efficient use of its water resources, he said the continent has to increase its irrigated land area. He also called for mobilizing political will to address the challenges of unbalanced spatial water distribution and transboundary water resources, but also stressed that Africa requires technical and financial support from the international community.

Jose Dione, ECA, acknowledged the Conference’s high level of participation, which he said reflected the clear political support and commitment of all stakeholders for action on water issues in Africa. He called for enhanced focus on, and funding for, implementation programmes and projects.

Shiteraw Jarso, Ethiopian Minister of Water Resources, stated that many African countries will be unable to fulfill their global commitments on water without further donor support and called on ministers to take immediate action at the national, sub-regional and regional levels. Alhaji Muktari Shagari, AMCOW Chair, noted that water is a scarce resource in Africa, unequally distributed and inadequately managed and stated that Africa must develop effective IWRM procedures at all levels and strengthen international cooperation to ensure peace and security.

Patrick Mazimhaka, AU Commission Deputy Chair, noted current regional initiatives, urged greater political commitment for achieving the targets, and highlighted the role of NEPAD and the African Water Vision in meeting these targets. He added that the Conference’s focus on implementation and partnership arrangements is important for future initiatives and programmes. Reiterating UNEP’s commitment to Africa, Shafqat Kakakhel, on behalf of UNEP Executive Director Klaus Töpfer, identified key issues for meeting water-related MDGs and WSSD targets, including: combating water-related diseases; addressing water pollution and natural disasters; improving irrigation and hydropower generation; and ensuring equitable water sharing. Stressing that the current challenges result from policy failure, he called for concerted efforts from African governments, stakeholders and the international community.

Koos Richelle, EC Development Director-General, highlighted the Africa-EU Strategic Partnership’s goals, including: raising political commitment to address water issues; creating a platform for reinforced coordination; contributing to achieving the MDGs; and supporting the management of transboundary river basins. Stressing that sustained action requires local ownership and multi-stakeholder participation, he urged African governments to prioritize water and sanitation in their national strategies and called for a comprehensive and transparent monitoring system as a guide to best practices. Philibert Afrika, ADB, stressed the importance of cooperation, collaboration and commitments to achieve global water targets, and called for the adoption of an integrated approach, donor support and a stronger focus on water issues in rural areas.

David Grey, World Bank, highlighted the link between water and poverty and called for greater focus on agriculture and shared river basins. He noted the need for increased donor support, emphasized the importance of political will and the development of national water management plans, and warned against the lack of clarity created by the multiplicity of investments in the water sector.

Marie-Elise Gbedo, African Women’s Network for Development, presented the declaration adopted at the Network’s recent meeting in Niamey, Niger. She appealed to: governments to focus on African women’s concerns in achieving water and sanitation targets; AMCOW to include women in its policy making process; the ADB and the EU to fund projects that empower women; UN-HABITAT to focus on women in slums; and development partners to involve and train women in their projects.

Douglas Merrey, International Water Management Institute, presented the final report "WaterDome" on water-related WSSD outcomes. Efua Dzameshie, Young Volunteers for the Environment, said sustainable water management needs to be community-driven and focused on the poor, and stressed the need to: involve women and youth; improve knowledge management, including traditional knowledge; and build capacity for IWRM.


On Thursday, 11 December, William Cosgrove, WWC, chaired a Plenary session to review regional water and sanitation project portfolios. Jean Rechel Ossete, Republic of Congo’s Ministry of Water Resources, presented Central Africa’s action plan for achieving WSSD targets, which focuses on poverty reduction and the improvement of the sub-region’s socioeconomic development. Henry Kayondo Ntale, Ugandan Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment, presented the project portfolio for East Africa, which covers rural and urban water supply, sanitation, water for agricultural production, IWRM and capacity building. Mahmoud Abu-Zeid, Egyptian Minister of Water Resources and Irrigation, presented North Africa’s portfolio, stressing the region’s shortfall in agricultural production and highlighting, inter alia, the possibility of using non-conventional methods of water distribution. Omar N’diaye, Economic Community of West African States, presented on West African programmes, which seek to adopt regional integrated management plans and develop national water project portfolios. Thomas Chiramba, SADC, presented on SADC’s programme of action, highlighting challenges including implementation capacity, effective resource mobilization, and disbursement of funds.


On Thursday, 11 December, Sylvia Masebo, Zambian Ministry of Local Government and Housing, chaired a Plenary session launching several major implementation initiatives. Nicolas Drouin, Canadian International Development Agency, announced support for the NEPAD Water Agenda, the AWF, the UN-HABITAT Water for African Cities programme, and five IWRM plans throughout Africa. Cautioning against duplication of funding and implementation mechanisms, he urged donor governments to support African-led processes and seek guidance for preferred implementation modalities.

AMCOW Chair Alhaji Muktari Shagari presented on the AWF, which will be hosted by the ADB, and announced that US$620 million will be available between 2004 and 2008 to finance, inter alia: project preparation and implementation; sector reform; capacity building; information and knowledge management; and gender integration. He stressed that the AWF’s success depends on collaboration and partnerships with other initiatives.

Koos Richelle, EC Development Director-General, outlined a joint declaration on the implementation of the Africa-EU Strategic Partnership on Water. He noted that working groups had been formed on: water supply and sanitation; IWRM, including transboundary water basin management; and cross-cutting issues, including finance, research and monitoring. Richelle added that the process will develop a more detailed work programme, on which decisions will be taken by an EU ministerial meeting in May 2004. The declaration was signed in Plenary by AMCOW and the EU.

Habte Selassie, ADB, presented on the Bank’s Water and Sanitation Initiative, explaining that the initiative seeks to mobilize and facilitate the flow of financial resources for water and sanitation projects in Africa. Sylvia Masebo launched the second phase of the UN-HABITAT Water for African Cities programme, welcoming the UN General Assembly’s resolution calling on UN-HABITAT to support the programme and noting the creation of the Water for Africa Trust Fund.

Ronnie Kasrils, South African Minister for Water Affairs and Forestry, endorsed the second phase of the Water for African Cities programme. He noted the importance of information exchange, pro-poor strategies, capacity building, and synergies between actions in rural and urban areas, and emphasized the essential role of local authorities and municipalities. Jean-Marc Chataigner, French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, presented the French government’s view on the G-8 Action Plan for Africa. He identified partnerships, coordination and information gathering as key issues in water resources management and stressed the importance of local institutions, river basin organizations and capacity building. On mobilizing financial resources, he said the G-8 had called on the World Bank to take the lead and informed delegates that the Bank was to present a progress report at the next G-8 meeting.

Stressing Africa’s growing need for trained professionals, Mike Muller, South African Ministry of Water Affairs and Forestry, discussed the launching of the African Water Journal, noting its important role in facilitating the exchange of knowledge and expertise. He encouraged Africa’s water professionals to publish their scientific research. Rosebud Kurwijila, AU, presented on the AU Extraordinary Summit on Agriculture and Water, to be held in Libya in February 2004. She said the Summit aims to: take practical implementation steps using Africa’s own resources to ascertain political and economic independence; improve water and sanitation at the rural level; and establish a viable framework for regional cooperation. She added that the Summit’s expected outcomes include: the establishment of mechanisms for financing agriculture and water development and for managing and conserving water resources for agriculture; a framework for public-private partnerships; and a decision on the adoption of the African Water Vision.


On Friday, 12 December, delegates met in a final Plenary session to consider the African ministerial commitments on implementation and partnerships for achieving water and sanitation targets, and the report of the African regional implementation review for CSD-12.

Halifa Omar Drammen, Conference Steering Committee, introduced, and delegates noted, the ministerial commitments, which focus on achievements regarding the implementation and funding requirements for regional initiatives and international targets for Africa’s water sector. Delegates endorsed the water-related MDGs, welcomed the active participation of civil society, and formulated follow-up activities for 2004, including: establishing National Task Forces on Water and Sanitation; conducting negotiations with development cooperation partners and UN agencies; and using the Conference’s commitments and recommendations as a basis for developing a common African approach before and after CSD-12. The ministers underscored the need for sustained implementation efforts and prioritized expanding new partnerships.

Francis Babu, Ugandan Minister of Housing, presented on the ministerial session’s recommendations for CSD-12. They include:

  • translating international commitments into national policies;
  • increasing budget allocations to water, sanitation and human settlements for the poor;
  • utilizing IWRM;
  • implementing catchment conservation and water demand management;
  • initiating devolution of IWRM to catchment-based institutions;
  • empowering local governments and enhancing their capacity;
  • investing in monitoring, assessment and information systems;
  • promoting water, sanitation and shelter as basic needs and fundamental human rights;
  • using urban indicators efficiently in human settlements management;
  • mainstreaming gender and youth in the provision of water, sanitation, and human settlements;
  • enforcing corporate responsibility for environmental protection;
  • adopting best practices on technological innovations;
  • calling on development partners to meet their commitments and on the international community to fully implement debt swaps to support water, sanitation and housing projects;
  • requesting the international community to support the Global Shelter Assistance Facility and to increase support for NEPAD;
  • adopting and operationalizing partnerships at all levels;
  • addressing water and sanitation within the framework of sustainable human settlement planning and management; and
  • mainstreaming disaster management into water, sanitation and human settlement management.

Babu also outlined the linkages between water, sanitation and human settlements recognized at the meeting, including: rapid urbanization and the prevalence of slums; associated infrastructure development; decentralization in basic services provision; capacity building to support decentralization; and the need for integrated country teams involving key ministries such as finance and economic planning, housing, local government and water.

Ton Boon van Ochssee, Dutch Foreign Ministry, delivered a statement on behalf of Prince Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands, stressing that water management is crucial to reduce poverty and secure health and food security, and that concrete action is still needed, particularly in the fields of education, training and financing. He also emphasized the importance of integrated management, particularly at the river basin level.

Mesfin Tegene, Ethiopian Vice-Minister of Water and Resources, emphasized that the continent suffers from rapid urbanization, diseases and environmental degradation, and that urgent action is needed to ensure that all Africans have access to safe water and sanitation. He expressed hope that the conference would result in a strong commitment by African governments to meet global water targets. The meeting came to a close at 3:45 pm.


ECE CSD REGIONAL IMPLEMENTATION MEETING: This Regional Implementation Meeting, hosted by the UN Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) in preparation for CSD-12, will convene on 15-16 January 2004, in Geneva. For more information, contact: UN Division for Sustainable Development; tel: +1-212-963-2803; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail:; Internet:

INTER-REGIONAL PREPARATORY MEETING FOR THE REVIEW OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE BARBADOS PROGRAMME OF ACTION: An inter-regional preparatory meeting for Barbados +10 will take place in Nassau, Bahamas, from 26-30 January 2004. For more information, contact: Diane Quarless, UN SIDS Unit; tel: +1-212-963-4135 fax: +1-917-367-3391; e-mail:; Internet:

AFRICAN UNION EXTRAORDINARY SUMMIT ON AGRICULTURE AND WATER: This Summit, which will culminate in the adoption of the Africa Water Vision, among other things, is scheduled to take place in Libya in February 2004. For more information, contact, Rosebud Kurwijila, African Union, tel: +251-1-517700 ext 148; fax: +251-1-525835; e-mail:; Internet:

FOURTH DELHI SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUMMIT 2004: This Summit, an annual international event organized by The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), will be held from 4-7 February 2004, in New Delhi, India. The 2004 Summit will focus on analyzing and assessing innovative partnerships post-WSSD. For more information, contact: Summit Secretariat, TERI; tel: +91-11-2468-2138; fax: +91-11-2468-2144; e-mail:; Internet:

INTERNATIONAL FORUM ON PARTNERSHIPS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: This Forum, organized by the Italian Ministry for the Environment in cooperation with DESA, will convene from 4-6 March 2004, in Rome, Italy. For more information, contact: Gloria Visconti, Italian Ministry for the Environment and Territory; tel: +39-6-5722-8121; fax: +39-6-5722-8180; e-mail:; Internet:

CSD ACTING AS THE PREPCOM FOR THE INTERNATIONAL MEETING TO REVIEW IMPLEMENTATION OF THE BARBADOS PROGRAMME OF ACTION FOR THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF SIDS: This meeting will convene from 14-16 April 2004 at UN headquarters in New York. For more information, contact: Diane Quarless, UN Division on Sustainable Development, SIDS Unit; tel: +1-212-963-4135; fax: +1-917-367-3391; e-mail:; Internet:

TWELFTH SESSION OF THE COMMISSION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: CSD-12 will meet from 19-30 April 2004, in New York. This will be a "Review Year" to evaluate progress made in implementing sustainable development goals and identifying obstacles and constraints on the thematic clusters of water, sanitation and human settlements. For more information, contact: UN Division for Sustainable Development; tel: +1-212-963-2803; fax: +1-212-963-4260; e-mail:; Internet:            

Further information